Germline and somatic genetic changes in multicentric tumors obtained from a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
ABSTRACT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by germline mutations of the MEN1 gene located in chromosome 11q13. In patients with MEN1, multicentric tumors develop in the involved organs; however, precise evaluation of genetic changes in these multicentric tumors has not been performed. In the present study, using whole-exome sequencing, we analyzed germline and somatic genetic changes in blood cells, two pancreatic endocrine tumors and one duodenal tumor obtained from a patient with MEN1 gastrinoma. We found that this patient possessed a novel germline mutation of the MEN1 gene [NM_137099.2:c.1505dupA (p.Lys502Lysfs); the localization was Chr11:64572134 on Assembly GRCh37], in which an adenine insertion in codon 502 of the MEN1 gene resulted in a frame shift and a premature stop codon. In terms of heterozygosity, the mutated allele was heterozygous in blood cells, hemizygous in the two pancreatic tumors and homozygous in the duodenal tumor. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that only truncated menin protein accumulated in the nucleus of the tumor tissues. Further evaluation of tumor-specific somatic mutations in two pancreatic tumors did not detect single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) in 609 cancer-associated genes designated by the COSMIC cancer gene census, suggesting that the germline MEN1 mutation and resultant loss of heterozygosity played a major role in tumorigenesis. In the duodenal tumor, in addition to the germline MEN1 mutation, single-nucleotide variations in two cancer-associated genes were found. Further studies are required to clarify the role of these somatic single-nucleotide variations in the progression of MEN1 tumors.
Project description:Purpose:We assessed the usefulness of real-time molecular profiling through next-generation sequencing (NGS) in predicting the tumor biology of advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs) and in characterizing genomic evolution. Methods:Patients with metastatic panNETs were recruited in the routine clinical practice setting (between May 2014 and March 2017) for prospective NGS of their tumors as well as for germline analysis using the Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT) sequencing platform. When possible, NGS was performed at multiple time points. Results:NGS was performed in 96 tumor samples from 80 patients. Somatic alterations were identified in 76 of 80 patients (95%). The most commonly altered genes were MEN1 (56%), DAXX (40%), ATRX (25%), and TSC2 (25%). Alterations could be defined in pathways that included chromatin remodeling factors, histone methyltransferases, and mammalian target of rapamycin pathway genes. Somatic loss of heterozygosity was particularly prevalent (50 of 96 samples [52%]), and the presence of loss of heterozygosity resulted in inferior overall survival (P < .01). Sequencing of pre- and post-treatment samples revealed tumor-grade progression; clonal evolution patterns were also seen (molecular resistance mechanisms and chemotherapy-associated mutagenesis). Germline genetic analysis identified clinically actionable pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 14 of 88 patients (16%), including mutations in high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes (MEN1, TSC2, and VHL). Conclusion:A clinical NGS platform reveals pertubations of biologic pathways in metastatic panNETs that may inform prognosis and direct therapies. Repeat sequencing at disease progression reveals increasing tumor grade and genetic evolution, demonstrating that panNETs adopt a more aggressive behavior through time and therapies. In addition to frequent somatic mutations in MEN1 and TSC2, germline mutations in these same genes underlie susceptibility to panNETs and highlight the need to re-evaluate whether germline genetic analysis should be performed for all patients with panNETs.
Project description:Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) are autosomal-dominant diseases caused by germline mutations in tumor-suppressor genes. A patient with a germline MEN1 mutation and a somatic VHL mutation in the tumor has not been reported. Herein, we report on a patient with MEN1 and a metastatic nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with a somatic VHL mutation. This patient underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy for a grade 2 PNET obstructing her pancreatic duct. The patient developed liver and regional lymph node metastases as well as growth of a PNET in the remnant pancreas. As part of a clinical trial for mutation-targeted therapy, a biopsy of the metastatic tumor was obtained. The clinical diagnosis, confirmed by OncoVAR-NET and molecular profiling analysis, revealed MEN1 with a germline deletion in exon 2 and a c.402 deletion C, p.Phe134LeufsX51. In addition, a somatic mutation in the VHL gene-a nonsense mutation, c.529A>T, p.Arg177Ter-was identified by hybrid capture sequencing. The mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Comparative genomic hybridization showed loss of heterozygosity in both the MEN1 and VHL genes. The patient was treated with sunitinib and had a partial response to treatment. This case illustrates not only that a second hit occurs in tumor suppressor genes but that somatic mutations are also possible in additional tumor suppressor genes. This suggests that targeted therapy selection should include analysis of somatic mutations even when the susceptibility gene is known.
Project description:Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder characterized by the presence of endocrine tumors affecting the parathyroid, pancreas, and pituitary. A heterozygous germline inactivating mutation in the MEN1 gene (first hit) may be followed by somatic loss of the remaining normal copy or somatic mutations in the MEN1 gene (second hit). Whole-exome sequencing has been successfully used to elucidate the mutations associated with the different types of tumors.We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on three parathyroid tumors, one pancreatic insulinoma, and a blood sample taken from the same patient with MEN1 to study tumor heterogeneity in MEN1 originating from different tumors. We identified a novel frame-shift deletion (c.1382_1383delAG, p.E461GfsX69) in the MEN1 gene using WES, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. WES and the SNP array revealed somatic LOH on chromosome 11 in parathyroid tumors (left upper, left lower, and right upper parathyroid). However, we did not detect a somatic MEN1 gene mutation or LOH in the pancreatic insulinoma. WES revealed two somatic functional variants outside the MEN1 gene in the pancreatic insulinoma.This study revealed heterogeneity among tumors in the same patient with MEN1, suggesting that different tumor-specific tumorigenic mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of MEN1 tumors. The present study supports the clinical applicability of the WES strategy to research on multiple tumor samples and blood.
Project description:Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are uncommon cancers arising from pancreatic islet cells. Here we report the analysis of gene mutation, copy number, and RNA expression of 57 sporadic well-differentiated pNETs. pNET genomes are dominated by aneuploidy, leading to concordant changes in RNA expression at the level of whole chromosomes and chromosome segments. We observed two distinct patterns of somatic pNET aneuploidy that are associated with tumor pathology and patient prognosis. Approximately 26% of the patients in this series had pNETs with genomes characterized by recurrent loss of heterozygosity (LoH) of 10 specific chromosomes, accompanied by bi-allelic MEN1 inactivation and generally poor clinical outcome. Another ~40% of patients had pNETs that lacked this recurrent LoH pattern but had chromosome 11 LoH, bi-allelic MEN1 inactivation, and universally good clinical outcome. The somatic aneuploidy allowed pathogenic germline variants (e.g., ATM) to be expressed unopposed, with RNA expression patterns showing inactivation of downstream tumor suppressor pathways. No prognostic associations were found with tumor morphology, single gene mutation, or expression of RNAs reflecting the activity of immune, differentiation, proliferative or tumor suppressor pathways. In pNETs, single gene mutations appear to be less important than aneuploidy, with MEN1 the only statistically significant recurrently mutated driver gene. In addition, only one pNET in the series had clearly actionable single nucleotide variants (SNVs) (in PTEN and FLCN) confirmed by corroborating RNA expression changes. The two clinically relevant patterns of LoH described here define a novel oncogenic mechanism and a plausible route to genomic precision oncology for this tumor type.
Project description:Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) refers to a group of autosomal dominant disorders with generally high penetrance that lead to the development of a wide spectrum of endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations. The most frequent among these conditions is MEN type 1 (MEN1), which is caused by germline heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 MEN1 is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and functional or nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and pituitary adenomas. Approximately 10% of patients with familial or sporadic MEN1-like phenotype do not have MEN1 mutations or deletions. A novel MEN syndrome was discovered, initially in rats (MENX), and later in humans (MEN4), which is caused by germline mutations in the putative tumor suppressor CDKN1B The most common phenotype of the 19 established cases of MEN4 that have been described to date is PHPT followed by pituitary adenomas. Recently, somatic or germline mutations in CDKN1B were also identified in patients with sporadic PHPT, small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, lymphoma and breast cancer, demonstrating a novel role for CDKN1B as a tumor susceptibility gene for other neoplasms. In this review, we report on the genetic characterization and clinical features of MEN4.
Project description:MENIN is a scaffold protein encoded by the MEN1 gene that functions in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, migration, gene expression, and DNA damage repair. MEN1 is a tumor suppressor gene, and mutations that disrupts MEN1 function are common to many tumor types. Mutations within MEN1 may also be inherited (germline). Many of these inherited mutations are associated with a number of pathogenic syndromes of the parathyroid and pancreas, and some also predispose patients to hyperplasia. In this study, we cataloged the reported germline mutations from the ClinVar database and compared them with the somatic mutations detected in cancers from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. We then used statistical software to determine the probability of mutations being pathogenic or driver. Our data show that many confirmed germline mutations do not appear in tumor samples. Thus, most mutations that disable MEN1 function in tumors are somatic in nature. Furthermore, of the germline mutations that do appear in tumors, only a fraction has the potential to be pathogenic or driver mutations.
Project description:Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor gene MEN1. Most of the germline MEN1 gene mutations have been small mutations, and the whole gene deletion is rarely observed. In the present study, we revealed Alu retrotransposon-mediated de novo germline deletion of the whole MEN1 gene and somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a patient with MEN1. The patient is a 39-year-old woman who was referred to our department for the management of prolactinoma. She was also diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism and suspected of MEN1. Although nucleotide sequencing did not detect any MEN1 gene mutations, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) revealed a large germline deletion of the MEN1 gene. Subsequent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based copy number mapping showed a monoallelic loss of approximately 18.5-kilobase region containing the whole MEN1 gene. Intriguingly, the 2 breakpoints were flanked by Alu repetitive elements, suggesting the contribution of Alu/Alu-mediated rearrangements (AAMR) to the whole MEN1 gene deletion. Furthermore, copy number mapping using MLPA and qPCR in combination with single nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed copy-neutral LOH as a somatic event for parathyroid tumorigenesis. In conclusion, copy number mapping revealed a novel combination of Alu/Alu-mediated de novo germline deletion of the MEN1 gene and somatic copy-neutral LOH as a cytogenetic basis for the MEN1 pathogenesis. Moreover, subsequent in silico analysis highlighted the possible predisposition of the MEN1 gene to Alu retrotransposon-mediated genomic deletion.
Project description:Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal-dominant tumor syndrome characterized by the occurrence of tumors in multiple endocrine tissues and nonendocrine tissues. The three main endocrine tissues most frequently affected by tumors are parathyroid (95%), enteropancreatic neuroendocrine (50%) and anterior pituitary (40%). Tumors are caused by a heterozygous germline-inactivating mutation in the MEN1 gene (1st hit) followed by somatic inactivating mutation or loss of the normal copy of the gene (2nd hit), leading to complete loss of function of the encoded protein menin. Most of the disease features and tumors are recapitulated in mouse models with heterozygous germline loss of the Men1 gene. Also, tissue-specific tumors are observed in mouse models with homozygous somatic loss of the Men1 gene specifically in MEN1-associated endocrine tissues. Hence, mouse models could serve as possible surrogates for studying MEN1 and related states. To gain insights into MEN1 pathophysiology, menin-interacting partners and pathways have been identified to investigate its tumor suppressor and other functions. Also, the 3D crystal structure of menin has been deciphered which could be useful to reveal the relevance of MEN1 gene mutations and menin's interactions. This chapter covers clinical, genetic and basic findings about the MEN1 syndrome, MEN1 gene and its product protein menin.
Project description:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by frequent cutaneous and nervous system abnormalities. Patients with NF1 also have an increased prevalence of multiple gastrointestinal and peripancreatic neoplasms-neuroendocrine tumors of the ampulla that express somatostatin are particularly characteristic of NF1. In this study, we characterize the genetic alterations of a clinically well-characterized cohort of six NF1-associated duodenal neuroendocrine tumors using whole-exome sequencing. We identified inactivating somatic mutations in the NF1 gene in three of six tumors; the only other gene altered in more than one tumor was IFNB1. Copy number analysis revealed deletion/loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 22 in three of six patients. Analysis of germline variants revealed germline deleterious NF1 variants in four of six patients, as well as deleterious variants in other tumor suppressor genes in two of four patients with deleterious NF1 variants. Taken together, these data confirm the importance of somatic inactivation of the wild-type NF1 allele in the formation of NF1-associated duodenal neuroendocrine tumors and suggest that loss of chromosome 22 is important in at least a subset of cases. However, we did not identify any genes altered in the majority of NF1-associated duodenal neuroendocrine tumors that uniquely characterize the genomic landscape of this tumor. Still, the genetic alterations in these tumors are distinct from sporadic neuroendocrine tumors occurring at these sites, highlighting that unique genetic alterations drive syndromic tumors.
Project description:Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Tumor Syndrome type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant tumor syndrome affecting individuals with a heterozygous germline mutaion of the MEN1 gene. MEN 1 carriers commonly develop parathyroid, anterior pituitary, duodenal and pancreatic endocrine tumors. The phenotype of existing mouse models for the MEN 1 syndrome, with a germline heterozygous (hz) Men1 gene inactivation, show close resemblance to the human MEN 1 syndrome. Menin, the protein encoded for by the MEN1/Men1 gene, lacks homology with known proteins, and evidence of its involvement in different cellular processes is steadily growing. Several interaction partners have been identified, involving different interaction sites on the menin protein. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for menin in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control, apoptosis, chromatin modification and DNA damage response and repair. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the MEN1 gene precedes tumor formation in the MEN 1 heterozygous pancreas. We set out to determine if there is a change in gene expression early on in the hz islet, as compared with islets in wildtype (wt) littermates, long before the LOH events occur. We performed a global mRNA expression microarray on islets from young, five-week-old, hz Men1 mice and their wt littermates, and we have subsequently corroborated a subset of the findings on the qPCR and protein level. Islets were isolated and RNA prepared from five five-week-old female mice heterozygous for the Men1 gene and five female wildtype littermates, and then a global gene expression microarray was performed.