Grapevine Grafting: Scion Transcript Profiling and Defense-Related Metabolites Induced by Rootstocks.
ABSTRACT: Rootstocks are among the main factors that influence grape development as well as fruit and wine composition. In this work, rootstock/scion interactions were studied using transcriptomic and metabolic approaches on leaves of the "Gaglioppo" variety, grafted onto 13 different rootstocks growing in the same vineyard. The whole leaf transcriptome of "Gaglioppo" grafted onto five selected rootstocks showed high variability in gene expression. In particular, significant modulation of transcripts linked to primary and secondary metabolism was observed. Interestingly, genes and metabolites involved in defense responses (e.g., stilbenes and defense genes) were strongly activated particularly in the GAG-41B combination, characterized in addition by the down-regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism. On the contrary, the leaves of "Gaglioppo" grafted onto 1103 Paulsen showed an opposite regulations of those transcripts and metabolites, together with the greater sensitivity to downy mildew in a preliminary in vitro assay. This study carried out an extensive transcriptomic analysis of rootstock effects on scion leaves, helping to unravel this complex interaction, and suggesting an interesting correlation among constitutive stilbenes, ABA compound, and disease susceptibility to a fungal pathogen.
Project description:Genotype, climate, soil qualities, and rootstocks are among the main factors that influence grape development as well as fruit and wine composition. In this work, the rootstock/scion interactions were studied using transcriptomic and metabolic approaches on leaves of Gaglioppo variety, grafted onto thirteen different rootstocks growing in the same locations. The experiments were performed in a vineyard in the south of Italy, characterized by the Mediterranean climate with warm and dry summers. Whole leaf transcriptome of ‘Gaglioppo’ grafted on five selected rootstocks showed high variability in gene expression. In particular, significant modulation of transcripts linked to primary (e.g. carbohydrate and transport) and secondary metabolism (e.g. phenylpropanoids pathways and response to stress) was observed. Interestingly, genes involved in the priming defense responses (e.g stilbenes and defense genes) were strongly activated in some graft combinations. These results were further confirmed by the quantification of stilbene contents. According with these observations, the leaves of ‘Gaglioppo’ grafted on 1103 Paulsen showing the lowest levels of stilbene synthase transcripts and stilbene metabolites, reveal the greater sensitivity to downy mildew in in vitro assay. This study carrying out an extensive analysis of rootstock effects to scion leaves open a useful way to unravel this complex interaction Overall design: Differential expression analysis of Gaglioppo variety grafted onto five different rootstocks
Project description:To understand the roles of Malus rootstock, scion, and their interaction in Cd accumulation and tolerance, four scion/rootstock combinations consisting of the apple cultivars "Hanfu" (HF) and "Fuji" (FJ) grafted onto M. baccata (Mb) or M. micromalus "qingzhoulinqin" (Mm) rootstocks differing in relative Cd tolerance were exposed either to 0 µM or 50 µM CdCl2 for 18 d. Cd accumulation and tolerance in grafted Malus plants varied within rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction. Cd-induced decreases in photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigment level, and biomass were lower for HF grafted onto Mb than those for HF grafted onto Mm. Reductions in growth and photosynthetic rate were always the lowest for HF/Mb. Cd concentration, bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (Tf ) were always comparatively higher in HF and FJ grafted onto rootstock Mm than in HF and FJ grafted on Mb, respectively. When HF and FJ were grafted onto the same rootstock, the root Cd concentrations were always higher in HF than FJ, whereas the shoot Cd concentrations displayed the opposite trend. The shoot Cd concentrations and Tf were lower for HF/Mb than the other scion/rootstock combinations. Rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction also affected subcellular Cd distribution. Immobilization of Cd in the root cell walls may be a primary Cd mobility and toxicity reduction strategy in Malus. The rootstock and scion also had statistically significant influences on ROS level and antioxidant activity. Cd induced more severe oxidative stress in HF and FJ grafted onto Mm than it did in HF and FJ grafted onto Mb. Compared with FJ, HF had lower foliar O2 -, root H2O2, and root and leaf MDA levels, but higher ROS-scavenging capacity. The rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction affected the mRNA transcript levels of several genes involved in Cd uptake, transport, and detoxification including HA7, FRO2-like, NRAMP1, NRAMP3, HMA4, MT2, NAS1, and ABCC1. Hence, the responses of grafted Malus plants to Cd toxicity vary with rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Grafting is the common propagation method for avocado and primarily benefits orchard production by reducing the time to tree productivity. It also allows use of scions and rootstocks specifically selected for improved productivity and commercial acceptance. Rootstocks in avocado may be propagated from mature tree cuttings ('mature'), or from seed ('juvenile'). While the use of mature scion material hastens early bearing/maturity and economic return, the molecular factors involved in the role of the scion and/or rootstock in early bearing/reduced juvenility of the grafted tree are still unknown. RESULTS:Here, we utilized juvenility and flowering associated miRNAs; miR156 and miR172 and their putative target genes to screen pre-graft and post-graft material in different combinations from avocado. The abundance of mature miR156, miR172 and the miR156 target gene SPL4, showed a strong correlation to the maturity of the scion and rootstock material in avocado. Graft transmissibility of miR156 and miR172 has been explored in annual plants. Here, we show that the scion may be responsible for grafted tree maturity involving these factors, while the rootstock maturity does not significantly influence miRNA abundance in the scion. We also demonstrate that the presence of leaves on cutting rootstocks supports graft success and contributes towards intergraft signalling involving the carbohydrate-marker TPS1. CONCLUSION:Here, we suggest that the scion largely controls the molecular 'maturity' of grafted avocado trees, however, leaves on the rootstock not only promote graft success, but can influence miRNA and mRNA abundance in the scion. This constitutes the first study on scion and rootstock contribution towards grafted tree maturity using the miR156-SPL4-miR172 regulatory module as a marker for juvenility and reproductive competence.
Project description:Sensory quality is of increasing importance to consumer decisions in choosing a product, and it is certainly an important factor in repurchasing in terms of meeting the necessary aroma quality and taste properties. To better understand the effects of rootstocks and scions on fruit quality, the sensory profile and volatile aroma composition of the fruits of hydroponically grown tomato plants were evaluated. Experiments were established using the tomato cultivars Clarabella and Estatio as scions during two spring-summer seasons. In both experiments, the scion plants were self-grafted or grafted onto rootstocks of cultivars Arnold, Buffon, Emperador, and Maxifort, with the exception that in experiment 1, the Estatio scion was not grafted onto Buffon. The scions and rootstocks caused differences in observed sensory properties in both experiments. For most of the sensory traits, interaction effects between scion and rootstock were observed. Compared to those obtained from self-grafted Clarabella, the fruits obtained from Clarabella grafted onto Buffon in the first experiment and Clarabella grafted onto Arnold in the second experiment were sweeter by one measurement unit. The contents of seven aldehydes, six alcohols, five terpenes and two ketones were determined. A lower accumulation of total aldehydes, 22-45%, due to lower amounts of pentanal, (<i>E</i>)-2-heptanal and (<i>E,E</i>)-2,4-decadienal, was found in the fruits from plants where Estatio was rootstock compared with the other rootstocks treatments. Clarabella as a rootstock increased (<i>Z</i>)-3-hexenal + (<i>E</i>)-2-hexenal accumulation from 35 to 65%. Grafting Clarabella onto the tested rootstocks led to a change in the composition of volatile compounds, while differences between the combinations with Estatio as a scion were generally not recorded. Fruits from self-grafted Clarabella had higher (<i>Z</i>)-3-hexenal + (<i>E</i>)-2-hexenal concentrations than did fruits from Clarabella grafted onto Arnold (for 54%) and Emperador (for 68%), and in the second experiment, grafting onto all commercial rootstocks reduced (<i>Z</i>)-3-hexenal + (<i>E</i>)-2-hexenal concentrations, from 25 to 74%, compared to those from self-grafted Clarabella. Higher (+)-2-carene and (-)-caryophyllene oxide concentrations were attained in plants in which Clarabella was grafted onto Maxifort (by 56%) and plants in which Estatio was grafted onto Arnold (by 36%) compared to self-grafted plants. This study showed the possibility of altering the composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory properties of tomato fruits by the use of grafting techniques.
Project description:To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.
Project description:In grafted plants, rootstocks assure the mineral nutrition of the scion and modify its development. In this study, we show that two grapevine rootstock genotypes have different shoot branching architectures when cultivated as cuttings and that this trait is transmitted to the scion when grafted. Shoot branching plasticity in response to nitrogen supply was also studied. As strigolactones are known to have a role in the regulation of shoot development in response to nutrient availability, their involvement in the control of scion architecture by the rootstock was investigated. Functional characterization of putative grapevine strigolactone biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis mutants or grapevine cell suspensions showed similar functions to those of Arabidopsis. Both rootstocks produced strigolactone-like compounds; the quantity produced in response to nitrogen treatments differed between the two rootstock genotypes and correlated with the expression of putative strigolactone biosynthetic genes. Exudation of strigolactone-like compounds by both rootstocks was closely related to the developmental pattern of the scion in grafted plants. These results suggest that differential regulation of strigolactone biosynthesis in response to nitrogen availability may contribute to the control of scion development conferred by each rootstock genotype.
Project description:The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock combination for stress tolerance may rapidly yield commercially viable, stress tolerant lines of tomato.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. RESULTS: Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. CONCLUSIONS: Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions, and rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns could be correlated with differences in susceptibility. The results suggest a relationship between rootstock-regulated fire blight susceptibility and sorbitol dehydrogenase, phenylpropanoid metabolism, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, and endocytosis, among others. This study illustrates the utility of our rootstock-regulated gene expression data sets for candidate trait-associated gene data mining.
Project description:During early periods of salt stress, reduced stomatal opening can prevent water loss and wilting. Abscisic acid (ABA) signal plays an important role in this process. Here, we show that cucumber grafted onto pumpkin exhibits rapid stomatal closure, which helps plants to adapt to osmotic stress caused by salinity. Increased ABA contents in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves were evaluated in two grafting combinations (self-grafted cucumber and cucumber grafted onto pumpkin rootstock). The expression levels of ABA biosynthetic or signaling related genes NCED2 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene 2), ABCG22 (ATP-binding cassette transporter genes 22), PP2C (type-2C protein phosphatases), and SnRK2.1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases 2) were investigated. Results showed that a root-sourced ABA signal led to decreased stomatal opening and transpiration in the plants grafted onto pumpkin. Furthermore, plants grafted onto pumpkin had increased sensitivity to ABA, compared with self-grafted cucumbers. The inhibition of ABA biosynthesis with fluridon in roots increased the transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) in the leaves. Our study demonstrated that the roots of pumpkin increases the sensitivity of the scion to ABA delivered from the roots to the shoots, and enhances osmotic tolerance under NaCl stress. Such a mechanism can be greatly exploited to benefit vegetable production particularly in semiarid saline regions.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE41309: Differential expression in response to water deficit in diploid leaves of sweet orange scion grafted alternatively on a diploid or auto-tetraploid Rangpur lime rootstock: data concerning the scion grafted onto diploid rootstock. GSE41310: Differential expression in response to water deficit in diploid leaves of sweet orange scion grafted alternatively on a diploid or auto-tetraploid Rangpur lime rootstock: data concerning the scion grafted onto tetraploid rootstock Refer to individual Series