Cryptic diversity of the subfamily Calaphidinae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) revealed by comprehensive DNA barcoding.
ABSTRACT: Aphids are a species rich group comprising many important pests. However, species identification can be very difficult for aphids due to their morphological ambiguity. DNA barcoding has been widely adopted for rapid and reliable species identification as well as cryptic species detection. In this study, we investigated cryptic diversity in the subfamily Calaphidinae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) based on 899 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) for 115 morphospecies (78 species collected in this study and sequences of 73 species downloaded from Genbank). Among these 115 morphospecies, DNA barcoding results of 90 (78.3%) species were identical to results of morphological identification. However, 25 (21.7%) morphospecies showed discrepancies between DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy. Among these 25 discordances, a total of 15 cryptic species were identified from 12 morphospecies. We also found three morphologically distinct species pairs that sharing DNA barcoding. Based on molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU) estimation, we discussed on species delimitation threshold value for these taxa. Our findings confirm that Calaphidinae has high cryptic diversity even though aphids are relatively well-studied.
Project description:Curved-horn moths or gelechioid moths (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) represent one of the most diverse lepidopteran groups. Due to the large number of species, generally small size of adults and subtle morphological differences, their confident identification requires tenacious and long-term dedication on their diversity. Over the past decade, DNA barcoding has repeatedly been used to elucidate boundaries of species in many large and difficult groups. Here, we conducted a test of DNA barcoding with the diverse fauna of Korean Gelechioidea with very little prior information of COI gene region from the area. Altogether 509 specimens representing 154 morphospecies were included in the study. The species assignments of all three tested species delimitation methods (ABGD, bPTP and PTP) were consistent with morphological identifications for 117 species (75.97%). A threshold of 2.5% genetic divergence was observed to differentiate the morphological species efficiently. Careful morphological examination of morphospecies exceeding 2.5% intraspecific variability prove cryptic diversity in three species (Neoblastobasis biceratala, Evippe albidoesella and Promalactis atriplagata). One morphospecies, Promalactis odaiensis, showed high intraspecific divergence while consisted of only a single MOTU. Overall, DNA barcoding was shown to provide a powerful tool to discriminate species of Korean Gelechioidea and reveal cases of cryptic diversity.
Project description:Spiders are mega diverse arthropods and play an important role in the ecosystem. Identification of this group is challenging due to their cryptic behavior, sexual dimorphism, and unavailability of taxonomic keys for juveniles. To overcome these obstacles, DNA barcoding plays a pivotal role in spider identification throughout the globe. This study is the first large scale attempt on DNA barcoding of spiders from India with 101 morphospecies of 72 genera under 21 families, including five endemic species and holotypes of three species. A total of 489 barcodes was generated and analyzed, among them 85 novel barcodes of 22 morphospecies were contributed to the global database. The estimated delimitation threshold of the Indian spiders was 2.6% to 3.7% K2P corrected pairwise distance. The multiple species delimitation methods (BIN, ABGD, GMYC and PTP) revealed a total of 107 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) for 101 morphospecies. We detected more than one MOTU in 11 morphospecies with discrepancies in genetic distances and tree topologies. Cryptic diversity was detected in Pardosa pusiola, Cyclosa spirifera, and Heteropoda venatoria. The intraspecies distances which were as large as our proposed delimitation threshold were observed in Pardosa sumatrana, Thiania bhamoensis, and Cheiracanthium triviale. Further, shallow genetic distances were detected in Cyrtophora cicatrosa, Hersilia savignyi, Argiope versicolor, Phintella vittata, and Oxyopes birmanicus. Two morphologically distinguished species (Plexippus paykulli and Plexippus petersi) showed intra-individual variation within their DNA barcode data. Additionally, we reinstate the original combination for Linyphia sikkimensis based on both morphology and DNA barcoding. These data show that DNA barcoding is a valuable tool for specimen identification and species discovery of Indian spiders.
Project description:Thrips are one of the major sucking pest and vector of plant viruses causing huge economic loss in agriculture. The accurate identification of thrips is crucial for effective pest management strategies. However, morphology based identification has limitations and warrants integration of molecular data. We attempted the largest DNA barcoding initiative on 370 sequences of 89 thrips morphospecies including 104 novel sequences from 39 morphospecies, including the type specimens of four species. The results of multiple species delimitation methods (BIN, ABGD, GMYC and bPTP) were consistent for 73 species (82%) with their morphological identifications. A total of 107 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) was recovered for 89 morphospecies by superimposing multiple methods and applying a three level nomenclature system. We detected more than one MOTU in 14 morphospecies indicating to have cryptic diversity including, two major vector species (Frankliniella schultzei and Thrips palmi). However, four morphospecies (Thrips moundi, Thrips carthami, Haplothrips andersi and Haplothrips gowdeyi) showed low genetic distances between them with overlapping in barcode gap that requires further analysis with multiple molecular markers and more specimens from wide geographical areas for better taxonomic judgment. We also presented the advantage of simultaneous use of multiple delimitation methods for detection and identification of cryptic species.
Project description:DNA barcoding has proven its worth in species identification, discovering cryptic diversity, and inferring genetic divergence. However, reliable DNA barcode reference libraries that these applications depend on are not available for many taxonomic groups and geographical regions. Aphids are a group of plant sap sucking insects, including many notorious pests in agriculture and forestry. The aphid fauna of the subtropical region has been understudied. In this study, based on extensive sampling effort across main subtropical areas, we sequenced 1581 aphid specimens of 143 morphospecies, representing 75 genera, and 13 subfamilies, to build the first comprehensive DNA barcode library for subtropical aphids. We examined the utility of DNA barcodes in identifying aphid species and population differentiation and evaluated the ability of different species delimitation methods (automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD), generalized mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC), and Bayesian Poisson tree processes (bPTP)). We found that most aphid species demonstrated barcode gaps and that a threshold value of 2% genetic distance is suitable for distinguishing most species. Our results indicated that ten morphospecies may have species divergence related to factors such as host plant or geography. By using two pest species Aphis spiraecola and A. gossypii as examples, we also discussed the effect of the sampling scale of host plants on the results and reliability of DNA barcoding of phytophagous insects. This DNA barcode library will be valuable for future studies and applications.
Project description:The morphological species delimitations (i.e. morphospecies) have long been the best way to avoid the taxonomic impediment and compare insect taxa biodiversity in highly diverse tropical and subtropical regions. The development of DNA barcoding, however, has shown great potential to replace (or at least complement) the morphospecies approach, with the advantage of relying on automated methods implemented in computer programs or even online rather than in often subjective morphological features. We sampled moths extensively for two years using light traps in a patch of the highly endangered Atlantic Forest of Brazil to produce a nearly complete census of arctiines (Noctuoidea: Erebidae), whose species richness was compared using different morphological and molecular approaches (DNA barcoding). A total of 1,075 barcode sequences of 286 morphospecies were analyzed. Based on the clustering method Barcode Index Number (BIN) we found a taxonomic bias of approximately 30% in our initial morphological assessment. However, a morphological reassessment revealed that the correspondence between morphospecies and molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) can be up to 94% if differences in genitalia morphology are evaluated in individuals of different MOTUs originated from the same morphospecies (putative cases of cryptic species), and by recording if individuals of different genders in different morphospecies merge together in the same MOTU (putative cases of sexual dimorphism). The results of two other clustering methods (i.e. Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery and 2% threshold) were very similar to those of the BIN approach. Using empirical data we have shown that DNA barcoding performed substantially better than the morphospecies approach, based on superficial morphology, to delimit species of a highly diverse moth taxon, and thus should be used in species inventories.
Project description:BACKGROUND:DNA barcoding has been developed as a useful tool for species discrimination. Several sequence-based species delimitation methods, such as Barcode Index Number (BIN), REfined Single Linkage (RESL), Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), a Java program uses an explicit, determinate algorithm to define Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit (jMOTU), Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC), and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model (bPTP), were used. Our aim was to estimate Chinese katydid biodiversity using standard DNA barcode cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI-5P) sequences. RESULTS:Detection of a barcoding gap by similarity-based analyses and clustering-base analyses indicated that 131 identified morphological species (morphospecies) were assigned to 196 BINs and were divided into four categories: (i) MATCH (83/131 = 64.89%), morphospecies were a perfect match between morphospecies and BINs (including 61 concordant BINs and 22 singleton BINs); (ii) MERGE (14/131 = 10.69%), morphospecies shared its unique BIN with other species; (iii) SPLIT (33/131 = 25.19%, when 22 singleton species were excluded, it rose to 33/109 = 30.28%), morphospecies were placed in more than one BIN; (iv) MIXTURE (4/131 = 5.34%), morphospecies showed a more complex partition involving both a merge and a split. Neighbor-joining (NJ) analyses showed that nearly all BINs and most morphospecies formed monophyletic cluster with little variation. The molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) were defined considering only the more inclusive clades found by at least four of seven species delimitation methods. Our results robustly supported 61 of 109 (55.96%) morphospecies represented by more than one specimen, 159 of 213 (74.65%) concordant BINs, and 3 of 8 (37.5%) discordant BINs. CONCLUSIONS:Molecular species delimitation analyses generated a larger number of MOTUs compared with morphospecies. If these MOTU splits are proven to be true, Chinese katydids probably contain a seemingly large proportion of cryptic/undescribed taxa. Future amplification of additional molecular markers, particularly from the nuclear DNA, may be especially useful for specimens that were identified here as problematic taxa.
Project description:DNA sequencing is increasingly being used to assist in species identification in order to overcome taxonomic impediment. However, few studies attempt to compare the results of these molecular studies with a more traditional species delineation approach based on morphological characters. Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene was sequenced, measuring 636 base pairs, from 47 ants of the genus Pheidole (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest to test whether the morphology-based assignment of individuals into species is supported by DNA-based species delimitation. Twenty morphospecies were identified, whereas the barcoding analysis identified 19 Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). Fifteen out of the 19 DNA-based clusters allocated, using sequence divergence thresholds of 2% and 3%, matched with morphospecies. Both thresholds yielded the same number of MOTUs. Only one MOTU was successfully identified to species level using the CO1 sequences of Pheidole species already in the Genbank. The average pairwise sequence divergence for all 47 sequences was 19%, ranging between 0-25%. In some cases, however, morphology and molecular based methods differed in their assignment of individuals to morphospecies or MOTUs. The occurrence of distinct mitochondrial lineages within morphological species highlights groups for further detailed genetic and morphological studies, and therefore a pluralistic approach using several methods to understand the taxonomy of difficult lineages is advocated.
Project description:The role of DNA barcoding as a tool to accelerate the inventory and analysis of diversity for hyperdiverse arthropods is tested using ants in Madagascar. We demonstrate how DNA barcoding helps address the failure of current inventory methods to rapidly respond to pressing biodiversity needs, specifically in the assessment of richness and turnover across landscapes with hyperdiverse taxa. In a comparison of inventories at four localities in northern Madagascar, patterns of richness were not significantly different when richness was determined using morphological taxonomy (morphospecies) or sequence divergence thresholds (Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit(s); MOTU). However, sequence-based methods tended to yield greater richness and significantly lower indices of similarity than morphological taxonomy. MOTU determined using our molecular technique were a remarkably local phenomenon-indicative of highly restricted dispersal and/or long-term isolation. In cases where molecular and morphological methods differed in their assignment of individuals to categories, the morphological estimate was always more conservative than the molecular estimate. In those cases where morphospecies descriptions collapsed distinct molecular groups, sequence divergences of 16% (on average) were contained within the same morphospecies. Such high divergences highlight taxa for further detailed genetic, morphological, life history, and behavioral studies.
Project description:DNA barcoding, based on a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, is as an effective molecular tool for identification, discovery, and biodiversity assessment for most animals. However, multiple gene markers coupled with more sophisticated analytical approaches may be necessary to clarify species boundaries in cases of cryptic diversity or morphological plasticity. Using 339 moths collected from mountains surrounding Beijing, China, we tested a pipeline consisting of two steps: (1) rapid morphospecies sorting and screening of the investigated fauna with standard COI barcoding approaches; (2) additional analyses with multiple molecular markers for those specimens whose morphospecies and COI barcode grouping were incongruent. In step 1, 124 morphospecies were delimited into 116 barcode units, with 90% of the conflicts being associated with specimens identified to the genus Hypena. In step 2, 55 individuals representing all 12 Hypena morphospecies were analysed using COI, COII, 28S, EF-1a, Wgl sequences or their combinations with the BPP (Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography) multigene species delimitation method. The multigene analyses supported the delimitation of 5 species, consistent with the COI analysis. We conclude that a two-step barcoding analysis pipeline is able to rapidly characterize insect biodiversity and help to elucidate species boundaries for taxonomic complexes without jeopardizing overall project efficiency by substantially increasing analytical costs.
Project description:Insect parasitoids are a major component of global biodiversity and affect the population dynamics of their hosts. However, identification of insect parasitoids is often difficult, and they are suspected to contain many cryptic species. Here, we ask whether the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode could function as a tool for species identification and discovery for the 20 morphospecies of Belvosia parasitoid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae) that have been reared from caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. Barcoding not only discriminates among all 17 highly host-specific morphospecies of ACG Belvosia, but it also raises the species count to 32 by revealing that each of the three generalist species are actually arrays of highly host-specific cryptic species. We also identified likely hybridization among Belvosia by using a variable internal transcribed spacer region 1 nuclear rDNA sequence as a genetic covariate in addition to the strategy of overlaying barcode clusters with ecological information. If general, these results will increase estimates of global species richness and imply that tropical conservation and host-parasite interactions may be more complex than expected.