Detection of Autoantibodies against Aquaporin-1 in the Sera of Patients with Primary Sjogren's Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of glandular dysfunction in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) has not been fully elucidated. Previously, we reported the presence of autoantibodies to AQP-5 in patients with SS, which was associated with a low resting salivary flow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-AQP1 autoantibodies. To detect anti-AQP1 autoantibodies, cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay was developed using MDCK cells that overexpressed human AQP1. By screening 112 SS and 52 control sera, anti-AQP1 autoantibodies were detected in 27.7% of the SS but in none of the control sera. Interestingly, the sera that were positive for anti-AQP1 autoantibodies also contained anti-AQP5 autoantibodies in the previous study. Different from anti-AQP5 autoantibodies, the presence of anti-AQP1 autoantibodies was not associated with the salivary flow rate. Although anti-AQP1 autoantibodies are not useful as a diagnostic marker, the presence of autoantibodies to AQP1 may be an obstacle to AQP1 gene therapy for SS.
Project description:The pathophysiology of exocrine dysfunction observed in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether autoantibodies against human AQP5 are present in the sera of SS patients. Frozen sections of mouse submandibular salivary glands, CHO cells over-expressing a human AQP5-GFP fusion protein or GFP, and MDCK cells over-expressing AQP5 were used in the indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect anti-AQP5 autoantibodies in the sera from patients with primary SS. The lysates of HEK-293 cells over-expressing the AQP5-GFP fusion protein or GFP were used for immunoprecipitation. Serum IgG from the SS patients but not from the control subjects stained acinar cells in the mouse salivary glands, the signals of which colocalized with those of AQP5-specific antibodies. Serum IgG from the SS patients also selectively stained AQP5-GFP expressed in CHO cells. However, both the control and SS sera immunoprecipitated the AQP5-GFP, suggesting that autoantibodies against AQP5 were also present in the control sera. The screening of 53 control and 112 SS samples by indirect immunofluorescence assay using the AQP5-expressing MDCK cells revealed the presence of significantly higher levels of anti-AQP5 IgG in the SS samples than in the control samples with sensitivity of 0.73 and a specificity of 0.68. Furthermore, the presence of anti-AQP5 autoantibodies was associated with low resting salivary flow in SS patients. In conclusion, anti-AQP5 autoantibodies were detected in the sera from SS patients, which could be a novel biomarker of SS and provide new insight into the pathogenesis of SS.
Project description:Biomarkers to stratify the complex and heterogeneous phenotypes of Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are needed. We aimed to validate the prevalence of anti-aquaporin 5 (AQP5) IgG in a non-Korean cohort and to optimize the method to screen the anti-AQP5 IgG. The study cohort included 111 primary SS and 43 non-SS Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) controls that were obtained from the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance registry, in addition to 35 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 35 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) phenotypes. Anti-AQP5 IgG was screened by cell-based immunofluorescence cytochemistry (CB-IFC) assay in the absence or presence of epitope peptides, as well as by ELISA using the epitope peptides as coated antigens. Anti-AQP5 IgG specific to an E1 epitope was best at discriminating between SS and non-SS, and the two different methods (CB-IFC and ELISA) presented comparable performance in diagnostic accuracy (0.690 vs. 0.707). Notably, the SLE and RA groups had substantially lower levels of anti-AQP5 IgG than the SS group. In addition, the presence of anti-AQP5_E1 IgG was associated with serologic and histopathological features of SS. In conclusion, a similar prevalence of anti-AQP5 IgG was confirmed in a non-Korean cohort. Screening anti-AQP5 autoantibodies may help to form subgroups of SS for targeted therapy.
Project description:It is known that aquaporin (AQP) 5 expression in the apical membrane of acinar cells in salivary glands is important for the secretion of saliva in rodents and humans. Although heat acclimation enhances saliva secretion in rodents, the molecular mechanism of how heat induces saliva secretion has not been determined. Here, we found that heat acclimation enhanced the expression of AQP5 and AQP1 in rat submandibular glands concomitant with the promotion of the HIF-1? pathway, leading to VEGF induction and CD31-positive angiogenesis. The apical membrane distribution of AQP5 in serous acinar cells enhanced after heat acclimation, while AQP1 expression was restricted to the endothelial cells in the submandibular glands. A network of AQPs may be involved in heat-acclimated regulation in saliva secretion. Because AQPs probably plays a crucial role in saliva secretion in humans, these findings may lead to a novel strategy for treating saliva hyposecretion.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands resulting in diminished production of saliva and tears. The pathophysiology of SS has not yet been fully deciphered. Classically it has been postulated that sicca symptoms in SS patients are a double step process whereby lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal and salivary glands (SG) is followed by epithelial cell destruction resulting in keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Recent advances in the field of the pathophysiology of SS have brought in new players, such as aquaporins (AQPs) and anti AQPs autoantibodies that could explain underlying mechanistic processes and unveil new pathophysiological pathways offering a deeper understanding of the disease. In this review, we delineate the link between the AQP and SS, focusing on salivary glands, and discuss the role of AQPs in the treatment of SS-induced xerostomia.
Project description:Autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel in CNS astrocytes, are detected in ∼50-80% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOsd), characterized by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and/or optic neuritis. Although these autoantibodies present an invaluable biomarker for NMOsd and for the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), diagnosis of anti-AQP4-seronegative NMOsd remains challenging. We hypothesized that seronegative NMOsd patients might have autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1), another water channel in CNS astrocytes. We initially developed a radioimmunoprecipitation assay to search for anti-AQP1 antibodies in sera from 632 individuals. Anti-AQP1 or anti-AQP4 autoantibodies were detected in 16.7% and 12%, respectively, of 348 patients with suspected NMOsd. Anti-AQP1 specificity was confirmed by competition, protein immunoblotting and ELISA assays, whereas epitope localization was studied by immunoadsorption on intact cells expressing AQP1 and peptide mapping experiments. Most anti-AQP1 autoantibodies were of the complement-activating IgG1 subclass and the majority bound to the extracellular domain of AQP1, suggesting a possible pathogenic role. Five out of 42 MS patients had anti-AQP1 antibodies, but 2 of them also had spinal cord lesions, while the anti-AQP1 antibodies in the other 3 bound to the cytoplasmic domain of AQP1. Anti-AQP1 antibodies were not detected in 100 healthy individuals or 142 patients with non-demyelinating neuroimmune diseases. Analysis of 17 anti-AQP1+/anti-AQP4- patients with suspected NMOsd showed that 5 had NMO and 11 had LETM. 12/17 of these sera bound predominantly to the extracellular AQP1 loop-Α. Overall, we found that anti-AQP1 autoantibodies are present in a subgroup of patients with chronic demyelination in the CNS and similarities with anti-AQP4-seronegative NMOsd, offering a novel potential biomarker for CNS demyelination disorders.
Project description:The study investigated the effect of normal and supraphysiological (resulting from gonadotropin-dependent ovarian stimulation) levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on mouse uterine aquaporin gene/protein (Aqp/AQP) expression on Day 1 (D1) and D4 of pregnancy. The study also examined the effect of ovarian stimulation on uterine luminal closure and uterine receptivity on D4 of pregnancy and embryo implantation on D5 and D7 of pregnancy. These analyses revealed that the expression of Aqp3, Aqp4, Aqp5 and Aqp8 is induced by E2 while the expression of Aqp1 and Aqp11 is induced by P4. Additionally, P4 inhibits E2 induction of Aqp3 and Aqp4 expression while E2 inhibits Aqp1 and Aqp11 expression. Aqp9, however, is constitutively expressed. Ovarian stimulation disrupts Aqp3, Aqp5 and Aqp8 expression on D4 and AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 spatial expression on both D1 and D4, strikingly so in the myometrium. Interestingly, while ovarian stimulation has no overt effect on luminal closure and uterine receptivity, it reduces implantation events, likely through a disruption in myometrial activity and embryo development. The wider implication of this study is that ovarian stimulation, which results in supraphysiological levels of E2 and P4 and changes (depending on the degree of stimulation) in the E2:P4 ratio, triggers abnormal expression of uterine AQP during pregnancy, and this is associated with implantation failure. These findings lead us to recognize that abnormal expression would also occur under any pathological state (such as endometriosis) that is associated with changes in the normal E2:P4 ratio. Thus, infertility among these patients might in part be linked to abnormal uterine AQP expression.
Project description:Autoantibodies reactive with Ro52 (tripartite motif-containing protein 21 [TRIM21]) are detected in 70% of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). TRIM21 belongs to a 34-member C-IV family of TRIM proteins. Although autoantibodies against other TRIM proteins within the C-IV family have been detected in the sera of patients with primary SS, their clinical relevance remains unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the frequency of anti-TRIM38 in patients with primary SS and evaluate its association with various clinical measures of the disease.Serum samples from patients with primary SS (n?=?235) and controls (n?=?50) were analyzed for reactivity with in vitro-transcribed and -translated (35) S-methionine-labeled TRIM38 protein. The associations of anti-TRIM38 with various laboratory and clinical measures of primary SS were evaluated. Reactivity of anti-TRIM38 with different structural domains of TRIM38 was analyzed. Affinity-purified anti-TRIM38 antibodies were used to immunoprecipitate TRIM21.TRIM38-reactive autoantibodies were detected in the sera of 24 of the 235 patients with primary SS and 2 of the 50 controls. Anti-TRIM38 positivity was significantly associated with the presence of anti-Ro60, anti-Ro52, anti-La, rheumatoid factor, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Clinically, anti-TRIM38 was associated with significantly higher ocular surface staining scores, lower Schirmer's test scores, and minor labial salivary gland biopsy focus scores of ?3.0. Anti-TRIM38 antibodies mainly recognized the cortactin-binding protein 2 (CortBP-2; amino acids 128-238) and the B30.2/SPRY (amino acids 268-465) domains on TRIM38. Affinity-purified antibodies to TRIM38-CortBP-2 and TRIM38-B30.2/SPRY domains reacted with TRIM21.Our data demonstrate that anti-TRIM38 specificity arising in a subset of patients with primary SS is associated with increased severity of the disease.
Project description:Objectives of this study were to investigate whether AQP1 and AQP5 expression is altered during intervertebral disc degeneration and if hypoxia and HIF-1 regulate their expression in NP cells. AQP expression was measured in human tissues from different degenerative grades; regulation by hypoxia and HIF-1 was studied using promoter analysis and gain- and loss-of-function experiments. We show that both AQPs are expressed in the disc and that mRNA and protein levels decline with human disease severity. Bioinformatic analyses of AQP promoters showed multiple evolutionarily conserved HREs. Surprisingly, hypoxia failed to induce promoter activity or expression of either AQP. While genomic chromatin immunoprecipitation showed limited binding of HIF-1? to conserved HREs, their mutation did not suppress promoter activities. Stable HIF-1? suppression significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of both AQPs, but HIF-1? failed to induce AQP levels following accumulation. Together, our results demonstrate that AQP1 and AQP5 expression is sensitive to human disc degeneration and that HIF-1? uniquely maintains basal expression of both AQPs in NP cells, independent of oxemic tension and HIF-1 binding to promoter HREs. Diminished HIF-1 activity during degeneration may suppress AQP levels in NP cells, compromising their ability to respond to extracellular osmolarity changes.
Project description:Autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) may be potential biomarkers for prediction, diagnosis, or prognosis of NPSLE. We used a human proteome microarray with~17,000 unique full-length human proteins to investigate autoantibodies associated with NPSLE. Twenty-nine CSF specimens from 12 NPSLE, 7 non-NPSLE, and 10 control (non-systemic lupus erythematosus)patients were screened for NPSLE-associated autoantibodies with proteome microarrays. A focused autoantigen microarray of candidate NPSLE autoantigens was applied to profile a larger cohort of CSF with patient-matched sera. We identified 137 autoantigens associated with NPSLE. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that these autoantigens were enriched for functions involved in neurological diseases (score = 43).Anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was found in the CSF of NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients. The positive rates of 4 autoantibodies in CSF specimens were significantly different between the SLE (i.e., NPSLE and non-NPSLE) and control groups: anti-ribosomal protein RPLP0, anti-RPLP1, anti-RPLP2, and anti-TROVE2 (also known as anti-Ro/SS-A). The positive rate for anti-SS-A associated with NPSLE was higher than that for non-NPSLE (31.11% cf. 10.71%; P = 0.045).Further analysis showed that anti-SS-A in CSF specimens was related to neuropsychiatric syndromes of the central nervous system in SLE (P = 0.009). Analysis with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient indicated that the titers of anti-RPLP2 and anti-SS-A in paired CSF and serum specimens significantly correlated. Human proteome microarrays offer a powerful platform to discover novel autoantibodies in CSF samples. Anti-SS-A autoantibodies may be potential CSF markers for NPSLE.
Project description:Senna and its main components sennosides are well-known effective laxative drugs and are used in the treatment of intestinal constipation in the world. Their potential side effects have attracted more attention in clinics but have little scientific justification. In this study, senna extract (SE), sennosides (SS), and sennoside A (SA) were prepared and used to generate diarrhea rats. The diarrhea rats were investigated with behaviors, clinical signs, organ index, pathological examination, and gene expression on multiple aquaporins (Aqps) including Aqp1, Aqp2, Aqp3, Aqp4, Aqp5, Aqp6, Aqp7, Aqp8, Aqp9, and Aqp11. Using qRT-PCR, the Aqp expression profiles were constructed for six organs including colon, kidney, liver, spleen, lung, and stomach. The Aqp alteration profiles were characterized and was performed with Principle Component Analysis (PCA). The SE treatments on the rats resulted in a significant body weight loss (p < 0.001), significant increases (p < 0.001) on the kidney index (27.72%) and liver index (42.55%), and distinguished changes with up-regulation on Aqps expressions in the kidneys and livers. The SS treatments showed prominent laxative actions and down regulation on Aqps expression in the colons. The study results indicated that the SE had more influence/toxicity on the kidneys and livers. The SS showed more powerful actions on the colons. We suggest that the caution should be particularly exercised in the patients with kidney and liver diseases when chronic using senna-based products.