Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is independently associated with coronary artery calcification in the absence of overt coronary artery disease: A single-center cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: Recently, the pathogenic role of uric acid (UA) in both systemic metabolic and atherosclerotic diseases has been investigated. We sought to determine the independent correlation between serum UA levels and coronary artery calcification, as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 4188 individuals without prior coronary artery disease or urate-deposition disease were included. All of the participants underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the evaluation of coronary artery calcification (CAC) during their health check-ups. The subjects were divided into thre groups according to CAC scores (group 1: 0; group 2: 1-299; group 3: ?300). After controlling for other confounders, serum UA levels were found to be positively associated with increasing CAC scores (P?=?0.001). Adjusted mean serum UA levels in each CAC group were estimated to be 5.2?±?0.1?mg/dL, 5.3?±?0.1?mg/dL, and 5.6?±?0.2?mg/dL from groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Subsequent subgroup analyses revealed that this positive association was only significant in participants who were male, relatively older, less overweight, and did not have diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, smoking history, or renal dysfunction. In conclusion, serum uric acid levels were independently associated with CAC score severity and this finding is particularly relevant to the subjects who were male, relatively older, less overweight (body mass index?
Project description:Hyperuricemia coincides with coronary artery calcification (CAC) development, but the role of serum uric acid (SUA) as a risk factor for CAC remains unclear. The objective of this study was to gain an insight into the association between SUA and CAC in adults by performing a meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and EBSCO (CINAHL) were searched for relevant observational studies published until 2 June 2019. Studies were included only if they reported data on CAC presence (Agatston score?>?0) or progression related to hyperuricemia in subclinical adult patients. The pooled estimates of crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between CAC presence or progression and hyperuricemia. A total of 11 studies were identified involving 11?108 adults. The pooled OR based on the frequency of CAC presence showed that patients in the high SUA group had 1.806-fold risk for developing CAC (95% CI: 1.491-2.186) under the minimal threshold of hyperuricemia (more than 6 mg/dL or 357??moL/L). When SUA levels were analyzed as categorical variables, the pooled estimate of adjusted ORs was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.23-1.79) for CAC presence. Additionally, for each increase of 1 mg/dL of SUA level, the risk of CAC progression was increased by 31% (95% CI: 1.15-1.49) with an average follow-up duration ranged from 4.6 to 6.1?years. Hyperuricemia is closely associated with increased risk of CAC development and CAC progression in asymptomatic patients.
Project description:Serum magnesium is inversely associated to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease. There is little information on this association in a general healthy population.The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association of serum magnesium levels with CAC.We included 1276 Mexican-mestizo subjects (50 % women), aged 30-75 years, free of symptomatic cardiovascular disease. CAC was quantified by multidetector computed tomography using the method described by Agatston. Cross-sectional associations of serum magnesium with cardiometabolic factors and subclinical atherosclerosis defined as a CAC score > 0, were examined in logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, physical activity, elevated abdominal visceral tissue, fasting insulin and glucose, alcohol consumption, menopausal status (women only), low (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, diuretic use, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and family history of DM2.After full adjustment, subjects in the highest quartile of serum magnesium had 48 % lower odds of hypertension (p = 0.028), 69 % lower odds of DM2 (p = 0.003), and 42 % lower odds of CAC score > 0 (p = 0.016) compared to those with the lowest serum magnesium. The analyses also showed that a 0.17 mg/dL (1SD) increment in serum magnesium was independently associated with 16 % lower CAC (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.724-0.986).In a sample of Mexican-mestizo subjects, low serum magnesium was independently associated to higher prevalence not only of hypertension and DM2, but also to coronary artery calcification, which is a marker of atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Project description:Serum phosphorus (P) concentration is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) as well as cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease. It has been suggested that this relationship is extended to subjects without renal dysfunction, but further explorations in diverse races and regions are still needed. We performed a cross-sectional study of 2,509 Korean subjects (Far Eastern Asian) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ?60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and who underwent coronary computerized tomography. Serum P concentration was divided into pre-determined 4 categories: ?3.2, 3.2< to ?3.6, 3.6< to ?4.0 and >4.0 mg/dL. Agatston score (AS), an index of CAC, was divided into 3 categories: 0, 0< to ?100, and >100. A multinomial logit model (baseline outcome: AS = 0) was applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for each serum P category (reference: ?3.2mg/dL). Mean age of subjects was 53.5±9.1 years and 36.9% were female. In the adjusted model, serum P concentration of 3.6< to ?4.0 mg/dL and >4.0 mg/dL showed high ORs for AS of >100 [OR: 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.40 and OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.34-3.32, respectively]. A unit (mg/dL) increase in serum P concentration was associated with 50% increase in risk of AS >100 (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.16-1.94). A higher serum P concentration, even within a normal range, may be associated with a higher CAC in subjects with normal renal function.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is common in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet its onset and time course are uncertain. The study objective was to assess longitudinal relationships among CAC, kidney function, and traditional and putative cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This is a prospective cohort analysis from the Spokane Heart Study, a long-term observational study of community-dwelling adults who were assessed every 2 yr for CAC (electron-beam computed tomography), CVD risk factors, and laboratory testing. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was determined by the reexpressed Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. RESULTS: CAC was present in 28% (245 of 883) at baseline. After 6 yr, new-onset CAC developed in 33% (122 of 371); severity increased from a median CAC score of 38 to 152 in those with baseline CAC. Neither eGFR (101 +/- 34 versus 104 +/- 31 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), respectively) nor serum phosphorus (3.25 +/- 0.49 versus 3.29 +/- 0.48 mg/dl, respectively) differed by CAC presence or absence at baseline; however, multivariate models (generalized estimating equations for incidence and prevalence) revealed that independent predictors of CAC over time were greater baseline CAC scores, higher serum phosphorus levels, lower eGFR levels, and traditional CVD risk factors. Each 1-mg/dl increase in phosphorus imparted odds ratios for CAC of 1.61 (incidence) and 1.54 (prevalence), risks comparable to traditional CVD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: CAC becomes more frequent and severe over time. Higher levels of serum phosphorus and reduced kidney function independently predicted CAC.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary artery calcification. We hypothesized that the osteogenic factor, bone morphogenetic protein-4 (sBMP-4), is elevated in subjects with both CKD and CAD. Serum was collected from 79 subjects undergoing diagnostic angiography and stratified according to CAD and CKD status. Subjects with both CAD and CKD had significantly elevated sBMP-4 compared to those with only one or no disease. sBMP-4 continued to be associated with the presence of both diseases after adjustment for other risk factors. To determine if sBMP-4 is associated with coronary artery calcification, we compared coronary artery calcium scores (CAC) to sBMP-4 in 22 subjects. A positive correlation between CAC and sBMP-4 was seen. In conclusion, sBMP-4 is elevated in patients with both CAD and CKD and positively correlates with CAC, suggesting a role for sBMP-4 in the increased CAD seen in CKD patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Data on the relationship between the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression is limited. This longitudinal study evaluated the association of TyG index with CAC progression in asymptomatic adults. METHODS:We enrolled 12,326 asymptomatic Korean adults who had at least two CAC evaluations. The TyG index was determined using ln (fasting triglycerides [mg/dL]?×?fasting glucose [mg/dL]/2). CAC progression was defined as a difference???2.5 between the square roots (?) of the baseline and follow-up coronary artery calcium score (CACS) (??transformed CACS). Annualized ??transformed CACS was defined as ??transformed CACS divided by the inter-scan period. RESULTS:During a mean 3.3 years, the overall incidence of CAC progression was 30.6%. The incidence of CAC progression (group I [lowest]: 22.7% versus [vs.] group II: 31.7% vs. group III [highest]: 37.5%, P?<?0.001) and annualized ??transformed CACS (group I: 0.46?±?1.44 vs. group II: 0.71?±?2.02 vs. group III: 0.87?±?1.75, P?<?0.001) were markedly elevated with increasing TyG index tertiles. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that TyG index was associated with annualized ??transformed CACS (??=?0.066, P?=?0.036). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the TyG index was significantly associated with CAC progression in baseline CACS???100. CONCLUSION:The TyG index is an independent predictor of CAC progression, especially in adults without heavy baseline CAC.
Project description:Peripheral blood RNA-Seq from human coronary artery calcification cases and controls; Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a heritable and definitive morphologic marker of atherosclerosis that strongly predicts risk for future cardiovascular events. To search for genes involved in CAC, we used an integrative transcriptomic, genomic, and protein expression strategy using next-generation DNA sequencing in the discovery phase with follow-up studies using traditional molecular biology and histopathology techniques. Eight cases and eight controls (matched for gender, age and ancestry); RNA sequencing of peripheral blood from a discovery set of eight CAC cases and eight matched controls was used to identify dysregulated genes, which were validated using the NanoString® and Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Exon ST Array platforms. The median CAC scores for cases in the screening and validation sets were 1531.5 and 668.5, respectively, while all controls had a score of zero.
Project description:Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a key regulator of vascular calcification. Genetic variation at the MGP locus could modulate the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our aim was to examine the cross-sectional association between MGP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [rs1800802 (T-138C), rs1800801 (G-7A), and rs4236 (Ala102Thr)] and CAC. CAC was measured by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), in older men and women of European descent, (n=386; 60 to 80 y of age). Serum MGP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Linear, Tobit and Ordinal regression analyses all revealed that in men, homozygous carriers of the minor allele of rs1800802, rs1800801, or rs4236 (minor allele frequency: 21, 38, and 40%, respectively) were associated with a decreased quantity of CAC, relative to major allele carriers. This association was not found in women. Although genetic variation in MGP was associated with serum MGP concentrations, there were no associations between serum MGP and CAC. The results of this study suggest a role for MGP genetic variants in coronary atherosclerosis among men that is not reflected in serum MGP concentrations.
Project description:Recent studies suggested that a lower serum thyroid hormone level is associated with more vascular calcification. However, it has been rarely evaluated whether lower thyroid hormone levels affect the calcification of thyroid cancer and there is a relationship between calcification patterns of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC). The study was divided into two groups: First, we retrospectively reviewed 182 PTC patients and examined the correlation between PTC calcification patterns and CAC by coronary computed tomography (CT). Second, the correlation between the calcification pattern of PTC and thyroid hormone concentration was investigated (n = 354). The calcification pattern of PTC was evaluated by thyroid ultrasonography and classified into four groups: no-calcification, microcalcification, macrocalcification, and mixed-calcification. In PTC patients with microcalcification and mixed calcification, more CAC was observed and coronary calcium score (CCS) was higher. Lower free T4 and higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were associated with microcalcification and mixed calcification, not with macrocalcification and no calcification. PTC with microcalcification and mixed calcification showed more aggressive phenotypes like lymph node metastasis and more advanced TNM (tumor, node, and metastasis) stage than those with no calcification and macrocalcification. Calcification patterns of PTC showed close association with thyroid hormone levels and CAC. Further research is needed to determine how these findings are related to cardiovascular risk and disease-specific mortality.
Project description:Matrix gla protein (MGP) inhibits arterial and cartilaginous calcification. A threonine to alanine (Thr83Ala) polymorphism (codon 83) in MGP is associated with myocardial infarction and femoral artery calcification. We examined the association of the MGP Thr83Ala polymorphism with quantity and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a noninvasive measure of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.In 605 participants of the Epidemiology of Coronary Artery Calcification Study, generalized linear mixed models were fit to determine the association of MGP Thr83Ala with CAC quantity and progression. There was a significant additive relation between MGP Thr83Ala and CAC progression (P=0.001). In the fully adjusted model, every 1 Ala83 allele increase was associated with an estimated 1.9% (95% confidence interval, 0.7%-3.0%) per year since baseline larger increase in CAC quantity. A proxy single nucleotide polymorphism for MGP Thr83Ala (rs6488724) was similarly associated with CAC progression in an independent cohort from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study.Increased risk of myocardial infarction associated with MGP ThrAla83 genotype observed elsewhere may be related to faster progression of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. MGP genotype could be a potential candidate for identifying individuals at increased risk of atherosclerotic disease who would benefit from aggressive primary prevention strategies.