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Porcine Deltacoronavirus nsp5 Antagonizes Type I Interferon Signaling by Cleaving STAT2.

ABSTRACT: Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus. The first outbreak of PDCoV was announced from the United States in 2014, followed by reports in Asia. The nonstructural protein nsp5 is a 3C-like protease of coronavirus, and our previous study showed that PDCoV nsp5 inhibits type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we found that PDCoV nsp5 significantly inhibited IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), suggesting that PDCoV nsp5 also suppresses IFN signaling. Detailed analysis showed that nsp5 cleaved signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) but not Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), STAT1, and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), key molecules of the JAK-STAT pathway. STAT2 cleavage was dependent on the protease activity of nsp5. Interestingly, nsp5 cleaved STAT2 at two sites, glutamine 685 (Q685) and Q758, and similar cleavage was observed in PDCoV-infected cells. As expected, cleaved STAT2 impaired the ability to induce ISGs, demonstrating that STAT2 cleavage is an important mechanism utilized by PDCoV nsp5 to antagonize IFN signaling. We also discussed the substrate selection and binding mode of PDCoV nsp5 by homologous modeling of PDCoV nsp5 with the two cleaved peptide substrates. The results of our study demonstrate that PDCoV nsp5 antagonizes type I IFN signaling by cleaving STAT2 and provides structural insights for comprehending the cleavage mechanism of PDCoV nsp5, revealing a potential new function for PDCoV nsp5 in type I IFN signaling.IMPORTANCE The 3C-like protease encoded by nsp5 is a major protease of coronaviruses; thus, it is an attractive target for development of anticoronavirus drugs. Previous studies have revealed that the 3C-like protease of coronaviruses, including PDCoV and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), antagonizes type I IFN production by targeting the NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO). Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that overexpression of PDCoV nsp5 also antagonizes IFN signaling by cleaving STAT2, an essential component of transcription factor complex ISGF3, and that PDCoV infection reduces the levels of STAT2, which may affect the innate immune response.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5411617 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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