Prevention of Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein-Induced Endothelial Cell Injury by DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD Nanoparticles Combined with Ultrasound.
ABSTRACT: In general, atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation. Dexamethasone has anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis, but it was not considered for long-term administration on account of a poor pharmacokinetic profile and adverse side effects. Nanoparticles in which drugs can be dissolved, encapsulated, entrapped or chemically attached to the particle surface have abilities to incorporate dexamethasone and to be used as controlled or targeted drug delivery system. Long circulatory polymeric nanoparticles present as an assisting approach for controlled and targeted release of the encapsulated drug at the atherosclerotic site. Polymeric nanoparticles combined with ultrasound (US) are widely applied in cancer treatment due to their time applications, low cost, simplicity, and safety. However, there are few studies on atherosclerosis treatment using polymeric nanoparticles combined with US. In this study, targeted dexamethasone acetate (DA)-loaded poly (lactide-glycolide)-polyethylene glycol-cRGD (PLGA-PEG-cRGD) nanoparticles (DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs) were prepared by the emulsion-evaporation method using cRGD modified PLGA-PEG polymeric materials (PLGA-PEG-cRGD) prepared as the carrier. The average particle size of DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs was 221.6 ± 0.9 nm. Morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical and uniformly dispersed. In addition, the DA released profiles suggested that ultrasound could promote drug release from the nanocarriers and accelerate the rate of release. In vitro, the cellular uptake process of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)@DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US into the damaged human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) indicated that US promoted rapid intracellular uptake of FITC@DA- PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs. The cell viability of DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US reached 91.9% ± 0.2%, which demonstrated that DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US had a positive therapeutic effect on damaged HUVECs. Overall, DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs in combination with US may provide a promising drug delivery system to enhance the therapeutic effects of these chemotherapeutics at the cellular level.
Project description:Bone is a favorable microenvironment for tumor growth and a frequent destination for metastatic cancer cells. Targeting cancers within the bone marrow remains a crucial oncologic challenge due to issues of drug availability and microenvironment-induced resistance. Herein, we engineered bone-homing polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for spatiotemporally controlled delivery of therapeutics to bone, which diminish off-target effects and increase local drug concentrations. The NPs consist of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and bisphosphonate (or alendronate, a targeting ligand). The engineered NPs were formulated by blending varying ratios of the synthesized polymers: PLGA-b-PEG and alendronate-conjugated polymer PLGA-b-PEG-Ald, which ensured long circulation and targeting capabilities, respectively. The bone-binding ability of Ald-PEG-PLGA NPs was investigated by hydroxyapatite binding assays and ex vivo imaging of adherence to bone fragments. In vivo biodistribution of fluorescently labeled NPs showed higher retention, accumulation, and bone homing of targeted Ald-PEG-PLGA NPs, compared with nontargeted PEG-PLGA NPs. A library of bortezomib-loaded NPs (bone-targeted Ald-Bort-NPs and nontargeted Bort-NPs) were developed and screened for optimal physiochemical properties, drug loading, and release profiles. Ald-Bort-NPs were tested for efficacy in mouse models of multiple myeloma (MM). Results demonstrated significantly enhanced survival and decreased tumor burden in mice pretreated with Ald-Bort-NPs versus Ald-Empty-NPs (no drug) or the free drug. We also observed that bortezomib, as a pretreatment regimen, modified the bone microenvironment and enhanced bone strength and volume. Our findings suggest that NP-based anticancer therapies with bone-targeting specificity comprise a clinically relevant method of drug delivery that can inhibit tumor progression in MM.
Project description:Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were activated and secreted excessive amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins during pathogenetic progress of liver fibrosis. Germacrone (GMO) and miR-29b can play an important role in inhibiting growth of HSCs and production of type I collagen. GMO and miR-29b were co-encapsulated into nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG-PLGA). Then, NPs were modified with cyclic RGD peptides (cRGDfK). cRGDfK is an effective ligand to bind integrin ?v?3 and increase the targeting ability for fibrotic liver. GMO- and miR-29b-loaded NPs exhibited great cytotoxicity to activated HSCs and significantly inhibited production of type I collagen. Liver fibrosis model of mice was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride. Great targeting ability was achieved in liver fibrotic mice treated with cRGD-modified NPs. Significant ant-fibrotic effects have been presented based on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson and Sirius Red staining results of liver tissues collected from mice treated with drug-loaded NPs. All these results indicate GMO- and miR-29b-loaded cRGD-modified NPs have the potential for clinical use to treat liver fibrosis.
Project description:To create poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), where a drug-encapsulating NP core is covered with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in a normal condition but exposes a cell-interactive TAT-modified surface in an environment rich in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).PLGA NPs were modified with TAT peptide (PLGA-pDA-TAT NPs) or dual-modified with TAT peptide and a conjugate of PEG and MMP-substrate peptide (peritumorally activatable NPs, PANPs) via dopamine polymerization. Cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled NPs was observed with or without a pre-treatment of MMP-2 by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. NPs loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) were tested against SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells to evaluate the contribution of surface modification to cellular delivery of PTX.While the size and morphology did not significantly change due to the modification, NPs modified with dopamine polymerization were recognized by their dark color. TAT-containing NPs (PLGA-pDA-TAT NPs and PANPs) showed changes in surface charge, indicative of effective conjugation of TAT peptide on the surface. PLGA-pDA-TAT NPs and MMP-2-pre-treated PANPs showed relatively good cellular uptake compared to PLGA NPs, MMP-2-non-treated PANPs, and NPs with non-cleavable PEG. After 3 h treatment with cells, PTX loaded in cell-interactive NPs showed greater toxicity than non-interactive ones as the former could enter cells during the incubation period. However, due to the initial burst drug release, the difference was not as clear as microscopic observation.PEGylated polymeric NPs that could expose cell-interactive surface in response to MMP-2 were successfully created by dual modification of PLGA NPs using dopamine polymerization.
Project description:Although bioactive polymers such as cationic polymers have demonstrated potential as drug carriers and nonviral gene delivery vectors, high toxicity and uncontrolled, instantaneous cellular interactions of those vectors have hindered the successful implementation In Vivo. Fine control over the cellular interactions of a potential drug/gene delivery vector would be thus desirable. Herein, we have designed nanohybrid systems (100-150 nm in diameter) that combine the polycations with protective outer layers consisting of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) or liposomes. A commonly used polycation polyethylenimine (PEI) was employed after conjugation with rhodamine (RITC). The PEI-RITC conjugates were then encapsulated into (i) polymeric NPs made of either poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG-PLGA); or (ii) PEGylated liposomes, resulting in three nanohybrid systems. Through the nanohybridization, both cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the nanohybrids were kinetically controlled. The cytotoxicity assay using MCF-7 cells revealed that liposome-based nanohybrids exhibited the least toxicity, followed by PEG-PLGA- and PLGA-based NPs after 24 h incubation. The different kinetics of cellular uptake was also observed, the liposome-based systems being the fastest and PLGA-based systems being the slowest. The results present a potential delivery platform with enhanced control over its biological interaction kinetics and passive targeting capability through size control.
Project description:Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling pathways regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, which has generated widespread interest in developing synthetic LXR agonists as potential therapeutics for the management of atherosclerosis. In this study, it is demonstrated that nanoparticles (NPs) containing the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 (NP-LXR) exert anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis without causing hepatic steatosis. These NPs are engineered through self-assembly of a biodegradable diblock poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) copolymer. NP-LXR is significantly more effective than free GW3965 at inducing LXR-target gene expression and suppressing inflammatory factors in macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the NPs elicit negligible lipogenic gene stimulation in the liver. Using the Ldlr (-/-) mouse model of atherosclerosis, abundant colocalization of fluorescently labeled NPs within plaque macrophages following systemic administration is seen. Notably, six intravenous injections of NP-LXR over 2 weeks markedly reduce the CD68-positive cell (macrophage) content of plaques (by 50%) without increasing total cholesterol or triglycerides in the liver and plasma. Together, these findings identify GW3965-encapsulated PLGA-b-PEG NPs as a promising nanotherapeutic approach to combat atherosclerosis, providing the benefits of LXR agonists without their adverse effects on hepatic and plasma lipid metabolism.
Project description:Memantine, drug approved for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, has not shown to be fully effective. In order to solve this issue, polylactic-co-glycolic (PLGA) nanoparticles could be a suitable solution to increase drug's action on the target site as well as decrease adverse effects. For these reason, Memantine was loaded in biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles, produced by double emulsion method and surface-coated with polyethylene glycol. MEM-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were aimed to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) upon oral administration for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.The production parameters were optimized by design of experiments. MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs showed a mean particle size below 200 nm (152.6?±?0.5 nm), monomodal size distribution (polydispersity index, PI?<?0.1) and negative surface charge (-?22.4 mV). Physicochemical characterization of NPs confirmed that the crystalline drug was dispersed inside the PLGA matrix. MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs were found to be non-cytotoxic on brain cell lines (bEnd.3 and astrocytes). Memantine followed a slower release profile from the NPs against the free drug solution, allowing to reduce drug administration frequency in vivo. Nanoparticles were able to cross BBB both in vitro and in vivo. Behavioral tests carried out on transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 mice demonstrated to enhance the benefit of decreasing memory impairment when using MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs in comparison to the free drug solution. Histological studies confirmed that MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs reduced ?-amyloid plaques and the associated inflammation characteristic of Alzheimer's disease.Memantine NPs were suitable for Alzheimer's disease and more effective than the free drug.
Project description:The aim of this work was to enhance the transportation of the galantamine to the brain via ascorbic acid grafted PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) using SVCT2 transporters of choroid plexus. PLGA-b-PEG copolymer was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. PLGA-b-PEG-NH2 and PLGA-b-mPEG NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. PLGA-b-PEG NPs with desirable size, polydispersity, and drug loading were used for the conjugation with ascorbic acid (PLGA-b-PEG-Asc) to facilitate SVCT2 mediated transportation of the same into the brain. The surface functionalization of NPs with ascorbic acid significantly increased cellular uptake of NPs in SVCT2 expressing NIH/3T3 cells as compared to plain PLGA and PLGA-b-mPEG NPs. In vivo pharmacodynamic efficacy was evaluated using Morris Water Maze Test, Radial Arm Maze Test and AChE activity in scopolamine induced amnetic rats. In vivo pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated significantly higher therapeutic and sustained action by drug loaded PLGA-b-PEG-Asc NPs than free drugs and drug loaded plain PLGA as well as PLGA-b-mPEG NPs. Additionally, PLGA-b-PEG-Asc NPs resulted in significantly higher biodistribution of the drug to the brain than other formulations. Hence, the results suggested that targeting of bioactives to the brain by ascorbic acid grafted PLGA-b-PEG NPs is a promising approach.
Project description:Biodegradable polymers have been developed for the targeted delivery of therapeutics to tumors. However, tumor targeting and imaging are usually limited by systemic clearance and non-specific adsorption. In this study, we used poly(amino acid) derivatives, such as poly(succinimide), to synthesize a nanomicelle-forming poly(hydroxyethylaspartamide) (PHEA, P) modified sequentially with octadecylamine, polyethylene glycol (PEG, P), and glycine (G) to design PHEA-PEG-glycine (PPG) nanoparticles (NPs). These PPG NPs were further tethered to cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) sequences for formulating tumor-targeting PPG-cRGD NPs, and then loaded with IR-780 dye (PPG-cRGD-IR-780) for visualizing tumor homing. cRGD cloaked in PPG NPs could bind specifically to both tumor endothelium and cancer cells overexpressing αvβ₃ integrins. PPG-cRGD NPs exhibited enhanced physiological stability, cellular viability, and targeted intracellular uptake in cancer cells. In addition, PPG-cRGD NPs offered enhanced systemic circulation, leading to preferential tumor targeting and prolonged fluorescence tumor imaging for nearly 30 days. Nevertheless, non-targeted formulations demonstrated premature systemic clearance with short-term tumor imaging. Histochemical analysis showed no damage to normal organs, reaffirming the biocompatibility of PHEA polymers. Overall, our results indicated that PPG-cRGD NPs, which were manipulated to obtain optimal particle size and surface charge, and were complemented with tumor targeting, could improve the targeted and theranostic potential of therapeutic delivery.
Project description:This study explores the use of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs) as delivery system to improve the antitumor effect of antiobesity drug orlistat for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) therapy by improving its bioavailability.PLGA-PEG-NPs were synthesized by emulsion-diffusion-evaporation method, and the experiments were conducted in vitro in MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3 TNBC and normal breast fibroblast cells.Delivery of orlistat via PLGA-PEG-NPs reduced its IC50 compared with free orlistat. Combined treatment of orlistat-loaded NPs and doxorubicin or antisense-miR-21-loaded NPs significantly enhanced apoptotic effect compared with independent doxorubicin, anti-miR-21-loaded NPs, orlistat-loaded NPs or free orlistat treatments.We demonstrate that orlistat in combination with antisense-miR-21 or current chemotherapy holds great promise as a novel and versatile treatment agent for TNBC.
Project description:Cisplatin is used to treat a variety of tumors, but dose limiting toxicities or intrinsic and acquired resistance limit its application in many types of cancer including prostate. We report a unique strategy to deliver cisplatin to prostate cancer cells by constructing Pt(IV)-encapsulated prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted nanoparticles (NPs) of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-functionalized controlled release polymers. By using PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles with PSMA targeting aptamers (Apt) on the surface as a vehicle for the platinum(IV) compound c,t,c-[Pt(NH(3))(2)(O(2)CCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)CH(3))(2)Cl(2)] (1), a lethal dose of cisplatin was delivered specifically to prostate cancer cells. PSMA aptamer targeted delivery of Pt(IV) cargos to PSMA(+) LNCaP prostate cancer cells by endocytosis of the nanoparticle vehicles was demonstrated using fluorescence microscopy by colocalization of green fluorescent labeled cholesterol-encapsulated NPs and early endosome marker EEA-1. The choice of linear hexyl chains in 1 was the result of a systematic study to optimize encapsulation and controlled release from the polymer without compromising either feature. Release of cisplatin from the polymeric nanoparticles after reduction of 1 and formation of cisplatin 1,2-intrastrand d(GpG) cross-links on nuclear DNA was confirmed by using a monoclonal antibody for the adduct. A comparison between the cytotoxic activities of Pt(IV)-encapsulated PLGA-b-PEG NPs with the PSMA aptamer on the surface (Pt-NP-Apt), cisplatin, and the nontargeted Pt(IV)-encapsulated NPs (Pt-NP) against human prostate PSMA-overexpressing LNCaP and PSMA(-) PC3 cancer cells revealed significant differences. The effectiveness of PSMA targeted Pt-NP-Apt nanoparticles against the PSMA(+) LNCaP cells is approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of free cisplatin.