Low-density lipoprotein-coupled micelles with reduction and pH dual sensitivity for intelligent co-delivery of paclitaxel and siRNA to breast tumor.
ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle for the clinical therapy of malignant human cancers. The discovery of RNA interference provides efficient gene silencing within tumor cells for reversing MDR. In this study, a new "binary polymer" low-density lipoprotein-N-succinyl chitosan-cystamine-urocanic acid (LDL-NSC-SS-UA) with dual pH/redox sensitivity and targeting effect was synthesized for the co-delivery of breast cancer resistance protein small interfering RNA (siRNA) and paclitaxel (PTX). In vivo, the co-delivering micelles can accumulate in tumor tissue via the enhanced permeability and retention effect and the specific recognition and combination of LDL and LDL receptor, which is overexpressed on the surface of tumor cell membranes. The siRNA-PTX-loaded micelles inhibited gene and drug release under physiological conditions while promoting fast release in an acid microenvironment or in the presence of glutathione. The micelles escaped from the lysosome through the proton sponge effect. Additionally, the micelles exhibited superior antitumor activity and downregulated the protein and mRNA expression levels of breast cancer resistance protein in MCF-7/Taxol cells. The biodistribution and antitumor studies proved that the siRNA-PTX-loaded micelles possessed prolonged circulation time with a remarkable tumor-targeting effect and effectively inhibited tumor growth. Therefore, the novel dual pH/redox-sensitive polymers co-delivering siRNA and PTX with excellent biocompatibility and effective reversal of MDR demonstrate a considerable potential in cancer therapy.
Project description:Concurrent delivery of multiple drugs using nanoformulations can improve outcomes of cancer treatments. Here we demonstrate that this approach can be used to improve the paclitaxel (PTX) and alkylated cisplatin prodrug combination therapy of ovarian and breast cancer. The drugs are co-loaded in the polymeric micelle system based on amphiphilic block copolymer poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline-block-2-butyl-2-oxazoline-block-2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (P(MeOx-b-BuOx-b-MeOx). A broad range of drug mixing ratios and exceptionally high two-drug loading of over 50?wt.% drug in a stable micellar solution is demonstrated. The drugs co-loading in the micelles result in a slowed-down release to serum, improved pharmacokinetics and increased tumor distribution for both drugs. A superior anti-tumor activity of co-loaded PTX/CP drug micelles compared to single drug micelles or their mixture was demonstrated in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian carcinoma A2780/CisR xenograft tumor and multidrug resistant breast cancer LCC-6-MDR orthotopic tumor models. The improved tumor delivery of co-loaded drugs was related to decreased drug release rates as confirmed by simulation for micelle, serum and tumor compartments in a three-compartmental model. Overall, the results provide support for the use of PTX and cisplatin co-loaded micelles as a strategy for improved chemotherapy of ovarian and breast cancer and potential for the clinical translation.
Project description:Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major challenge for providing effective chemotherapy for many cancer patients. To address this issue, we report an intelligent polymer-based drug co-delivery system which could enhance and accelerate cellular uptake and reverse MDR. The nanodrug delivery systems were constructed by encapsulating disulfiram (DSF), a P-glyco-protein (P-gp) inhibitor, into the hydrophobic core of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine) (PEG-b-PLL) block copolymer micelles, as well as 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (DMA) and paclitaxel (PTX) were grafted on the side chain of l-lysine simultaneously. The surface charge of the drug-loaded micelles represents as negative in plasma (pH 7.4), which is helpful to prolong the circulation time, and in a weak acid environment of tumor tissue (pH 6.5-6.8) it can be reversed to positive, which is in favor of their entering into the cancer cells. In addition, the carrier could release DSF and PTX successively inside cells. The results of in vitro studies show that, compared to the control group, the DSF and PTX co-loaded micelles with charge reversal exhibits more effective cellular uptake and significantly increased cytotoxicity of PTX to MCF-7/ADR cells which may be due to the inhibitory effect of DSF on the efflux function of P-gp. Accordingly, such a smart pH-sensitive nanosystem, in our opinion, possesses significant potential to achieve combinational drug delivery and overcome drug resistance in cancer therapy.
Project description:Multidrug resistance (MDR) against chemotherapeutic agents has become the major obstacle to successful cancer therapy and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) mediated drug efflux is the key factor for MDR. Indomethacin (IND), one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, has been demonstrated to increase cytotoxic effects of anti-tumor agents as MRP substrates. In this study, dextran-g-indomethacin (DEX-IND) polymeric micelles were designed to delivery paclitaxel (PTX) for the treatment of MDR tumors. The DEX-IND polymer could effectively encapsulate PTX with high loading content and DEX-IND/PTX micelles present a small size distribution. Compared with free PTX, the release of PTX from DEX-IND/PTX micelles could be prolonged to 48 h. Cellular uptake test showed that the internalization of DEX-IND/PTX micelles by drug-sensitive MCF-7/ADR cells was significantly higher than free PTX benefiting from the inhibitory effect of IND on MRPs. In vitro cytotoxicity test further demonstrated that DEX-IND/PTX micelles could enhance the cytotoxicity of PTX against MCF-7/ADR tumor cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic results showed that DEX-IND/PTX micelles had longer systemic circulation time and slower plasma elimination rate in comparison to PTX. The anti-tumor efficacy test showed that DEX-IND/PTX micelles exhibited greater tumor growth-inhibition effects on MDR tumor-bearing mice, with good correlation between in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the cumulative evidence indicates that DEX-IND/PTX micelles hold significant promise for the treatment of MDR tumors.
Project description:Paclitaxel (PTX) is frequently suffered from multidrug resistance (MDR), resulting in lower chemotherapeutic efficacy and even chemotherapy failure. To combine the P-glycolprotein (P-gp) inhibitor would be a useful strategy to overcome MDR. However, what is needed now is an efficient vehicle to deliver multiple drugs into tumor simultaneously. In this study, PTX and Borneol (BNL), a natural compound with P-gp inhibition effect confirmed in intestinal absorption, were co-loaded in the fabricated PEG-PAMAM nanoparticle (NPs) by a one-step nano-precipitation method with high drug loading efficiency, narrow size distribution and low hemolysis rate. Based on P-gp inhibition activity of BNL, confirmed by drug efflux test and molecular docking model, the combination of PTX and BNL could improve intracellular concentration of PTX in A2780/PTX cells. Furthermore, compared to both free PTX and PTX+BNL, PB/NPs and P/NPs plus BNL exhibited higher cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in A2780/PTX cells, as well as the decreased MMP and enhanced apoptosis rate. More importantly, although PB/NPs and P/NPs+B showed similar tumor accumulation in tumor-bearing mice, PB/NPs could significantly decrease tumor growth of A2780/PTX tumor-bearing mice, in comparison to P/NPs+B. These results indicated the advantage of PTX and BNL co-delivery NPs for MDR reversal. These findings demonstrate that the co-delivery nano-sized system comprised by PEG-PAMAM polymer with PTX and BNL co-loaded would be a promising candidate for MDR treatment.
Project description:The co-delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and small interfering RNA (siRNA) within one cargo can enhance the anticancer outcomes through its synergistic therapeutic effects.We prepared smart polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with pH-responsive and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-detachable properties to systemically co-deliver paclitaxel (PTX) and siRNA against survivin gene for lung cancer therapy. The cationic polyethyleneimine-block-polylactic acid (PEI-PLA) was first synthesized and characterized, with good biocompatibility. PTX was encapsulated into the hydrophobic core of the PEI-PLA polymers by dialysis, and then the survivin siRNA was loaded onto the PTX-loaded NPs (PEI-PLA/PTX) through electrostatic interaction between siRNA and PEI block. Finally, the negatively charged poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-aspartic acid sodium salt) (PEG-PAsp) was coated onto the surface of NPs by electrostatic interaction to form final smart polymeric NPs with mean particle size of 82.4 nm and zeta potential of 4.1 mV. After uptake of NPs by tumor cells, the PEG-PAsp segments became electrically neutral owing to the lower endosome pH and consequently detached from the smart NPs. This process allowed endosomal escape of the NPs through the proton-sponge effect of the exposed PEI moiety.The resulting NPs achieved drug loading of 6.04 wt% and exhibited good dispersibility within 24 h in 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). At pH 5.5, the NPs presented better drug release and cellular uptake than at pH 7.4. The NPs with survivin siRNA effectively knocked down the expression of survivin mRNA and protein owing to enhanced cell uptake of NPs. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that the NPs presented low systemic toxicity and improved antiproliferation effect of PTX on A549 cells. Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated that accumulated NPs in the tumor site were capable of inhibiting the tumor growth and extending the survival rate of the mice by silencing the survivin gene and delivering PTX into tumor cells simultaneously.These results indicate that the prepared nano-vectors could be a promising co-delivery system for novel chemo/gene combination therapy.
Project description:Poor tumor penetration and highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment are two major factors that limit the therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). In this work, a redox-responsive gemcitabine (GEM)-conjugated polymer, PGEM, was employed as a tumor penetrating nanocarrier to co-load an immunomodulating agent (NLG919, an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and a chemotherapeutic drug (paclitaxel (PTX)) for immunochemo combination therapy. The NLG919/PTX co-loaded micelles showed very small size of ~15 nm. In vivo tumor imaging study indicated that PGEM was much more effective than the relatively large-sized POEG-co-PVD nanoparticles (~160 nm) in deep tumor penetration and could reach the core of the pancreatic tumor. PTX formulated in the PGEM carrier showed improved tumor inhibition effect compared with PGEM alone. Incorporation of NLG919 in the formulation led to a more immunoactive tumor microenvironment with significantly decreased percentage of Treg cells, and increased percentages of CD4<sup>+</sup> IFNγ<sup>+</sup> T and CD8<sup>+</sup> IFNγ<sup>+</sup> T cells. PGEM micelles co-loaded with PTX and NLG919 showed the best anti-tumor activity in pancreatic (PANC02) as well as two other tumor models compared to PGEM micelles loaded with PTX or NLG919 alone, suggesting that codelivery of NLG919 and PTX via PGEM may represent an effective strategy for immunochemotherapy of PDA as well as other types of cancers. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In order to effectively accumulate and penetrate the PDA that is poorly vascularized and enriched with dense fibrotic stroma, the size of nanomedicine has to be well controlled. Here, we reported an immunochemotherapy regimen based on co-delivery of GEM, PTX and IDO1 inhibitor NLG919 through an ultra-small sized GEM-based nanocarrier (PGEM). We demonstrated that the PGEM carrier was effective in accumulating and penetrating into PDA tumors. Besides, PGEM co-loaded with PTX and NLG9 induced an improved anti-tumor immune response and was highly efficacious in inhibiting tumor growth as well as in prolonging the survival rate in PANC02 xenograft model. Our work represents a potential strategy for enhancing PDA tumor penetration and immunochemotherapy.
Project description:Because of the complexity of cancer, a combination of chemotherapy and gene therapy is an emerging treatment modality. To realize the full potential of this strategy, a smart, highly biocompatible nanosystem that enables the precise co-delivery of small-molecule anticancer drugs and small interfering RNA (siRNA) is urgently needed. This study aimed to improve the therapeutic effect against cervical cancer by using cancer cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles for simultaneous delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) and siRNA targeting E7. Methods: By camouflaging HeLa cell membranes onto siRNA/PTX co-loaded (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, a biomimetic dual-drug delivery system (Si/PNPs@HeLa) was developed to simultaneously deliver PTX and siRNA targeting E7. After evaluating the physicochemical characteristics as well as their cell uptake and biodistribution behavior, studies on the RNA interference efficiency and antitumor ability of Si/PNPs@HeLa in vitro and in vivo were further carried out. Results: The Si/PNPs@HeLa was capable of delivering PTX and siRNA simultaneously to HeLa cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, benefiting from the recognition and adhesion molecules on the surface of HeLa cells, Si/PNPs@HeLa exhibited an improved immune escape ability and an increased tumor region accumulation (3-fold higher than bare nanoparticles). As a result, an excellent synergistic anti-tumor effect was observed in the HeLa tumor-bearing mice, with tumor volume inhibiting rates of 83.6% and no side effects in major organs. The mechanistic studies confirmed that E7 knockdown sensitized HeLa cells to PTX chemotherapy, mainly by inhibiting PTX-induced AKT pathway activation. Conclusion: Si/PNPs@HeLa, by integrating immune escape and tumor-homing ability, can serve as an efficient dual-drug delivery system to achieve precise treatment of cervical cancer through chemo-gene combined therapy.
Project description:Receptor-mediated active targeting and tumor microenvironment responsive systems from polymeric micelles have been studied for rapid cellular internalization and triggered drug release. Previously we have constructed redox-responsive polymeric micelles composed of vitamin E succinate conjugated hyaluronic acid (HA-ss-TOS), which are able to actively target CD44 proteins and quickly release loaded drugs upon exposure to high levels of glutathione (GSH) in tumor cells. In the present study, we found that despite different cellular internalization mechanisms, micelles showed strong antineoplastic effects on 4T1 and B16F10 cells due to redox responsiveness. HA-ss-TOS-PTX micelles exhibited an excellent tumor targeting ability and prolonged retention time compared to Taxol <i>in vivo</i>. In addition, a superior antitumor effect was achieved compared to PTX-loaded insensitive micelles (HA-TOS-PTX) and Taxol. Our results revealed that PTX-loaded HA-ss-TOS micelles could enhance the antineoplastic efficacy of PTX for breast cancer and melanoma treatment and, thus, deserve further attention.
Project description:Background:S-HM-3 is a tumor angiogenesis inhibitor with short half-life (25 min). In this present, TPGS/Solutol polymeric micelles was prepared to load together insoluble paclitaxel (PTX) and soluble S-HM-3, expecting to together deliver them to the tumor site with long-circulating, targeting function and combating multi-drug resistance (MDR). Materials and methods:PTX and S-HM-3 loaded TPGS/Solutol micelles (PHTSm) were prepared by the method of thin-film evaporation, and characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and releasing properties. The anticancer effect of the polymeric micelles system was evaluated and confirmed by experiments of in vitro cell uptake study, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics studies. Results:Micelles exhibited smooth spherical morphology with 20~30 nm and low critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 0.000124 mg/mL. Only about 30% of PTX were slowly released from micelles at 48h, which can beneficial to the long circulation in blood. The results of in vitro cell assay proved that S-HM-3 could be easier to get into MDA-MB-231 cell, and its angiogenesis inhibition ability was also enhanced after integrating into micelles. In particular, the results of in vivo studies showed that the half-life of S-HM-3 and PTX was significantly prolonged 25.27 and 5.54 folds, and their AUC0-∞ was enhanced 129.78 and 15.65 times, respectively. Meanwhile 83.05% tumor inhibition rate of PHTSm was achieved compared with 59.99% of PTX. Conclusions:TPGS and Solutol micelles hold promising potential to resolve the conundrum of combined therapy of cytotoxic drug and angiogenesis inhibitor with different physicochemical property and anticancer mechanism in clinical use.
Project description:S-trans, trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) is a synthetic small molecule that acts as a potent and especially nontoxic Ras antagonist. It inhibits both oncogenically activated Ras and growth factor receptor-mediated Ras activation, resulting in the inhibition of Ras-dependent tumor growth. In this work, an FTS conjugate with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) through a labile ester linkage, PEG5K-FTS2(L), was developed. PEG5K-FTS2 conjugate readily forms micelles in aqueous solutions with a critical micelle concentration of 0.68 ?M, and hydrophobic drugs such as paclitaxel (PTX) could be effectively loaded into these particles. Both drug-free and PTX-loaded micelles were spherical in shape with a uniform size of 20-30 nm. The release of PTX from PTX-loaded PEG5K-FTS2 micelles was significantly slower than that from Taxol formulation. In vitro cytotoxicity studies with several tumor cell lines showed that PEG5K-FTS2(L) was comparable to FTS in antitumor activity. Western immunoblotting showed that total Ras levels were downregulated in several cancer cell lines treated with FTS or PEG5K-FTS2(L). The micellar formulation of PTX exhibited more in vitro cytotoxic activity against several tumor cell lines compared with free PTX, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between the carrier and the codelivered drug. The antitumor activity of the PTX loaded PEG5K-FTS2(L) micelles in a syngeneic murine breast cancer model was found to be significantly higher than that of Taxol, which may be attributed to their preferential tumor accumulation and a possible synergistic effect between PEG5K-FTS2 carrier and loaded PTX.