Phosphatidylserine synthase 2 and phosphatidylserine decarboxylase are essential for aminophospholipid synthesis in Trypanosoma brucei.
ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) are ubiquitously expressed and metabolically interconnected glycerophospholipids in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In Trypanosoma brucei, PE synthesis has been shown to occur mainly via the Kennedy pathway, one of the three routes leading to PE synthesis in eukaryotes, while PS synthesis has not been studied experimentally. We now reveal the importance of T. brucei PS synthase 2 (TbPSS2) and T. brucei PS decarboxylase (TbPSD), two key enzymes involved in aminophospholipid synthesis, for trypanosome viability. By using tetracycline-inducible down-regulation of gene expression and in vivo and in vitro metabolic labeling, we found that TbPSS2 (i) is necessary for normal growth of procyclic trypanosomes, (ii) localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and (iii) represents the unique route for PS formation in T. brucei. In addition, we identified TbPSD as type I PS decarboxylase in the mitochondrion and found that it is processed proteolytically at a WGSS cleavage site into a heterodimer. Down-regulation of TbPSD expression affected mitochondrial integrity in both procyclic and bloodstream form trypanosomes, decreased ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation in procyclic form and affected parasite growth.
Project description:Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is an essential phospholipid for mitochondrial functions and is synthesized mainly by phosphatidylserine (PS) decarboxylase at the mitochondrial inner membrane. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PS is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), such that mitochondrial PE synthesis requires PS transport from the ER to the mitochondrial inner membrane. Here, we provide evidence that Ups2-Mdm35, a protein complex localized at the mitochondrial intermembrane space, mediates PS transport for PE synthesis in respiration-active mitochondria. UPS2- and MDM35-null mutations greatly attenuated conversion of PS to PE in yeast cells growing logarithmically under nonfermentable conditions, but not fermentable conditions. A recombinant Ups2-Mdm35 fusion protein exhibited phospholipid-transfer activity between liposomes in vitro. Furthermore, UPS2 expression was elevated under nonfermentable conditions and at the diauxic shift, the metabolic transition from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that Ups2-Mdm35 functions as a PS transfer protein and enhances mitochondrial PE synthesis in response to the cellular metabolic state.
Project description:Phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase (Cho1p) and the PS decarboxylase enzymes (Psd1p and Psd2p), which synthesize PS and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), respectively, are crucial for Candida albicans virulence. Mutations that disrupt these enzymes compromise virulence. These enzymes are part of the cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol pathway (i.e. de novo pathway) for phospholipid synthesis. Understanding how losses of PS and/or PE synthesis pathways affect the phospholipidome of Candida is important for fully understanding how these enzymes impact virulence. The cho1?/? and psd1?/? psd2?/? mutations cause similar changes in levels of phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and PS. However, only slight changes were seen in PE and phosphatidylcholine (PC). This finding suggests that the alternative mechanism for making PE and PC, the Kennedy pathway, can compensate for loss of the de novo synthesis pathway. Candida albicans Cho1p, the lipid biosynthetic enzyme with the most potential as a drug target, has been biochemically characterized, and analysis of its substrate specificity and kinetics reveal that these are similar to those previously published for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cho1p.
Project description:Trypanosoma brucei is a kinetoplastid flagellate, the agent of human sleeping sickness and ruminant nagana in Africa. Kinetoplastid flagellates contain their eponym kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), consisting of two types of interlocked circular DNA molecules: scores of maxicircles and thousands of minicircles. Maxicircles have typical mitochondrial genes, most of which are translatable only after RNA editing. Minicircles encode guide RNAs, required for decrypting the maxicircle transcripts. The life cycle of T. brucei involves a bloodstream stage (BS) in vertebrates and a procyclic stage (PS) in the tsetse fly vector. Partial [dyskinetoplastidy (Dk)] or total [akinetoplastidy (Ak)] loss of kDNA locks the trypanosome in the BS form. Transmission between vertebrates becomes mechanical without PS and tsetse mediation, allowing the parasite to spread outside the African tsetse belt. Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are agents of dourine and surra, diseases of horses, camels, and water buffaloes. We have characterized representative strains of T. equiperdum and T. evansi by numerous molecular and classical parasitological approaches. We show that both species are actually strains of T. brucei, which lost part (Dk) or all (Ak) of their kDNA. These trypanosomes are not monophyletic clades and do not qualify for species status. They should be considered two subspecies, respectively T. brucei equiperdum and T. brucei evansi, which spontaneously arose recently. Dk/Ak trypanosomes may potentially emerge repeatedly from T. brucei.
Project description:Doxorubicin (DXR) is a drug widely used in chemotherapy. Its mode of action is based on its intercalation properties, involving the inhibition of topoisomerase II. However, few studies have reported the mitochondrial effects of DXR while investigating cardiac toxicity induced by the treatment, mostly in pediatric cases. Here, we demonstrate that DXR alters the mitochondrial membrane composition associated with bioenergetic impairment and cell death in human cancer cells. The remodeling of the mitochondrial membrane was explained by phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PSD) inhibition by DXR. PSD catalyzes phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) synthesis from phosphatidylserine (PS), and DXR altered the PS/PE ratio in the mitochondrial membrane. Moreover, we observed that DXR localized to the mitochondrial compartment and drug uptake was rapid. Evaluation of other topoisomerase II inhibitors did not show any impact on the mitochondrial membrane composition, indicating that the DXR effect was specific. Therefore, our findings revealed a side molecular target for DXR and PSD, potentially involved in DXR anti-cancer properties and the associated toxicity.
Project description:Sinorhizobium meliloti contains phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as major membrane lipids. PE is formed in two steps. In the first step, phosphatidylserine synthase (Pss) condenses serine with CDP-diglyceride to form phosphatidylserine (PS), and in the second step, PS is decarboxylated by phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (Psd) to form PE. In this study we identified the sinorhizobial psd gene coding for Psd. A sinorhizobial mutant deficient in psd is unable to form PE but accumulates the anionic phospholipid PS. Properties of PE-deficient mutants lacking either Pss or Psd were compared with those of the S. meliloti wild type. Whereas both PE-deficient mutants grew in a wild-type-like manner on many complex media, they were unable to grow on minimal medium containing high phosphate concentrations. Surprisingly, the psd-deficient mutant could grow on minimal medium containing low concentrations of inorganic phosphate, while the pss-deficient mutant could not. Addition of choline to the minimal medium rescued growth of the pss-deficient mutant, CS111, to some extent but inhibited growth of the psd-deficient mutant, MAV01. When the two distinct PE-deficient mutants were analyzed for their ability to form a nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis with their alfalfa host plant, they behaved strikingly differently. The Pss-deficient mutant, CS111, initiated nodule formation at about the same time point as the wild type but did form about 30% fewer nodules than the wild type. In contrast, the PS-accumulating mutant, MAV01, initiated nodule formation much later than the wild type and formed 90% fewer nodules than the wild type. The few nodules formed by MAV01 seemed to be almost devoid of bacteria and were unable to fix nitrogen. Leaves of alfalfa plants inoculated with the mutant MAV01 were yellowish, indicating that the plants were starved for nitrogen. Therefore, changes in lipid composition, including the accumulation of bacterial PS, prevent the establishment of a nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis.
Project description:We have investigated whether the growth requirement of keratinocytes for ethanolamine is due to defective synthesis of ethanolamine phosphoacylglycerols (EPG) via decarboxylation of serine phosphoacylglycerols. Proliferating keratinocytes readily incorporated [3H]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and [3H]serine into phosphatidylserine (PS) and PE. Non-proliferating keratinocytes in ethanolamine-free medium incorporated [3H]glycerol into phosphatidylcholine (PC), PS and PE in decreasing order of label incorporated. The order of decreasing incorporation of glycerol after addition of ethanolamine to the medium was PC > PE > PS. Incubation of non-proliferating keratinocytes with [3H]serine resulted in incorporation of label into PS and PE. The extent of incorporation of [3H]serine into PS in non-proliferating keratinocytes was not less than that in proliferating cells. Addition of ethanolamine to the medium of non-proliferating keratinocytes did not change the quantity of label incorporated into PS, but resulted in a decrease of label incorporated into PE. When cells were prelabelled overnight with [3H]serine and subsequently incubated in medium containing ethanolamine, the loss of label from PS was inhibited relative to that of control cells incubated in medium without ethanolamine. The activity of PS decarboxylase activity in keratinocyte mitochondria was inhibited by phosphoethanolamine and PE, but not by ethanolamine or CDP-ethanolamine. Both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes incorporated [3H]serine into ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids. Taken together, the above results suggest that (1) both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes are able to synthesize PE and ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids from serine, and therefore the ethanolamine-requirement of the cells is not due to a defective decarboxylase pathway; (2) any inability of the decarboxylase pathway to meet cellular EPG requirement is not due to decreased synthesis of serine phospholipids; (3) synthesis of PE via decarboxylation, the major route in nonproliferating keratinocytes, appears to decrease when ethanolamine is made available and the CDP-ethanolamine pathway is functioning; (4) phosphoethanolamine and increased PE produced from the CDP-ethanolamine pathway may inhibit PS decarboxylase activity in the cells and provide a means of coordinating the synthesis of PE by the two pathways to prevent excess production.
Project description:In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synthesis of the essential phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is accomplished by a network of reactions which comprises four different pathways. The enzyme contributing most to PE formation is the mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 1 (Psd1p) which catalyzes conversion of phosphatidylserine (PS) to PE. To study the genome wide effect of an unbalanced cellular and mitochondrial PE level and in particular the contribution of Psd1p to this depletion we performed a DNA microarray analysis with a ?psd1 deletion mutant. This approach revealed that 54 yeast genes were significantly up-regulated in the absence of PSD1 compared to wild type. Surprisingly, marked down-regulation of genes was not observed. A number of different cellular processes in different subcellular compartments were affected in a ?psd1 mutant. Deletion mutants bearing defects in all 54 candidate genes, respectively, were analyzed for their growth phenotype and their phospholipid profile. Only three mutants, namely ?gpm2, ?gph1 and ?rsb1, were affected in one of these parameters. The possible link of these mutations to PE deficiency and PSD1 deletion is discussed.
Project description:Cy3 and Cy5 direct labelled RNA from Bloodstream MiTat1.1 trypanosomes and Procyclic 427 Lister were hybridized onto JCVI Trypanosoma brucei oligoarrays (version2). Procyclic RNA were used as control for data analysis.
Project description:Interorganelle phospholipid transfer is critical for eukaryotic membrane biogenesis. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylserine (PS) synthesized by PS synthase, Pss1, in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is decarboxylated to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by PS decarboxylase, Psd1, in the ER and mitochondria or by Psd2 in the endosome, Golgi, and/or vacuole, but the mechanism of interorganelle PS transport remains to be elucidated. Here we report that Sfh1, a member of Sec14 family proteins of S. cerevisiae, possesses the ability to enhance PE production by Psd2. Overexpression of SFH1 in the strain defective in Psd1 restored its growth on non-fermentable carbon sources and increased the intracellular and mitochondrial PE levels. Sfh1 was found to bind various phospholipids, including PS, in vivo. Bacterially expressed and purified Sfh1 was suggested to have the ability to transport fluorescently labeled PS between liposomes by fluorescence dequenching assay in vitro. Biochemical subcellular fractionation suggested that a fraction of Sfh1 localizes to the endosome, Golgi, and/or vacuole. We propose a model that Sfh1 promotes PE production by Psd2 by transferring phospholipids between the ER and endosome.
Project description:There are a variety of complex metabolic processes ongoing simultaneously in the single, large mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei. Understanding the organellar environment and dynamics of mitochondrial proteins requires quantitative measurement in vivo. In this study, we have validated a method for immobilizing both procyclic stage (PS) and bloodstream stage (BS) T. brucei brucei with a high level of cell viability over several hours and verified its suitability for undertaking fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), with mitochondrion-targeted yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Next, we used this method for comparative analysis of the translational diffusion of mitochondrial RNA-binding protein 1 (MRP1) in the BS and in T. b. evansi. The latter flagellate is like petite mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae because it lacks organelle-encoded nucleic acids. FRAP measurement of YFP-tagged MRP1 in both cell lines illuminated from a new perspective how the absence or presence of RNA affects proteins involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. This work represents the first attempt to examine this process in live trypanosomes.