Label-Free Detection of Small Organic Molecules by Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Functionalized Thermocouples: Toward In Vivo Applications.
ABSTRACT: Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), synthetic polymeric receptors, have been combined successfully with thermal transducers for the detection of small molecules in recent years. However, up until now they have been combined with planar electrodes which limits their use for in vivo applications. In this work, a new biosensor platform is developed by roll-coating MIP particles onto thermocouples, functionalized with polylactic acid (PLLA). As a first proof-of-principle, MIPs for the neurotransmitter dopamine were incorporated into PLLA-coated thermocouples. The response of the synthetic receptor layer to an increasing concentration of dopamine in buffer was analyzed using a homemade heat-transfer setup. Binding of the template to the MIP layer blocks the heat transport through the thermocouple, leading to less heat loss to the environment and an overall higher temperature in the measuring chamber. The measured temperature increase is correlated to the neurotransmitter concentration, which enables measurement of dopamine levels in the micromolar regime. To demonstrate the general applicability of the proposed biosensor platform, thermocouples were functionalized with similar MIPs for cortisol and serotonin, indicating a similar response and limit-of-detection. As the platform does not require planar electrodes, it can easily be integrated in, e.g., a catheter. In this way, it is an excellent fit for the current niche in the market of therapeutics and diagnostics. Moreover, the use of a biocompatible and disposable PLLA-layer further illustrates its potential for in vivo diagnostics.
Project description:A novel procedure is developed for producing bulk modified Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), which involves the direct mixing of the polymer particles within the screen-printed ink. This allowed reduction of the sample preparation time from 45 min to 1 min, and resulted in higher reproducibility of the electrodes. The samples are measured with a novel detection method, namely, thermal wave transport analysis (TWTA), relying on the analysis of thermal waves through a functional interface. As a first proof-of-principle, MIPs for dopamine are developed and successfully incorporated within a bulk modified MIP SPE. The detection limits of dopamine within buffer solutions for the MIP SPEs are determined via three independent techniques. With cyclic voltammetry this was determined to be 4.7 × 10(-6) M, whereas by using the heat-transfer method (HTM) 0.35 × 10(-6) M was obtained, and with the novel TWTA concept 0.26 × 10(-6) M is possible. This TWTA technique is measured simultaneously with HTM and has the benefits of reducing measurement time to less than 5 min and increasing effect size by nearly a factor of two. The two thermal methods are able to enhance dopamine detection by one order of magnitude compared to the electrochemical method. In previous research, it was not possible to measure neurotransmitters in complex samples with HTM, but with the improved signal-to-noise of TWTA for the first time, spiked dopamine concentrations were determined in a relevant food sample. In summary, novel concepts are presented for both the sensor functionalization side by employing screen-printing technology, and on the sensing side, the novel TWTA thermal technique is reported. The developed bio-sensing platform is cost-effective and suitable for mass-production due to the nature of screen-printing technology, which makes it very interesting for neurotransmitter detection in clinical diagnostic applications.
Project description:Neurotransmitter release is modulated by many drugs and molecular manipulations. We present an active CMOS-based electrochemical biosensor array with high throughput capability (100 electrodes) for on-chip amperometric measurement of neurotransmitter release. The high-throughput of the biosensor array will accelerate the data collection needed to determine statistical significance of changes produced under varying conditions, from several weeks to a few hours. The biosensor is designed and fabricated using a combination of CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology and a photolithography process to incorporate platinum working electrodes on-chip. We demonstrate the operation of an electrode array with integrated high-gain potentiostats and output time-division multiplexing with minimum dead time for readout. The on-chip working electrodes are patterned by conformal deposition of Pt and lift-off photolithography. The conformal deposition method protects the underlying electronic circuits from contact with the electrolyte that covers the electrode array during measurement. The biosensor was validated by simultaneous measurement of amperometric currents from 100 electrodes in response to dopamine injection, which revealed the time course of dopamine diffusion along the surface of the biosensor array. The biosensor simultaneously recorded neurotransmitter release successfully from multiple individual living chromaffin cells. The biosensor was capable of resolving small and fast amperometric spikes reporting release from individual vesicle secretions. We anticipate that this device will accelerate the characterization of the modulation of neurotransmitter secretion from neuronal and endocrine cells by pharmacological and molecular manipulations of the cells.
Project description:Cytotoxic agents that are used conventionally in cancer therapy present limitations that affect their efficacy and safety profile, leading to serious adverse effects. In the aim to overcome these drawbacks, different approaches have been investigated and, among them, theranostics is attracting interest. This new field of medicine combines diagnosis with targeted therapy; therefore, the aim of this study was the preparation and characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) selective for the anticancer drug Sunitinib (SUT) for the development of a novel theranostic system that is able to integrate the drug controlled release ability of MIPs with Rhodamine 6G as a fluorescent marker. MIPs were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and then functionalized with Rhodamine 6G by radical grafting. The obtained polymeric particles were characterized in terms of particles size and distribution, ?-potential and fluorescent, and hydrophilic properties. Moreover, adsorption isotherms and kinetics and in vitro release properties were also investigated. The obtained binding data confirmed the selective recognition properties of MIP, revealing that SUT adsorption better fitted the Langmuir model, while the adsorption process followed the pseudo-first order kinetic model. Finally, the in vitro release studies highlighted the SUT controlled release behavior of MIP, which was well fitted with the Ritger-Peppas kinetic model. Therefore, the synthesized fluorescent MIP represents a promising material for the development of a theranostic platform for Sunitinib controlled release and self-monitoring in cancer therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) facilitate the transport of water and neutral solutes across the lipid bilayers. Plant MIPs are believed to be important in cell division and expansion and in water transport properties in response to environmental conditions. More than 30 MIP sequences have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, maize and rice. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), Nod26-like intrinsic protein (NIPs) and small and basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) are subfamilies of plant MIPs. Despite sequence diversity, all the experimentally determined structures belonging to the MIP superfamily have the same "hour-glass" fold. RESULTS: We have structurally characterized 39 rice and 31 maize MIPs and compared them with that of Arabidopsis. Homology models of 105 MIPs from all three plant species were built. Structure-based sequence alignments were generated and the residues in the helix-helix interfaces were analyzed. Small residues (Gly/Ala/Ser/Thr) are found to be highly conserved as a group in the helix-helix interface of MIP structures. Individual families sometimes prefer one or another of the residues from this group. The narrow aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter in MIPs has been shown to provide an important constriction for solute permeability. Ar/R regions were analyzed and compared between the three plant species. Seventeen TIP, NIP and SIP members from rice and maize have ar/R signatures that are not found in Arabidopsis. A subgroup of rice and maize NIPs has small residues in three of the four positions in the ar/R tetrad, resulting in a wider constriction. These MIP members could transport larger solute molecules. CONCLUSION: Small residues are group-conserved in the helix-helix interface of MIP structures and they seem to be important for close helix-helix interactions. Such conservation might help to preserve the hour-glass fold in MIP structures. Analysis and comparison of ar/R selectivity filters suggest that rice and maize MIPs could transport more diverse solutes than Arabidopsis MIPs. Thus the MIP members show conservation in helix-helix interfaces and diversity in aromatic/arginine selectivity filters. The former is related to structural stability and the later can be linked to functional diversity.
Project description:The channel proteins belonging to the major intrinsic proteins (MIP) superfamily are diverse and are found in all forms of life. Water-transporting aquaporin and glycerol-specific aquaglyceroporin are the prototype members of the MIP superfamily. MIPs have also been shown to transport other neutral molecules and gases across the membrane. They have internal homology and possess conserved sequence motifs. By analyzing a large number of publicly available genome sequences, we have identified more than 1000 MIPs from diverse organisms. We have developed a database MIPModDB which will be a unified resource for all MIPs. For each MIP entry, this database contains information about the source, gene structure, sequence features, substitutions in the conserved NPA motifs, structural model, the residues forming the selectivity filter and channel radius profile. For selected set of MIPs, it is possible to derive structure-based sequence alignment and evolutionary relationship. Sequences and structures of selected MIPs can be downloaded from MIPModDB database which is freely available at http://bioinfo.iitk.ac.in/MIPModDB.
Project description:In this endeavor, a novel electrochemical biosensor was designed using multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)- and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs)-embedded anandamide (AEA) imprinted polymer. The NiNPs so synthesized were mortared with MWCNTs and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), which enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of the developed sensor, respectively. The characterization methods of AEA-based MIP included X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, which supported the successful synthesis of the polymer. Electrochemical studies of fabricated sensor were performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in potentiostatic mode (PEIS). In this first phase of AEA-specific sensor development, MWCNT/NiNP/MIP@SPE was found to successfully discriminate between different concentrations of AEA. The developed sensing platform demonstrated a 100 pM-1 nM linear range with a 0.01 nM detection limit (LOD), 0.0149 mA/pM sensitivity, and 50% stability within 4 months. The sensor demonstrated selectivity toward AEA: although acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine acted as strong interfering components because of their chemical similarity, the spiked AEA samples demonstrated ?90% recoveries. Hence, our results have passed the first step in AEA detection at home, although with a clinical setup, future advancement is still required.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) and aquaglyceroporins (AQGPs) belong to the superfamily of Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs) and are involved in the transport of water and neutral solutes across the membranes. MIP channels play significant role in plant-fungi symbiotic relationship and are believed to be important in host-pathogen interactions in human fungal diseases. In plants, at least five major MIP subfamilies have been identified. Fungal MIP subfamilies include orthodox aquaporins and five subgroups within aquaglyceroporins. XIP subfamily is common to both plants and fungi. In this study, we have investigated the extent of diversity in fungal MIPs and explored further evolutionary relationships with the plant MIP counterparts. RESULTS: We have extensively analyzed the available fungal genomes and examined nearly 400 fungal MIPs. Phylogenetic analysis and homology modeling exhibit the existence of a new MIP cluster distinct from any of the known fungal MIP subfamilies. All members of this cluster are found in microsporidia which are unicellular fungal parasites. Members of this family are small in size, charged and have hydrophobic residues in the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter and these features are shared by small and basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), one of the plant MIP subfamilies. We have also found two new subfamilies (? and ?2) within the AQGP group. Fungal AQGPs are the most diverse and possess the largest number of subgroups. We have also identified distinguishing features in loops E and D in the newly identified subfamilies indicating their possible role in channel transport and gating. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal SIP-like MIP family is distinct from any of the known fungal MIP families including orthodox aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. After XIPs, this is the second MIP subfamily from fungi that may have possible evolutionary link with a plant MIP subfamily. AQGPs in fungi are more diverse and possess the largest number of subgroups. The aromatic/arginine selectivity filter of SIP-like fungal MIPs and the ? AQGPs are unique, hydrophobic in nature and are likely to transport novel hydrophobic solutes. They can be attractive targets for developing anti-fungal drugs. The evolutionary pattern shared with their plant counterparts indicates possible involvement of new fungal MIPs in plant-fungi symbiosis and host-pathogen interactions.
Project description:The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of learning taste aversion and consolidating this learning into long-term memory (LTM) that is called conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Previous studies showed that some molluscan insulin-related peptides (MIPs) were upregulated in snails exhibiting CTA. We thus hypothesized that MIPs play an important role in neurons underlying the CTA-LTM consolidation process. To examine this hypothesis, we first observed the distribution of MIP II, a major peptide of MIPs, and MIP receptor and determined the amounts of their mRNAs in the CNS. MIP II was only observed in the light green cells in the cerebral ganglia, but the MIP receptor was distributed throughout the entire CNS, including the buccal ganglia. Next, when we applied exogenous mammalian insulin, secretions from MIP-containing cells or partially purified MIPs, to the isolated CNS, we observed a long-term change in synaptic efficacy (i.e., enhancement) of the synaptic connection between the cerebral giant cell (a key interneuron for CTA) and the B1 motor neuron (a buccal motor neuron). This synaptic enhancement was blocked by application of an insulin receptor antibody to the isolated CNS. Finally, injection of the insulin receptor antibody into the snail before CTA training, while not blocking the acquisition of taste aversion learning, blocked the memory consolidation process; thus, LTM was not observed. These data suggest that MIPs trigger changes in synaptic connectivity that may be correlated with the consolidation of taste aversion learning into CTA-LTM in the Lymnaea CNS.
Project description:An emerging concept in transcriptional regulation is that a class of truncated transcription factors (TFs), called microProteins (miPs), engages in protein-protein interactions with TF complexes and provides feedback controls. A handful of miP examples have been described in the literature but the extent of their prevalence is unclear. Here we present an algorithm that predicts miPs and their target TFs from a sequenced genome. The algorithm is called miP prediction program (miP3), which is implemented in Python. The software will help shed light on the prevalence, biological roles, and evolution of miPs. Moreover, miP3 can be used to predict other types of miP-like proteins that may have evolved from other functional classes such as kinases and receptors. The program is freely available and can be applied to any sequenced genome.
Project description:Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), commonly known as aquaporins, transport not only water in plants but also other substrates of physiological significance and heavy metals. In most of the higher plants, MIPs are divided into five subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs). Herein, we identified 68, 42, 38 and 28 full-length MIPs, respectively in the genomes of four monocot grass plants, specifically Panicum virgatum, Setaria italica, Sorghum bicolor and Brachypodium distachyon. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the grass plants had only four MIP subfamilies including PIPs, TIPs, NIPs and SIPs without XIPs. Based on structural analysis of the homology models and comparing the primary selectivity-related motifs [two NPA regions, aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter and Froger's positions (FPs)] of all plant MIPs that have been experimentally proven to transport non-aqua substrates, we predicted the transport profiles of all MIPs in the four grass plants and also in eight other plants. Groups of MIP subfamilies based on ar/R selectivity filter and FPs were linked to the non-aqua transport profiles. We further deciphered the substrate selectivity profiles of the MIPs in the four grass plants and compared them with their counterparts in rice, maize, soybean, poplar, cotton, Arabidopsis thaliana, Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii. In addition to two NPA regions, ar/R filter and FPs, certain residues, especially in loops B and C, contribute to the functional distinctiveness of MIP groups. Expression analysis of transcripts in different organs indicated that non-aqua transport was related to expression of MIPs since most of the unexpressed MIPs were not predicted to facilitate the transport of non-aqua molecules. Among all MIPs in every plant, TIP (BdTIP1;1, SiTIP1;2, SbTIP2;1 and PvTIP1;2) had the overall highest mean expression. Our study generates significant information for understanding the diversity, evolution, non-aqua transport profiles and insight into comparative transport selectivity of plant MIPs, and provides tools for the development of transgenic plants.