Time-cumulated blood pressure exposure and incident impairment of glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT: With the marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, it was the purpose of our study to assess a potential association of time-cumulated exposure to systolic (CumSBP) and of diastolic blood pressure (CumDBP) with onset of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus.The prospective investigation included participants of the longitudinal Kailuan Study with three baseline examinations in 2006-2007, 2008-2009 and 2010-2011, re-examination in 2012-2013, and no diabetes mellitus at baseline. Cumulative blood pressure (BP) was calculated as cumBP = [(BP1 + BP2)/2 × time1-2] + [(BP2 + BP3)/2 × time2-3]. Based on cumSBP, the study population was stratified into four groups (cumSBP < 480mmHgxyear;n = 15,339; 480mmHgxyear ? cumSBP < 520mmHgxyear;n = 7214; 520mmHgxyears ? cumSBP < 560mmHgxyears;n = 5675; and cumSBP ? 560mmHgxyears;n = 10,576).After adjusting for demographic, anthropomorphic, biochemical, socioeconomic and lifestyle parameters and as compared with the first group, the second, third and fourth group showed a significantly higher incidence of diabetes (P-trend < 0.001;hazard ratio (HR);95% confidence interval (CI):1.28(1.08,1.51),1.54(1.29,1.84), and 2.33(1.98,2.73), respectively), higher incidence of impairment of glucose tolerance (P-trend < 0.001;HR;95% CI1.17(1.02,1.33), 1.43(1.25,1.64), and 2.09(1.85,2.37), respectively), and higher incidence of diabetes developing out of an impairment of glucose tolerance (P-trend < 0.001;HR;95% CI:1.22(0.97,1.54),1.47(1.16,1.86), and 2.01(1.62,2.50), respectively). An increase in cumSBP by 10 mmHg/year or an increase in cumDBP by 5 mmHg/year was associated with a hazard ratio of incident diabetes of 1.04 (95% CI:1.03,1.04) and 1.02(1.02,1.03), respectively, with a hazard ratio of incident impairment of glucose tolerance of 1.04(95% CI:1.03,1.04) and 1.03(95% CI:1.02,1.03), respectively, and with a hazard ratio of incident diabetes developing from impairment of glucose tolerance of 1.04(95% CI:1.03,1.04) and 1.03(95% CI:1.02,1.03), respectively.Time-cumulated exposure to elevated blood pressure was significantly associated with an elevated incidence of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to compare the children's body mass index (BMI) growth between offspring exposed to maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those not exposed, and assess the associations between maternal hyperglycemia and their offspring's overweight risk from 1 to 6 years of age. METHODS:Using the healthcare records data from the Tianjin Maternal and Child Healthcare System, we conducted a population-based cohort study, which is composed of 27,155 mother-child pairs with all mothers undergoing GDM screening test in pregnancy. RESULTS:After adjustment for maternal and children's characteristics, children born to mothers with abnormal glucose (including GDM or abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT) but normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results) during pregnancy had higher mean values of Z-scores for BMI for age at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 years of age, in comparison with those born to mothers with normal glucose (all P values?<?0.05). Moreover, maternal abnormal glucose was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight with multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.14), 1.09 (95% CI 1.04-1.15), 1.10 (95% CI 1.04-1.15), 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.14), 1.08 (95% 1.03-1.13), and 1.07 (95% 1.02-1.12) at 1-6 years of age compared with children of mothers with normal glucose. CONCLUSIONS:Abnormal maternal glucose tolerance during pregnancy was independently associated with children's higher BMI and overweight risk from 1 to 6 years of age. Women with positive GCT results but negative OGTT can be neglected by the health system. More attention should be paid to the health of these mothers and their offspring.
Project description:Low phosphate and high calcium concentrations have been linked to altered glucose tolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of calcium and phosphate levels and the calcium-phosphate product with the development of type 2 diabetes.Participants were 863 African-Americans, Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study who were free of diabetes at baseline. The mean follow-up period was 5.2 years. The insulin sensitivity index (SI) and acute insulin response (AIR) were directly measured using the frequently sampled IVGTT.Calcium concentration (OR per 1 SD unit increase, 1.26 [95% CI 1.04, 1.53]) and calcium-phosphate product (OR 1.29 [95% CI 1.04, 1.59]) were associated with incident diabetes after adjustment for demographic variables, family history of diabetes, and 2 h glucose. The relationship between phosphate concentration and progression to diabetes was close to statistical significance (OR 1.21 [95% CI 0.98, 1.49]). Calcium concentration (OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.09, 1.72]) and calcium-phosphate product (OR 1.39 [95% CI 1.09, 1.77]) remained associated with incident diabetes after additional adjustment for BMI, plasma glucose, SI, AIR, C-reactive protein, estimated GFR, diuretic drugs and total calcium intake.Elevated serum calcium and calcium-phosphate product are associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes independently of measured glucose, insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Future studies need to analyse the role of calcium-phosphate homeostasis in the pathophysiology of diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To assess the impact of changes in different glucose tolerance states on risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS:A total of 4094 Iranians (43.9% men) aged???30 years, without diabetes and CVD at enrolment were included. The following categories were defined both at baseline visit and 3 years later (second visit): normal fasting glucose (NFG), normal glucose tolerance (NGT), NFG and NGT (NFG/NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and IFG and/or IGT (IFG/IGT). Changes in the categories, i.e. regression to normoglycemia, remaining in previous status and progression to diabetes were assessed. We used Cox's proportional hazard models adjusted for traditional risk factors and their changes, to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of different changing categories for incident CVD/CHD. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 12.42 years, 428 subjects (men?=?265) experienced CVD. Considering persistent NFG/NGT as reference, participants who shifted from NFG/NGT to IFG/IGT showed a lower hazard of CVD in the fully adjusted model, HR 0.72 [95% CI 0.52-0.996, P?=?0.048]. Moreover, subjects who shifted from IFG, IGT and IFG/IGT to diabetes had an increased risk of CVD/CHD. The risk however, was only statistically significant for those with IFG/IGT, 1.61 [(1.03-2.51), P?=?0.04] for CVD and 1.75 [(1.10-2.78), P?=?0.02] for CHD; considering IFG/IGT at both visits as reference. Furthermore, those who regressed from IFG/IGT to normoglycemia were at the same risk as those remained in IFG/IGT state, 1.12 [(0.79-1.60), P?=?0.52] for CVD and 1.04 [(0.70-1.53), P?=?0.85] for CHD. Among a subgroup of population with insulin data (n?=?803) those with insulin resistance (IR) that converted to diabetes showed a higher risk for CVD, 3.68 [(1.49-9.06), P?=?0.01] and CHD, 2.76 [(1.00-7.60), P?=?0.05] events in the fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS:Among participants with IFG, IGT or IFG/IGT at baseline, only those who developed diabetes had a higher risk of developing CVD/CHD. Persistent IFG/IGT was not associated with higher risk, compared with those reverted to normoglycemia. Moreover, subjects who converted from NFG/NGT to incident IFG/IGT showed a signal for lower risk of CVD/CHD.
Project description:The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) was a randomized controlled trial, which showed that it is possible to prevent type 2 diabetes by lifestyle changes. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the lifestyle intervention had an effect on the ten-year mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in the DPS participants originally randomized either into an intervention or control group. Furthermore, we compared these results with a population-based cohort comprising individuals of varying glucose tolerance states.Middle-aged, overweight people with IGT (n = 522) were randomized into intensive intervention (including physical activity, weight reduction and dietary counseling), or control "mini-intervention" group. Median length of the intervention period was 4 years and the mean follow-up was 10.6 years. The population-based reference study cohort included 1881 individuals (1570 with normal glucose tolerance, 183 with IGT, 59 with screen-detected type 2 diabetes, 69 with previously known type 2 diabetes) with the mean follow-up of 13.8 years. Mortality and cardiovascular morbidity data were collected from the national Hospital Discharge Register and Causes of Death Register. Among the DPS participants who consented for register linkage (n = 505), total mortality (2.2 vs. 3.8 per 1000 person years, hazard ratio HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.21-1.58) and cardiovascular morbidity (22.9 vs. 22.0 per 1000 person years, HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.72-1.51) did not differ significantly between the intervention and control groups. Compared with the population-based cohort with impaired glucose tolerance, adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.09-0.52) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.20-0.79) for total mortality, and 0.89 (95% CI 0.62-1.27) and 0.87 (0.60-1.27) for cardiovascular morbidity in the intervention and control groups of the DPS, respectively. The risk of death in DPS combined cohort was markedly lower than in FINRISK IGT cohort (adjusted HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.17-0.54), but there was no significant difference in the risk of CVD (adjusted HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.64-1.21).Lifestyle intervention among persons with IGT did not decrease cardiovascular morbidity during the first 10 years of follow-up. However, the statistical power may not be sufficient to detect small differences between the intervention and control groups. Low total mortality among participants of the DPS compared with individuals with IGT in the general population could be ascribed to a lower cardiovascular risk profile at baseline and regular follow-up.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We assessed the impact of adopting the 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria on the rates of gestational diabetes (GDM), pregnancy outcomes and identification of women at future risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS:During a period when the 1999 WHO GDM criteria were in effect, pregnant women were universally screened using a one-step 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 26-28 weeks' gestation. Women were retrospectively reclassified according to the 2013 criteria, but without the 1-h glycaemia measurement. Pregnancy outcomes and glucose tolerance at 4-5 years post-delivery were compared for women with GDM classified by the 1999 criteria alone, GDM by the 2013 criteria alone, GDM by both criteria and without GDM by both sets of criteria. RESULTS:Of 1092 women, 204 (18.7%) and 142 (13.0%) were diagnosed with GDM by the 1999 and 2013 WHO criteria, respectively, with 27 (2.5%) reclassified to GDM and 89 (8.2%) reclassified to non-GDM when shifting from the 1999 to 2013 criteria. Compared to women without GDM by both criteria, cases reclassified to GDM by the 2013 criteria had an increased risk of neonatal jaundice requiring phototherapy (relative risk (RR)?=?2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32, 5.86); despite receiving treatment for GDM, cases reclassified to non-GDM by the 2013 criteria had higher risks of prematurity (RR?=?2.17, 95% CI 1.12, 4.24), neonatal hypoglycaemia (RR?=?3.42, 95% CI 1.04, 11.29), jaundice requiring phototherapy (RR?=?1.71, 95% CI 1.04, 2.82), and a higher rate of abnormal glucose tolerance at 4-5 years post-delivery (RR?=?3.39, 95% CI 2.30, 5.00). CONCLUSIONS:Adoption of the 2013 WHO criteria, without the 1-h glycaemia measurement, reduced the GDM rate. Lowering the fasting glucose threshold identified women who might benefit from treatment, but raising the 2-h threshold may fail to identify women at increased risk of adverse pregnancy and future metabolic outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01174875 . Registered 1 July 2010 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pregnant women commonly receive screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by use of a 50 g glucose challenge test, followed by a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test for those whose glucose challenge test result is abnormal. Although women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it is not known whether mild glucose intolerance during pregnancy is also associated with cardiovascular disease. Thus, we sought to determine whether pregnant women with an abnormal glucose challenge test result but without gestational diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study that included all women in Ontario aged 20-49 years with live deliveries between April 1994 and March 1998. We excluded women with pregestational diabetes. The population was stratified into 3 cohorts: women with gestational diabetes (n = 13,888); women who received an antepartum oral glucose tolerance test (suggestive of an abnormal result of the glucose challenge test) but who did not have gestational diabetes (n = 71,831); and women who did not receive an oral glucose tolerance test (suggestive of a normal result of the glucose challenge test) (n = 349,977). The primary outcome was cardiovascular disease (admission to hospital for acute myocardial infarction, coronary bypass, coronary angioplasty, stroke or carotid endarterectomy). RESULTS: Compared with women who did not receive an oral glucose tolerance test, women with gestational diabetes and women who received an oral glucose tolerance test but did not have gestational diabetes had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease over 12.3 years of median follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for women with gestational diabetes 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-2.13, p < 0.001; adjusted HR for those with an oral glucose test but not gestational diabetes 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.39, p = 0.03). INTERPRETATION: Mild glucose intolerance in pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypertension is more prevalent in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but whether higher blood pressure per se or the mild hyperglycemia in combination with the hypertension enhanced the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. METHODS:Five hundred and sixty-eight participants with IGT in the original Daqing diabetes prevention study, 297 with hypertension (HBP) and 271 without hypertension (NBP), were enrolled in 1986 and the intervention phase lasted for 6 years. In 2009, they were followed up to assess the outcomes of cardiovascular events (including stroke and myocardial infarction) and incidence of diabetes. RESULTS:Over 23 years, the incidence of diabetes was 93.9/1000 person-years in HBP and 72.2/1000 person-years in the NBP group, with an age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.54, P = 0.02). The yearly incidence of CVD events was 27.7/1000 person-years and 16.6/1000 person-years, indicating a 35% higher risk in HBP than in the NBP group (95% CI, 1.01-1.81; P = 0.04). Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that a 10-mm Hg increase of the baseline systolic blood pressure was associated with 9% increased risk of the development of diabetes (P = 0.02), together with a 7% higher risk of the CVD events (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:Hypertension predicted diabetes and enhances long-term risk of CVD events in patients with IGT. An individualized strategy that targets hypertension as well as hyperglycemia is needed for diabetes and its cardiovascular complications.
Project description:The reasons for the increased risk of gestational diabetes among South Asian women are not well understood. We sought to identify the determinants of gestational diabetes and its impact on newborn health in a prospective birth cohort of South Asian women and their babies.As part of the South Asian Birth Cohort (START) prospective birth cohort study in Ontario, we recruited 1012 South Asian women with singleton pregnancies in the second trimester of pregnancy between July 11, 2011, and Nov. 10, 2015. We collected health information and physical measurements and administered an oral glucose tolerance test. Birth weight and skinfold thickness measurements were obtained from their newborns, and cord blood glucose and insulin levels were measured.The incidence of gestational diabetes was 36.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33.3%-39.3%); the age-standardized rate was 40.7%. Factors associated with gestational diabetes included maternal age (odds ratio [OR] 1.08 [95% CI 1.04-1.12]), family history of diabetes (OR 1.65 [95% CI 1.26-2.17]), prepregnancy weight (OR 1.025 [95% CI 1.01-1.04]) and low diet quality (OR 1.57 [95% CI 1.16-2.12]). Maternal height was protective against gestational diabetes (OR 0.97 [95% CI 0.95-0.99]). The population attributable risk due to prepregnancy body mass index and low diet quality was 37.3%. Compared to newborns of women without gestational diabetes, those of women with gestational diabetes had a significantly higher birth weight (3267 [standard error (SE) 23] g v. 3181 [SE 17] g, p = 0.005), greater skinfold thickness (11.7 [SE 0.1] mm v. 11.2 [SE 0.1] mm, p = 0.007) and lower insulin sensitivity (glucose/insulin ratio 0.092 [SE 0.009] mmol/pmol v. 0.129 [SE 0.006] mmol/pmol, p = 0.001).The modifiable risk factors of prepregnancy weight and low diet quality accounted for 37% of the population attributable risk of gestational diabetes in our cohort. Intervention studies to lower prepregnancy weight and to prevent gestational diabetes among South Asian women in high-income countries are needed.
Project description:This study aimed to explore the risk of dementia in a middle- and older-aged population with severe or profound hearing impairments. Data were collected for the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort from 2002 to 2013. Participants aged 40 or older were selected. The 4,432 severely hearing-impaired participants were matched 1:4 with 17,728 controls, and the 958 profoundly hearing-impaired participants were matched 1:4 with 3,832 controls who had not reported any hearing impairment. Age, sex, income, region of residence, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia histories were matched between hearing-impaired and control groups. The crude (simple) and adjusted (age, sex, income, region of residence, dementia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and depression) hazard ratios (HRs) of hearing impairment on dementia were analyzed using Cox-proportional hazard models. The severe hearing impairment group showed an increased risk of dementia (adjusted HR?=?1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.04-1.31, P?=?0.010). The profound hearing impairment group also showed an increased risk of dementia (adjusted HR?=?1.51, 95% CI?=?1.14-2.00, P?=?0.004). Both severe and profound hearing impairments were associated with elevated the risk of dementia in middle- and older-aged individuals.
Project description:PURPOSE:To test the hypothesis that diabetes-related factors (metabolic syndrome [MetS], glucose, insulin, and leptin) are inversely associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) risk. METHODS:We followed 13,736 participants, aged 45-64 years, without prior AAA surgery at baseline (1987-1989), for AAA occurrence through 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of AAA were calculated using Cox regression. RESULTS:During 275,054 person-years of follow-up, we identified 518 AAA events. Fasting serum glucose was associated inversely with AAA risk (HR [95% CI] per one unit increment in log2(glucose), 0.54 [0.36-0.80]), but fasting insulin was not associated with AAA. Plasma leptin was also associated inversely with AAA occurrence (HR [95% CI] per one unit increment in log2(leptin), 0.83 [0.71-0.98]). Compared with individuals without MetS, those with MetS had increased risk of AAA (HR [95% CI], 1.24 [1.04-1.48]). Among individuals with or without diabetes, the HRs increased monotonically with a greater number of non-glucose MetS components. CONCLUSIONS:Diabetes, fasting glucose, and plasma leptin were inversely associated with risk of AAA. In contrast, the MetS was associated with increased risk of AAA, due to the influence of the non-glucose MetS components.