Role of sphingosine kinase/S1P axis in ECM remodeling of cardiac cells elicited by relaxin.
ABSTRACT: The initiation and progression of heart failure is linked to adverse cardiac remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during disease mainly through the deregulation of myocardial metalloproteinases (MMPs). Relaxin (RLX), a peptide hormone acting as a physiological cardiac effector, is a key regulator of ECM remodeling in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues. Studying primary cultures of mouse cardiac muscle cells and rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, we have obtained evidence for a new signaling pathway activated by RLX to induce ECM remodeling that involves the bioactive sphingolipids sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide. In both cell populations, recombinant human RLX increased sphingosine kinase activity and S1P formation, whereas sphingomyelin and ceramide content were decreased in [(3)H]serine-labeled cells. According to the literature, RLX promoted MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression/release. Pharmacological inhibition of sphingolipid metabolism and silencing of sphingosine kinase 1, the enzyme responsible for S1P formation, were able to prevent MMP expression/release elicited by the hormone and induce the expression of tissue inhibitor of MMPs. In addition, we found that sphingolipid signaling is required for the regulation of connective tissue growth factor, a member of the CCN 1-3 family of genes that are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Finally, the induction of cardiomyoblast maturation induced by RLX was also found to be counteracted by inhibition of S1P formation. In conclusion, these findings provide a novel mechanism by which RLX acts on cardiac ECM remodeling and cardiac cell differentiation and offer interesting therapeutic options to prevent heart fibrosis and to favor myocardial regeneration.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that sphingolipid metabolism is altered during type 2 diabetes. Increased levels of the sphingolipid ceramide are associated with insulin resistance. However, a role for sphingolipids in pancreatic beta cell function, or insulin production, and release remains to be established. Our studies in MIN6 cells and mouse pancreatic islets demonstrate that glucose stimulates an intracellular rise in the sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), whereas the levels of ceramide and sphingomyelin remain unchanged. The increase in S1P levels by glucose is due to activation of sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2). Interestingly, rises in S1P correlate with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Decreasing S1P levels by treatment of MIN6 cells or primary islets with the sphingosine kinase inhibitor reduces GSIS. Moreover, knockdown of SphK2 alone results in decreased GSIS, whereas knockdown of the S1P phosphatase, Sgpp1, leads to a rise in GSIS. Treatment of mice with the sphingosine kinase inhibitor impairs glucose disposal due to decreased plasma insulin levels. Altogether, our data suggest that glucose activates SphK2 in pancreatic beta cells leading to a rise in S1P levels, which is important for GSIS.
Project description:The cleavage of sphingoid base phosphates by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase to produce phosphoethanolamine and a fatty aldehyde is the final degradative step in the sphingolipid metabolic pathway. We have studied mice with an inactive S1P lyase gene and have found that, in addition to the expected increase of sphingoid base phosphates, other sphingolipids (including sphingosine, ceramide, and sphingomyelin) were substantially elevated in the serum and /or liver of these mice. This latter increase is consistent with a reutilization of the sphingosine backbone for sphingolipid synthesis due to its inability to exit the sphingolipid metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the S1P lyase deficiency resulted in changes in the levels of serum and liver lipids not directly within the sphingolipid pathway, including phospholipids, triacyglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol. Even though lipids in serum and lipid storage were elevated in liver, adiposity was reduced in the S1P lyase-deficient mice. Microarray analysis of lipid metabolism genes in liver showed that the S1P lyase deficiency caused widespread changes in their expression pattern. These results demonstrate that S1P lyase is a key regulator of the levels of multiple sphingolipid substrates and reveal functional links between the sphingolipid metabolic pathway and other lipid metabolic pathways that may be mediated by shared lipid substrates and changes in gene expression programs. The disturbance of lipid homeostasis by altered sphingolipid levels may be relevant to metabolic diseases. Experiment Overall Design: RNA samples from liver for three sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase knock-out and three WT mice.
Project description:The cleavage of sphingoid base phosphates by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase to produce phosphoethanolamine and a fatty aldehyde is the final degradative step in the sphingolipid metabolic pathway. We have studied mice with an inactive S1P lyase gene and have found that, in addition to the expected increase of sphingoid base phosphates, other sphingolipids (including sphingosine, ceramide, and sphingomyelin) were substantially elevated in the serum and /or liver of these mice. This latter increase is consistent with a reutilization of the sphingosine backbone for sphingolipid synthesis due to its inability to exit the sphingolipid metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the S1P lyase deficiency resulted in changes in the levels of serum and liver lipids not directly within the sphingolipid pathway, including phospholipids, triacyglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol. Even though lipids in serum and lipid storage were elevated in liver, adiposity was reduced in the S1P lyase-deficient mice. Microarray analysis of lipid metabolism genes in liver showed that the S1P lyase deficiency caused widespread changes in their expression pattern. These results demonstrate that S1P lyase is a key regulator of the levels of multiple sphingolipid substrates and reveal functional links between the sphingolipid metabolic pathway and other lipid metabolic pathways that may be mediated by shared lipid substrates and changes in gene expression programs. The disturbance of lipid homeostasis by altered sphingolipid levels may be relevant to metabolic diseases. Overall design: RNA samples from liver for three sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase knock-out and three WT mice.
Project description:Sphingolipids, including the two central bioactive lipids ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have opposing roles in regulating cancer cell death and survival, respectively, and there have been exciting developments in understanding how sphingolipid metabolism and signalling regulate these processes in response to anticancer therapy. Recent studies have provided mechanistic details of the roles of sphingolipids and their downstream targets in the regulation of tumour growth and response to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or immunotherapy using innovative molecular, genetic and pharmacological tools to target sphingolipid signalling nodes in cancer cells. For example, structure-function-based studies have provided innovative opportunities to develop mechanism-based anticancer therapeutic strategies to restore anti-proliferative ceramide signalling and/or inhibit pro-survival S1P-S1P receptor (S1PR) signalling. This Review summarizes how ceramide-induced cellular stress mediates cancer cell death through various mechanisms involving the induction of apoptosis, necroptosis and/or mitophagy. Moreover, the metabolism of ceramide for S1P biosynthesis, which is mediated by sphingosine kinase 1 and 2, and its role in influencing cancer cell growth, drug resistance and tumour metastasis through S1PR-dependent or receptor-independent signalling are highlighted. Finally, studies targeting enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism and/or signalling and their clinical implications for improving cancer therapeutics are also presented.
Project description:Previous studies demonstrated that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) phosphohydrolase 1 (SPP-1), which is located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), regulates sphingolipid metabolism and apoptosis (H. Le Stunff et al., J. Cell Biol. 158:1039-1049, 2002). We show here that the treatment of SPP-1-overexpressing cells with S1P, but not with dihydro-S1P, increased all ceramide species, particularly the long-chain ceramides. This was not due to inhibition of ceramide metabolism to sphingomyelin or monohexosylceramides but rather to the inhibition of ER-to-Golgi trafficking, determined with the fluorescent ceramide analog N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-d-erythro-sphingosine (DMB-Cer). Fumonisin B1, an inhibitor of ceramide synthase, prevented S1P-induced elevation of all ceramide species and corrected the defect in ER transport of DMB-Cer, readily allowing its detection in the Golgi. In contrast, ceramide accumulation had no effect on either the trafficking or the metabolism of 6-([N-(7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl)-sphingosine, which rapidly labels the Golgi even at 4 degrees C. Protein trafficking from the ER to the Golgi, determined with vesicular stomatitis virus ts045 G protein fused to green fluorescent protein, was also inhibited in SPP-1-overexpressing cells in the presence of S1P but not in the presence of dihydro-S1P. Our results suggest that SPP-1 regulates ceramide levels in the ER and thus influences the anterograde membrane transport of both ceramide and proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus.
Project description:The role of "sphingolipid rheostat" by ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in the regulation of autophagy remains unclear. In human leukemia HL-60 cells, amino acid deprivation (AA(-)) caused autophagy with an increase in acid sphingomyleinase (SMase) activity and ceramide, which serves as an autophagy inducing lipid. Knockdown of acid SMase significantly suppressed the autophagy induction. S1P treatment counteracted autophagy induction by AA(-) or C(2)-ceramide. AA(-) treatment promoted mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dephosphorylation/inactivation, inducing autophagy. S1P treatment suppressed mTOR inactivation and autophagy induction by AA(-). S1P exerts biological actions via cell surface receptors, and S1P(3) among five S1P receptors was predominantly expressed in HL-60 cells. We evaluated the involvement of S1P(3) in suppressing autophagy induction. S1P treatment of CHO cells had no effects on mTOR inactivation and autophagy induction by AA(-) or C(2)-ceramide. Whereas S1P treatment of S1P(3) overexpressing CHO cells resulted in activation of the mTOR pathway, preventing cells from undergoing autophagy induced by AA(-) or C(2)-ceramide. These results indicate that S1P-S1P(3) plays a role in counteracting ceramide signals that mediate mTOR-controlled autophagy. In addition, we evaluated the involvement of ceramide-activated protein phosphatases (CAPPs) in ceramide-dependent inactivation of the mTOR pathway. Inhibition of CAPP by okadaic acid in AA(-)- or C(2)-ceramide-treated cells suppressed dephosphorylation/inactivation of mTOR, autophagy induction, and autophagy-associated cell death, indicating a novel role of ceramide-CAPPs in autophagy induction. Moreover, S1P(3) engagement by S1P counteracted cell death. Taken together, these results indicated that sphingolipid rheostat in ceramide-CAPPs and S1P-S1P(3) signaling modulates autophagy and its associated cell death through regulation of the mTOR pathway.
Project description:p53 is a crucial tumor suppressor that is mutated or deleted in a majority of cancers. Exactly how p53 prevents tumor progression has proved elusive for many years; however, this information is crucial to define targets for chemotherapeutic development that can effectively restore p53 function. Bioactive sphingolipids have recently emerged as important regulators of proliferative, apoptotic and senescent cellular processes. In this study, we demonstrate that the enzyme sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1), a critical enzyme in the regulation of the key bioactive sphingolipids ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), serves as a key downstream target for p53 action. Our results show that SK1 is proteolysed in response to genotoxic stress in a p53-dependent manner. p53 null mice display elevation of SK1 levels and a tumor-promoting dysregulation of bioactive sphingolipids in which the anti-growth sphingolipid ceramide is decreased and the pro-growth sphingolipid S1P is increased. Importantly, deletion of SK1 in p53 null mice completely abrogated thymic lymphomas in these mice and prolonged their life span by ~30%. Deletion of SK1 also significantly attenuated the formation of other cancers in p53 heterozygote mice. The mechanism of p53 tumor suppression by loss of SK1 is mediated by elevations of sphingosine and ceramide, which in turn were accompanied by increased expression of cell cycle inhibitors and tumor cell senescence. Thus, targeting SK1 may restore sphingolipid homeostasis in p53-dependent tumors and provide insights into novel therapeutic approaches to cancer.
Project description:Ceramidases hydrolyze ceramides into sphingosine and fatty acids, with sphingosine being further metabolized into sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P); thus, ceramidases control the levels of these bioactive sphingolipids in cells and tissues. Neutral ceramidase (nCDase) is highly expressed in colorectal tissues, and a recent report showed that nCDase activity is involved in Wnt/?-catenin signaling. In addition, the inhibition of nCDase decreases the development and progression of colorectal tumor growth. Here, to determine the action of nCDase in colorectal cancer cells, we focused on the subcellular localization and metabolic functions of this enzyme in HCT116 cells. nCDase was found to be located in both the plasma membrane and in the Golgi apparatus, but it had minimal effects on basal levels of ceramide, sphingosine, or S1P. Cells overexpressing nCDase were protected from the cell death and Golgi fragmentation induced by C6-ceramide, and they showed reduced levels of C6-ceramide and higher levels of S1P and sphingosine. Furthermore, compartment-specific metabolic functions of the enzyme were probed using C6-ceramide and Golgi-targeted bacterial SMase (bSMase) and bacterial ceramidase (bCDase). The results showed that Golgi-specific bCDase also demonstrated resistance against the cell death stimulated by C6-ceramide, and it catalyzed the metabolism of ceramides and produced sphingosine in the Golgi. Targeting bSMase to the Golgi resulted in increased levels of ceramide that were attenuated by the expression of nCDase, also supporting its ability to metabolize Golgi-generated ceramide. These results are critical in understanding the functions of nCDase actions in colorectal cancer cells as well as the compartmentalized pathways of sphingolipid metabolism.
Project description:We have recently shown that major alterations of serum sphingolipid metabolites in chronic liver disease associate significantly with the stage of liver fibrosis in corresponding patients. In the current study we assessed via mass spectrometry serum concentrations of sphingolipid metabolites in a series of 122 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to an age- and sex-matched series of 127 patients with cirrhosis. We observed a highly significant upregulation of long and very long chain ceramides (C16-C24) in the serum of patients with HCC as compared to patients with cirrhosis (P < 0.001). Accordingly, dihydro-ceramides, synthetic precursors of ceramides and notably sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and sphinganine-1-phosphate (SA1P) were upregulated in patients with HCC (P < 0.001). Especially the diagnostic accuracy of C16-ceramide and S1P, assessed by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis, showed a higher area under the curve (AUC) value as compared to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) (0.999 and 0.985 versus 0.823, P < 0.001 respectively). In conclusion, serum levels of sphingolipid metabolites show a significant upregulation in patients with HCC as compared to patients with cirrhosis. Particularly C16-ceramide and S1P may serve as novel diagnostic markers for the identification of HCC in patients with liver diseases. Our data justify further investigations on the role of sphingolipids in HCC.
Project description:Bioactive sphingolipids are emerging as key regulators of vascular function and homeostasis. While most of the clinical studies have been devoted to profile circulating sphingolipids in maternal plasma, little is known about the role of the sphingolipid at the feto-placental vasculature, which is in direct contact with the offspring circulation. Our study aims to compare the sphingolipid profile of normal with preeclamptic (PE) placental chorionic arteries and isolated endothelial cells, with the goal of unveiling potential underlying pathomechanisms in the vasculature. Dihydrosphingosine and sphingomyelin (SM) concentrations (C16:0-, C18:0-, and C24:0- sphingomyelin) were significantly increased in chorionic arteries of preeclamptic placentas, whereas total ceramide, although showing a downward trend, were not statistically different. Moreover, RNA and immunofluorescence analysis showed impaired sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) synthesis and signaling in PE vessels. Our data reveal that the exposure to a deranged maternal intrauterine environment during PE alters the sphingolipid signature and gene expression on the fetal side of the placental vasculature. This pathological remodeling consists in increased serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) activity and SM accrual in PE chorionic arteries, with concomitance impairment endothelial S1P signaling in the endothelium of these vessels. The increase of endothelial S1P phosphatase, lyase and S1PR2, and blunted S1PR1 expression support the onset of the pathological phenotype in chorionic arteries.