Imaging chromatin nanostructure with binding-activated localization microscopy based on DNA structure fluctuations.
ABSTRACT: Advanced light microscopy is an important tool for nanostructure analysis of chromatin. In this report we present a general concept for Single Molecule localization Microscopy (SMLM) super-resolved imaging of DNA-binding dyes based on modifying the properties of DNA and the dye. By careful adjustment of the chemical environment leading to local, reversible DNA melting and hybridization control over the fluorescence signal of the DNA-binding dye molecules can be introduced. We postulate a transient binding as the basis for our variation of binding-activated localization microscopy (BALM). We demonstrate that several intercalating and minor-groove binding DNA dyes can be used to register (optically isolate) only a few DNA-binding dye signals at a time. To highlight this DNA structure fluctuation-assisted BALM (fBALM), we applied it to measure, for the first time, nanoscale differences in nuclear architecture in model ischemia with an anticipated structural resolution of approximately 50 nm. Our data suggest that this approach may open an avenue for the enhanced microscopic analysis of chromatin nano-architecture and hence the microscopic analysis of nuclear structure aberrations occurring in various pathological conditions. It may also become possible to analyse nuclear nanostructure differences in different cell types, stages of development or environmental stress conditions.
Project description:Several approaches have been described to fluorescently label and image DNA and chromatin in situ on the single-molecule level. These superresolution microscopy techniques are based on detecting optically isolated, fluorescently tagged anti-histone antibodies, fluorescently labeled DNA precursor analogs, or fluorescent dyes bound to DNA. Presently they suffer from various drawbacks such as low labeling efficiency or interference with DNA structure. In this report, we demonstrate that DNA minor groove binding dyes, such as Hoechst 33258, Hoechst 33342, and DAPI, can be effectively employed in single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) with high optical and structural resolution. Upon illumination with low intensity 405 nm light, a small subpopulation of these molecules stochastically undergoes photoconversion from the original blue-emitting form to a green-emitting form. Using a 491 nm laser excitation, fluorescence of these green-emitting, optically isolated molecules was registered until "bleached". This procedure facilitated substantially the optical isolation and localization of large numbers of individual dye molecules bound to DNA in situ, in nuclei of fixed mammalian cells, or in mitotic chromosomes, and enabled the reconstruction of high-quality DNA density maps. We anticipate that this approach will provide new insights into DNA replication, DNA repair, gene transcription, and other nuclear processes.
Project description:Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM) is a recently emerged optical imaging method that was shown to achieve a resolution in the order of tens of nanometers in intact cells. Novel high resolution imaging methods might be crucial for understanding of how the chromatin, a complex of DNA and proteins, is arranged in the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Such an approach utilizing switching of a fluorescent, DNA-binding dye Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet has been previously demonstrated by us (?urek-Biesiada et al., 2015) . Here we provide quantitative information on the influence of the chemical environment on the behavior of the dye, discuss the variability in the DNA-associated signal density, and demonstrate direct proof of enhanced structural resolution. Furthermore, we compare different visualization approaches. Finally, we describe various opportunities of multicolor DNA/SMLM imaging in eukaryotic cell nuclei.
Project description:Background:Super-resolution single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is a method for achieving resolution beyond the classical limit in optical microscopes (approx. 200 nm laterally). Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) has been used for super-resolution single molecule localization microscopy, but less frequently than other fluorescent probes. Working with YFP in SMLM is a challenge because a lower number of photons are emitted per molecule compared with organic dyes, which are more commonly used. Publically available experimental data can facilitate development of new data analysis algorithms. Findings:Four complete, freely available single molecule super-resolution microscopy datasets on YFP-tagged growth factor receptors expressed in a human cell line are presented, including both raw and analyzed data. We report methods for sample preparation, for data acquisition, and for data analysis, as well as examples of the acquired images. We also analyzed the SMLM datasets using a different method: super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). The 2 modes of analysis offer complementary information about the sample. A fifth single molecule super-resolution microscopy dataset acquired with the dye Alexa 532 is included for comparison purposes. Conclusions:This dataset has potential for extensive reuse. Complete raw data from SMLM experiments have typically not been published. The YFP data exhibit low signal-to-noise ratios, making data analysis a challenge. These datasets will be useful to investigators developing their own algorithms for SMLM, SOFI, and related methods. The data will also be useful for researchers investigating growth factor receptors such as ErbB3.
Project description:Fluoromodules are discrete complexes of biomolecules and fluorogenic dyes. Binding of the dyes to their cognate biomolecule partners results in enhanced dye fluorescence. We exploited a previously reported promiscuous binding interaction between a single-chain, variable fragment antibody protein and a family of cyanine dyes to create new protein-dye fluoromodules that exhibit enhanced photostability while retaining high affinity protein-dye binding. Modifications to the dye structure included electron-withdrawing groups that provide resistance to photo-oxidative damage. Low nanomolar equilibrium dissociation constants were found for the new dyes. Fluorescence microscopy illustrates how yeast can be surface-labeled with three different colors based on a single protein and appropriately chosen dyes.
Project description:Rhodamine spirolactam based photoswitches have been extensively applied in super-resolution single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM). However, the ring-opening reactions of spirolactams are cross-sensitive to acid, limiting their photoswitch use to neutral pH conditions. In addition, the ring-closing reactions of spirolactams are environment-sensitive and slow (up to hours), virtually making rhodamine spirolactams caged fluorescent dyes instead of reversible photoswitches in SMLM. Herein, by introducing hydrogen bonds to stabilize spirolactams, we report a series of acid-resistant rhodamine spirolactams with accelerated ring-closing reactions from fluorescent xanthyliums to non-fluorescent spirolactams, endowing them with good photoswitchable properties even in acidic environments. By further substitution of 6-phenylethynyl naphthalimide on the spirolactam, we shifted the photoactivation wavelength into the visible region (>400 nm). Subsequently, we have successfully applied these dyes in labeling and imaging the cell surface of Bacillus subtilis at pH 4.5 using SMLM.
Project description:Staining compounds containing heavy elements (electron dyes) can facilitate the visualization of DNA and related biomolecules by using TEM. However, research into the synthesis and utilization of alternative electron dyes has been limited. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel DNA intercalator molecule, bis-acridine uranyl (BAU). NMR spectroscopy and MS confirmed the validity of the synthetic strategy and gel electrophoresis verified the binding of BAU to DNA. For TEM imaging of DNA, two-dimensional DNA origami nanostructures were used as a robust microscopy test object. By using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging, which is favored over conventional wide-field TEM for improved contrast, and therefore, quantitative image analysis, it is found that the synthesized BAU intercalator can render DNA visible, even at the single-molecule scale. For comparison, other staining compounds with a purported affinity towards DNA, such as dichloroplatinum, cisplatin, osmium tetroxide, and uranyl acetate, have been evaluated. The STEM contrast is discussed in terms of the DNA-dye association constants, number of dye molecules bound per base pair, and the electron-scattering capacity of the metal-containing ligands. These findings pave the way for the future development of electron dyes with specific DNA-binding motifs for high-resolution TEM imaging.
Project description:Single Molecule Localization super-resolution Microscopy (SMLM) has become a powerful tool to study cellular architecture at the nanometer scale. In SMLM, single fluorophore labels are made to repeatedly switch on and off ("blink"), and their exact locations are determined by mathematically finding the centers of individual blinks. The image quality obtainable by SMLM critically depends on efficacy of blinking (brightness, fraction of molecules in the on-state) and on preparation longevity and labeling density. Recent work has identified several combinations of bright dyes and imaging buffers that work well together. Unfortunately, different dyes blink optimally in different imaging buffers, and acquisition of good quality 2- and 3-color images has therefore remained challenging. In this study we describe a new imaging buffer, OxEA, that supports 3-color imaging of the popular Alexa dyes. We also describe incremental improvements in preparation technique that significantly decrease lateral- and axial drift, as well as increase preparation longevity. We show that these improvements allow us to collect very large series of images from the same cell, enabling image stitching, extended 3D imaging as well as multi-color recording.
Project description:Mitochondrial DNA molecules coated with proteins form compact particles called mitochondrial nucleoids. They are redistributed within mitochondrial network undergoing morphological changes. The straightforward technique to characterize nucleoids' motions is fluorescence microscopy. Mitochondrial nucleoids are commonly labelled with fluorescent protein tags, which is not always feasible and was reported to cause artifacts. Organic DNA-binding dyes are free of these drawbacks, but they lack specificity to mitochondrial DNA. Here, considering physico-chemical properties of such dyes, we achieved preferential live-cell labelling of mitochondrial nucleoids by a nucleic acid staining dye SYBR Gold. It enabled time-lapse imaging of mitochondrial nucleoids by structured illumination microscopy and quantification of their motions.
Project description:Two new crescent-shaped unsymmetrical cyanine dyes have been synthesised and their interactions with DNA have been investigated by different spectroscopic methods. These dyes are analogues to a minor groove binding unsymmetrical cyanine dye, BEBO, recently reported by us. In this dye, the structure of the known intercalating cyanine dye BO was extended with a benzothiazole substituent. To investigate how the identity of the extending heterocycle affects the binding to DNA, the new dyes BETO and BOXTO have a benzothiazole group and a benzoxazole moiety, respectively. Whereas BEBO showed a heterogeneous binding to calf thymus DNA, linear and circular dichroism studies of BOXTO indicate a high preference for minor groove binding. BETO also binds in the minor groove to mixed sequence DNA but has a contribution of non-ordered and non-emissive species present. A non-intercalative binding mode of the new dyes, as well as for BEBO, is further supported by electrophoresis unwinding assays. These dyes, having comparable spectral properties as the intercalating cyanine dyes, but bind in the minor groove instead, might be useful complements for staining of DNA. In particular, the benzoxazole substituted dye BOXTO has attractive fluorescence properties with a quantum yield of 0.52 when bound to mixed sequence DNA and a 300-fold increase in fluorescence intensity upon binding.
Project description:Rational design of specific ratiometric viscosity probes with small molecular weight is a challenge in practical biotechnology applications. Herein two novel water-soluble, small-molecular ratiometric probes, bearing N-methyl benzothiazolium moiety (DSF and DBF), are designed for two-photon fluorescent imaging as a functional of local viscosity. The dye DSF, a light-up fluorescent probe, is sensitive to local viscosity and selectively stains nuclear DNA, which can be used to inspect asynchronous cells under confocal microscopy. While the dye DBF as a molecular rotor displays strong fluorescence enhancement in viscous media or binding to RNA. It exhibits dual absorption and emission as well, and only the red emission is markedly sensitive to viscosity changes, providing a ratiometric response and selectively imaging nucleolic and cytosolic RNA. Interestingly it is shown, for the first time, that the intracellular targeting and localization (DNA and RNA) of the two dyes are entirely realized simply by modifying the substituent attached to the benzothiazolium.