New Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Approaches Reveal Different ADP-ribosylation Phases Dependent On the Levels of Oxidative Stress.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a potent inducer of protein ADP-ribosylation. Although individual oxidative stress-induced ADP-ribosylated proteins have been identified, it is so far not clear to which extent different degrees of stress severity quantitatively and qualitatively alter ADP-ribosylation. Here, we investigated both quantitative and qualitative changes of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ADP-ribosylome using a label-free shotgun quantification and a parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mass spectrometry approach for a selected number of identified ADP-ribosylated peptides. Although the major part of the basal HeLa ADP-ribosylome remained unchanged upon all tested H2O2 concentrations, some selected peptides change the extent of ADP-ribosylation depending on the degree of the applied oxidative stress. Low oxidative stress (i.e. 4 ?m and 16 ?m H2O2) caused a reduction in ADP-ribosylation of modified proteins detected under untreated conditions. In contrast, mid to strong oxidative stress (62 ?m to 1 mm H2O2) induced a significant increase in ADP-ribosylation of oxidative stress-targeted proteins. The application of the PRM approach to SKOV3 and A2780, ovarian cancer cells displaying different sensitivities to PARP inhibitors, revealed that the basal and the H2O2-induced ADP-ribosylomes of SKOV3 and A2780 differed significantly and that the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors correlated with the level of ARTD1 expression in these cells. Overall, this new PRM-MS approach has proven to be sensitive in monitoring alterations of the ADP-ribosylome and has revealed unexpected alterations in proteins ADP-ribosylation depending on the degree of oxidative stress.
Project description:Oxidative stress is a potent inducer of protein ADP-ribosylation. Although the proteins modified under oxidative stress have been identified, it is not clear, whether the number of modified proteins and/or the number ADP-ribosylation sites varies with stress intensity. Here, we investigated both the qualitative and quantitative changes in the HeLa cell ADP-ribosylome induced by mild (4 - 16 uM), moderate (64 - 250 uM), or severe, but non-lethal (1 mM) H2O2 concentrations using shotgun and parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (PRM-MS). After moderate and severe oxidative stress, approximately 50% of proteins not ADP-ribosylated under basal conditions were induced, while ADP-ribosylation of the other 50% already ADP-ribosylated under basal conditions remained constant. In contrast, mild oxidative stress caused a reduction in detectable ADP-ribosylation of many proteins, which were induced under more severe oxidative stress. Overall, the number of ADP-ribosylation sites modified/de-modified did not change significantly under the various degrees of oxidative stress. Moreover, we applied the PRM method to study protein ADP-ribosylation in ovarian cancer cells that display different sensitivities to PARP inhibitors. These studies revealed similar ADP-ribosylation responses following H2O2 treatment, which, however, correlated in extent with ARTD1 abundance in these cells. Overall, our new MS approaches have proven to be highly useful in monitoring cellular protein ADP-ribosylation and have revealed unexpected fluctuations in proteins ADP-ribosylation depending on the degree of oxidative stress.
Project description:Protein ADP-ribosylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates important cellular functions. The identification of modified proteins has proven challenging and has mainly been achieved via enrichment methodologies. Random mutagenesis was used here to develop an engineered Af1521 ADP-ribose binding macro domain protein with 1000-fold increased affinity towards ADP-ribose. The crystal structure reveals that two point mutations K35E and Y145R form a salt bridge within the ADP-ribose binding domain. This forces the proximal ribose to rotate within the binding pocket and, as a consequence, improves engineered Af1521 ADPr-binding affinity. Its use in our proteomic ADP-ribosylome workflow increases the ADP-ribosylated protein identification rates and yields greater ADP-ribosylome coverage. Furthermore, generation of an engineered Af1521 Fc fusion protein confirms the improved detection of cellular ADP-ribosylation by immunoblot and immunofluorescence. Thus, this engineered isoform of Af1521 can also serve as a valuable tool for the analysis of cellular ADP-ribosylation under in vivo conditions.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that is known to be involved in cellular homeostasis and stress but has been challenging to analyze biochemically. To facilitate the detection of ADP-ribosylated proteins, we show that an alkyne-adenosine analog, N6-propargyl adenosine (N6pA), is metabolically incorporated in mammalian cells and enables fluorescence detection and proteomic analysis of ADP-ribosylated proteins. Notably, our analysis of N6pA-labeled proteins that are upregulated by oxidative stress revealed differential ADP-ribosylation of small GTPases. We discovered that oxidative stress induced ADP-ribosylation of Hras on Cys181 and Cys184 in the C-terminal hypervariable region, which are normally S-fatty-acylated. Downstream Hras signaling is impaired by ADP-ribosylation during oxidative stress, but is rescued by ADP-ribosyltransferase inhibitors. Our study demonstrates that ADP-ribosylation of small GTPases not only is mediated by bacterial toxins but is endogenously regulated in mammalian cells. N6pA provides a useful tool to characterize ADP-ribosylated proteins and their regulatory mechanisms in cells.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a widespread post-translational modification (PTM) with crucial functions in many cellular processes. Here, we describe an in-depth ADP-ribosylome using our Af1521-based proteomics methodology for comprehensive profiling of ADP-ribosylation sites, by systematically assessing complementary proteolytic digestions and precursor fragmentation through application of electron-transfer higher-energy collisional dissociation (EThcD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), respectively. Although ETD spectra yielded higher identification scores, EThcD generally proved superior to ETD in identification and localization of ADP-ribosylation sites regardless of protease employed. Notwithstanding, the propensities of complementary proteases and fragmentation methods expanded the detectable repertoire of ADP-ribosylation to an unprecedented depth. This system-wide profiling of the ADP-ribosylome in HeLa cells subjected to DNA damage uncovered >11,000 unique ADP-ribosylated peptides mapping to >7,000 ADP-ribosylation sites, in total modifying over one-third of the human nuclear proteome and highlighting the vast scope of this PTM. High-resolution MS/MS spectra enabled identification of dozens of proteins concomitantly modified by ADP-ribosylation and phosphorylation, revealing a considerable degree of crosstalk on histones. ADP-ribosylation was confidently localized to various amino acid residue types, including less abundantly modified residues, with hundreds of ADP-ribosylation sites pinpointed on histidine, arginine, and tyrosine residues. Functional enrichment analysis suggested modification of these specific residue types is directed in a spatial manner, with tyrosine ADP-ribosylation linked to the ribosome, arginine ADP-ribosylation linked to the endoplasmic reticulum, and histidine ADP-ribosylation linked to the mitochondrion.
Project description:The DNA damage response revolves around transmission of information via post-translational modifications, including reversible protein ADP-ribosylation. Here, we applied a mass spectrometry-based Af1521 enrichment technology for the identification and quantification of ADP-ribosylation sites as a function of various DNA damage stimuli and time. In total, we detected 1,681 ADP-ribosylation sites residing on 716 proteins in U2OS cells, and determined their temporal dynamics after exposure to the genotoxins H2O2 and MMS. Intriguingly, we observed a widespread but low-abundant serine ADP-ribosylation response at the earliest time point, with later time points centered on increased modification of the same sites. This suggests that early serine ADP-ribosylation events may serve as a platform for an integrated signal response. While treatment with H2O2 and MMS induced homogenous ADP-ribosylation responses, we observed temporal differences in the ADP-ribosylation site abundancies. Exposure to MMS-induced alkylating stress induced the strongest ADP-ribosylome response after 30 minutes prominently modifying proteins involved in RNA processing, whereas in response to H2O2-induced oxidative stress ADP-ribosylation peaked after 60 minutes, while mainly modifying proteins involved in DNA damage pathways. Collectively, the dynamic ADP-ribosylome presented here provides valuable insight into the temporal cellular regulation of ADP-ribosylation in response to DNA damage.
Project description:Chromatin ADP-ribosylation regulates important cellular processes. However, the exact location and magnitude of chromatin ADP-ribosylation are largely unknown. A robust and versatile method for assessing chromatin ADP-ribosylation is therefore crucial for further understanding its function. Here, we present a chromatin affinity precipitation method based on the high specificity and avidity of two well-characterized ADP-ribose binding domains to map chromatin ADP-ribosylation at the genome-wide scale and at specific loci. Our ADPr-ChAP method revealed that in cells exposed to oxidative stress, ADP-ribosylation of chromatin scaled with histone density, with highest levels at heterochromatic sites and depletion at active promoters. Furthermore, in growth factor-induced adipocyte differentiation, increased chromatin ADP-ribosylation was observed at PPARγ target genes, whose expression is ADP-ribosylation-dependent. In combination with deep-sequencing and conventional ChIP, the established ADPr-ChAP provides a valuable resource for the bioinformatic comparison of ADP-ribosylation with other chromatin modifications and for addressing its role in other biologically important processes. Overall design: Chromatin of untreated and H2O2-treated samples was pulled down with wild-type and R163A-mutant WWE domain. We performed ChAP followed by DNA-sequencinq of sheared chromatin from untreated cells enriched with wild-type RNF146 WWE domain to define the location of ADP-ribosylation in untreated cells, using the binding mutant as negative control. In addition, as oxidative stress is known to induce chromatin ADP-ribosilation, we include ChAP followed by DNA-sequencinq of sheared chromatin from H2O2-treated cells enriched with wild-type RNF146 WWE or the binding mutant.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation refers to the post-translational modification of protein substrates with monomers or polymers of the small molecule ADP-ribose. ADP-ribosylation is enzymatically regulated and plays roles in cellular processes including DNA repair, nucleic acid metabolism, cell death, cellular stress responses, and antiviral immunity. Recent advances in the field of ADP-ribosylation have led to the development of proteomics approaches to enrich and identify endogenous ADP-ribosylated peptides by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A number of these methods rely on reverse-phase solid-phase extraction as a critical step in preparing cellular peptides for further enrichment steps in proteomics workflows. The anionic ion-pairing reagent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is typically used during reverse-phase solid-phase extraction to promote retention of tryptic peptides. Here we report that TFA and other carboxylate ion-pairing reagents are inefficient for reverse-phase solid-phase extraction of ADP-ribosylated peptides. Substitution of TFA with cationic ion-pairing reagents, such as triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), improves recovery of ADP-ribosylated peptides. We further demonstrate that substitution of TFA with TEAA in a proteomics workflow specific for identifying ADP-ribosylated peptides increases identification rates of ADP-ribosylated peptides by LC-MS/MS.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification generated by members of the superfamily of ADP-ribosyltransferases, known as the Parp enzymes. Depending on the superfamily member, Parp enzymes can mono- or poly-ADP-ribosylate a protein substrate. Parp superfamily members confer regulation to a variety of biological processes that include cell signaling, DNA repair, transcription, and stress responses. Here, we describe biochemical methods for detection of ADP-ribose conjugated to the androgen receptor (AR) using the archaeal macrodomain, AF1521, from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. The utility of AF1521 is based on its highly selective recognition of ADP-ribose conjugated to protein. AF1521 immobilized on beads can be used to enrich for ADP-ribosylated proteins, which in our application results in recovery of ADP-ribosylated AR from prostate cancer cell extracts. We engineered tandem AF1521 macrodomains and found this improves the recovery of ADP-ribosylated AR under native conditions, and it enabled development of an assay for detection of ADP-ribosylation on blots. Thus, AF1521 can be used to query ADP-ribosylation of protein under both native and denaturing conditions. Our assays should prove useful for understanding how ADP-ribosylation regulates AR function.
2019-01-01 | S-EPMC7825248 | BioStudies
Project description:Optimal DNA damage response is associated with ADP-ribosylation of histones. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of DNA damage-induced histone ADP-ribosylation remains elusive. Herein, using unbiased mass spectrometry, we identify that glutamate residue 141 (E141) of variant histone H2AX is ADP-ribosylated following oxidative DNA damage. In-depth studies performed with wild-type H2AX and the ADP-ribosylation-deficient E141A mutant suggest that H2AX ADP-ribosylation plays a critical role in base excision repair (BER). Mechanistically, ADP-ribosylation on E141 mediates the recruitment of Neil3 glycosylase to the sites of DNA damage for BER. Moreover, loss of this ADP-ribosylation enhances serine-139 phosphorylation of H2AX (?H2AX) upon oxidative DNA damage, and erroneously causes the accumulation of DNA double-strand break (DSB) response factors. Taken together, these results reveal that H2AX ADP-ribosylation not only facilitates BER repair, but also suppresses the ?H2AX-mediated DSB response.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification that exists in monomeric and polymeric forms. Whereas the writers (e.g. ARTD1/PARP1) and erasers (e.g. PARG, ARH3) of poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) are relatively well described, the enzymes involved in mono-ADP-ribosylation (MARylation) have been less well investigated. While erasers for the MARylation of glutamate/aspartate and arginine have been identified, the respective enzymes with specificity for serine were missing. Here we report that, in vitro, ARH3 specifically binds and demodifies proteins and peptides that are MARylated. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of ARH3 revealed that numerous residues are critical for both the mono- and the poly-ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity of ARH3. Notably, a mass spectrometric approach showed that ARH3-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts are characterized by a specific increase in serine-ADP-ribosylation in vivo under untreated conditions as well as following hydrogen peroxide stress. Together, our results establish ARH3 as a serine mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase and as an important regulator of the basal and stress-induced ADP-ribosylome.