Metabolic fate of glucose and candidate signaling and excess-fuel detoxification pathways in pancreatic ?-cells.
ABSTRACT: Glucose metabolism promotes insulin secretion in ?-cells via metabolic coupling factors that are incompletely defined. Moreover, chronically elevated glucose causes ?-cell dysfunction, but little is known about how cells handle excess fuels to avoid toxicity. Here we sought to determine which among the candidate pathways and coupling factors best correlates with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), define the fate of glucose in the ?-cell, and identify pathways possibly involved in excess-fuel detoxification. We exposed isolated rat islets for 1 h to increasing glucose concentrations and measured various pathways and metabolites. Glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, and ATP production correlated well with GSIS and saturated at 16 mm glucose. However, glucose utilization, glycerol release, triglyceride and glycogen contents, free fatty acid (FFA) content and release, and cholesterol and cholesterol esters increased linearly up to 25 mm glucose. Besides being oxidized, glucose was mainly metabolized via glycerol production and release and lipid synthesis (particularly FFA, triglycerides, and cholesterol), whereas glycogen production was comparatively low. Using targeted metabolomics in INS-1(832/13) cells, we found that several metabolites correlated well with GSIS, in particular some Krebs cycle intermediates, malonyl-CoA, and lower ADP levels. Glucose dose-dependently increased the dihydroxyacetone phosphate/glycerol 3-phosphate ratio in INS-1(832/13) cells, indicating a more oxidized state of NAD in the cytosol upon glucose stimulation. Overall, the data support a role for accelerated oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, anaplerosis, and malonyl-CoA/lipid signaling in ?-cell metabolic signaling and suggest that a decrease in ADP levels is important in GSIS. The results also suggest that excess-fuel detoxification pathways in ?-cells possibly comprise glycerol and FFA formation and release extracellularly and the diversion of glucose carbons to triglycerides and cholesterol esters.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells is triggered by metabolism of the sugar to increase ATP/ADP ratio that blocks the KATP channel leading to membrane depolarization and insulin exocytosis. Other metabolic pathways believed to augment insulin secretion have yet to be fully elucidated. To study metabolic changes during GSIS, liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of 87 metabolites temporally following a change in glucose from 3 to 10 mM glucose and in response to increasing concentrations of glucose in the INS-1 832/13 ?-cell line. U-[(13)C]Glucose was used to probe flux in specific metabolic pathways. Results include a rapid increase in ATP/ADP, anaplerotic tricarboxylic acid cycle flux, and increases in the malonyl CoA pathway, support prevailing theories of GSIS. Novel findings include that aspartate used for anaplerosis does not derive from the glucose fuel added to stimulate insulin secretion, glucose flux into glycerol-3-phosphate, and esterification of long chain CoAs resulting in rapid consumption of long chain CoAs and de novo generation of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. Further, novel metabolites with potential roles in GSIS such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (ZMP), GDP-mannose, and farnesyl pyrophosphate were found to be rapidly altered following glucose exposure.
Project description:Pancreatic beta-cells couple the oxidation of glucose to the secretion of insulin. Apart from the canonical K(ATP)-dependent glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), there are important K(ATP)-independent mechanisms involving both anaplerosis and mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP). How mtGTP that is trapped within the mitochondrial matrix regulates the cytosolic calcium increases that drive GSIS remains a mystery. Here we have investigated whether the mitochondrial isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) is the GTPase linking hydrolysis of mtGTP made by succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS-GTP) to an anaplerotic pathway producing phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Although cytosolic PEPCK (PEPCK-C) is absent, PEPCK-M message and protein were detected in INS-1 832/13 cells, rat islets, and mouse islets. PEPCK enzymatic activity is half that of primary hepatocytes and is localized exclusively to the mitochondria. Novel (13)C-labeling strategies in INS-1 832/13 cells and islets measured substantial contribution of PEPCK-M to the synthesis of PEP. As high as 30% of PEP in INS-1 832/13 cells and 41% of PEP in rat islets came from PEPCK-M. The contribution of PEPCK-M to overall PEP synthesis more than tripled with glucose stimulation. Silencing the PEPCK-M gene completely inhibited GSIS underscoring its central role in mitochondrial metabolism-mediated insulin secretion. Given that mtGTP synthesized by SCS-GTP is an indicator of TCA flux that is crucial for GSIS, PEPCK-M is a strong candidate to link mtGTP synthesis with insulin release through anaplerotic PEP cycling.
Project description:Altered secretion of insulin as well as glucagon has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanisms controlling glucagon secretion from ?-cells largely remain unresolved. Therefore, we studied the regulation of glucagon secretion from ?TC1-6 (?TC1 clone 6) cells and compared it with insulin release from INS-1 832/13 cells. We found that INS-1 832/13 and ?TC1-6 cells respectively secreted insulin and glucagon concentration-dependently in response to glucose. In contrast, tight coupling of glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism was observed only in INS-1 832/13 cells. Although glycolytic metabolism was similar in the two cell lines, TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle metabolism, respiration and ATP levels were less glucose-responsive in ?TC1-6 cells. Inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle, using phenyl succinate (PhS), abolished glucose-provoked ATP production and hormone secretion from ?TC1-6 but not INS-1 832/13 cells. Blocking the malate-aspartate shuttle increased levels of glycerol 3-phosphate only in INS-1 832/13 cells. Accordingly, relative expression of constituents in the glycerol phosphate shuttle compared with malate-aspartate shuttle was lower in ?TC1-6 cells. Our data suggest that the glycerol phosphate shuttle augments the malate-aspartate shuttle in INS-1 832/13 but not ?TC1-6 cells. These results were confirmed in mouse islets, where PhS abrogated secretion of glucagon but not insulin. Furthermore, expression of the rate-limiting enzyme of the glycerol phosphate shuttle was higher in sorted primary ?- than in ?-cells. Thus, suppressed glycerol phosphate shuttle activity in the ?-cell may prevent a high rate of glycolysis and consequently glucagon secretion in response to glucose. Accordingly, pyruvate- and lactate-elicited glucagon secretion remains unaffected since their signalling is independent of mitochondrial shuttles.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells is potentiated by fatty acids (FA). The initial step in the metabolism of intracellular FA is the conversion to acyl-CoA by long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (Acsls). Because the predominantly expressed Acsl isoforms in INS 832/13 cells are Acsl4 and -5, we characterized the role of these Acsls in beta-cell function by using siRNA to knock down Acsl4 or Acsl5. Compared with control cells, an 80% suppression of Acsl4 decreased GSIS and FA-potentiated GSIS by 32 and 54%, respectively. Knockdown of Acsl5 did not alter GSIS. Acsl4 knockdown did not alter FA oxidation or long chain acyl-CoA levels. With Acsl4 knockdown, incubation with 17 mm glucose increased media epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and reduced cell membrane levels of EETs. Further, exogenous EETs reduced GSIS in INS 832/13 cells, and in Acsl4 knockdown cells, an EET receptor antagonist partially rescued GSIS. These results strongly suggest that Acsl4 activates EETs to form EET-CoAs that are incorporated into glycerophospholipids, thereby sequestering EETs. Exposing INS 832/13 cells to arachidonate or linoleate reduced Acsl4 mRNA and protein expression and reduced GSIS. These data indicate that Acsl4 modulates GSIS by regulating the levels of unesterified EETs and that arachidonate controls the expression of its activator Acsl4.
Project description:Pyruvate cycling has been implicated in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells. The operation of some pyruvate cycling pathways is proposed to necessitate malate export from the mitochondria and NADP(+)-dependent decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate by cytosolic malic enzyme (ME1). Evidence in favor of and against a role of ME1 in GSIS has been presented by others using small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of ME1. ME1 was also proposed to account for methyl succinate-stimulated insulin secretion (MSSIS), which has been hypothesized to occur via succinate entry into the mitochondria in exchange for malate and subsequent malate conversion to pyruvate. In contrast to rat, mouse beta-cells lack ME1 activity, which was suggested to explain their lack of MSSIS. However, this hypothesis was not tested. In this report, we demonstrate that although adenoviral-mediated overexpression of ME1 greatly augments GSIS in rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cells, it does not restore MSSIS, nor does it significantly affect GSIS in mouse islets. The increase in GSIS following ME1 overexpression in INS-1 832/13 cells did not alter the ATP-to-ADP ratio but was accompanied by increases in malate and citrate levels. Increased malate and citrate levels were also observed after INS-1 832/13 cells were treated with the malate-permeable analog dimethyl malate. These data suggest that although ME1 overexpression augments anaplerosis and GSIS in INS-1 832/13 cells, it is not likely involved in MSSIS and GSIS in pancreatic islets.
Project description:Pancreatic beta cell mitochondria convert insulin secretagogues into products that support insulin exocytosis. We explored the idea that lipids are some of these products formed from acyl group transfer out of mitochondria to the cytosol, the site of lipid synthesis. There are two isoforms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the enzyme that forms malonyl-CoA from which C(2) units for lipid synthesis are formed. We found that ACC1, the isoform seen in lipogenic tissues, is the only isoform present in human and rat pancreatic islets and INS-1 832/13 cells. Inhibitors of ACC and fatty acid synthase inhibited insulin release in islets and INS-1 cells. Carbon from glucose and pyruvate were rapidly incorporated into many lipid classes in INS-1 cells. Glucose and other insulin secretagogues acutely increased many lipids with C14-C24 chains including individual cholesterol esters, phospholipids and fatty acids. Many phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylserines were increased and many phosphatidylinositols and several phosphatidylethanolamines were decreased. The results suggest that lipid remodeling and rapid lipogenesis from secretagogue carbon support insulin secretion.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Rho GTPases (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 [Rac1] and cell division cycle 42 [Cdc42]) have been shown to regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) via cytoskeletal remodelling, trafficking and fusion of insulin-secretory granules with the plasma membrane. GTP loading of these G proteins, which is facilitated by GDP/GTP exchange factors, is a requisite step in the regulation of downstream effector proteins. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV2 (VAV2), a member of the Dbl family of proteins, has been identified as one of the GDP/GTP exchange factors for Rac1. Despite recent evidence on the regulatory roles of VAV2 in different cell types, roles of this guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the signalling events leading to GSIS remain undefined. Using immunological, short interfering RNA (siRNA), pharmacological and microscopic approaches we investigated the role of VAV2 in GSIS from islet beta cells. METHODS:Co-localisation of Rac1 and VAV2 was determined by Triton X-114 phase partition and confocal microscopy. Glucose-induced actin remodelling was quantified by live cell imaging using the LifeAct-GFP fluorescent biosensor. Rac1 activation was determined by G protein linked immunosorbent assay (G-LISA). RESULTS:Western blotting indicated that VAV2 is expressed in INS-1 832/13 beta cells, normal rat islets and human islets. Vav2 siRNA markedly attenuated GSIS in INS-1 832/13 cells. Ehop-016, a newly discovered small molecule inhibitor of the VAV2-Rac1 interaction, or siRNA-mediated knockdown of VAV2 markedly attenuated glucose-induced Rac1 activation and GSIS in INS-1 832/13 cells. Pharmacological findings were recapitulated in primary rat islets. A high glucose concentration promoted co-localisation of Rac1 and VAV2. Real-time imaging in live cells indicated a significant inhibition of glucose-induced cortical actin remodelling by Ehop-016. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our data provide the first evidence to implicate VAV2 in glucose-induced Rac1 activation, actin remodelling and GSIS in pancreatic beta cells.
Project description:Exposure to chemotherapeutic agents has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease characterized by both the peripheral insulin resistance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells. Using the rat ?-cell line INS-1 832/13 and isolated mouse pancreatic islets, we investigated the effect of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (Adriamycin) on pancreatic ?-cell survival and function. Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to doxorubicin caused impairment of GSIS, cellular viability, an increase in cellular toxicity, as soon as 6?h post-exposure. Doxorubicin impaired plasma membrane electron transport (PMET), a pathway dependent on reduced equivalents NADH and NADPH, but failed to redox cycle in INS-1 832/13 cells and with their lysates. Although NADPH/NADP(+?)content was unaffected, NADH/NAD(+?)content decreased at 4?h post-exposure to doxorubicin, and was followed by a reduction in ATP content. Previous studies have demonstrated that doxorubicin functions as a topoisomerase II inhibitor via induction of DNA cross-linking, resulting in apoptosis. Doxorubicin induced the expression of mRNA for mdm2, cyclin G1, and fas whereas downregulating p53, and increased the melting temperature of genomic DNA, consistent with DNA damage and induction of apoptosis. Doxorubicin also induced caspase-3 and -7 activity in INS-1 832/13 cells and mouse islets; co-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK temporarily attenuated the doxorubicin-mediated loss of viability in INS-1 832/13 cells. Together, these data suggest that DNA damage, not H2O2 produced via redox cycling, is a major mechanism of doxorubicin toxicity in pancreatic ?-cells.
Project description:Oxidative stress is implicated in pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction, yet clinical outcomes of antioxidant therapies on diabetes are inconclusive. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) can function as signaling intermediates for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), we hypothesize that exogenously boosting cellular antioxidant capacity dampens signaling ROS and GSIS.To test the hypothesis, we formulated a mathematical model of redox homeostatic control circuit comprising known feedback and feedforward loops and validated model predictions with plant-derived antioxidant sulforaphane (SFN).SFN acutely (30-min treatment) stimulated basal insulin secretion in INS-1(832/13) cells and cultured mouse islets, which could be attributed to SFN-elicited ROS as N-acetylcysteine or glutathione ethyl ester suppressed SFN-stimulated insulin secretion. The mathematical model predicted an adapted redox state characteristic of strong induction of endogenous antioxidants but marginally increased ROS under prolonged SFN exposure, a state that attenuates rather than facilitates glucose-stimulated ROS and GSIS. We validated the prediction by demonstrating that although 24-h treatment of INS-1(832/13) cells with low, non-cytotoxic concentrations of SFN (2-10 ?M) protected the cells from cytotoxicity by oxidative insult, it markedly suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by 20 mM glucose.Our study indicates that adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidants by exogenous antioxidants, albeit cytoprotective, inhibits GSIS in ?-cells.
Project description:Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) currently is being investigated as a target for treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the effects of ACC1 inhibition on insulin secretion, three small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting ACC1 (siACC1) were transfected into the INS-1-derived cell line, 832/13; the most efficacious duplex was also cloned into an adenovirus and used to transduce isolated rat islets. Delivery of the siACC1 duplexes decreased ACC1 mRNA by 60-80% in 832/13 cells and islets and enzyme activity by 46% compared with cells treated with a non-targeted siRNA. Delivery of siACC1 decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 70% in 832/13 cells and by 33% in islets. Surprisingly, siACC1 treatment decreased glucose oxidation by 49%, and the ATP:ADP ratio by 52%, accompanied by clear decreases in pyruvate cycling activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Exposure of siACC1-treated cells to the pyruvate cycling substrate dimethylmalate restored GSIS to normal without recovery of the depressed ATP:ADP ratio. In siACC1-treated cells, glucokinase protein levels were decreased by 25%, which correlated with a 36% decrease in glycogen synthesis and a 33% decrease in glycolytic flux. Furthermore, acute addition of the ACC1 inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) to beta-cells suppressed [(14)C]glucose incorporation into lipids but had no effect on GSIS, whereas chronic TOFA administration suppressed GSIS and glucose metabolism. In sum, chronic, but not acute, suppression of ACC1 activity impairs GSIS via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism. These findings raise concerns about the use of ACC inhibitors for diabetes therapy.