CRISPR-Cpf1 assisted genome editing of Corynebacterium glutamicum.
ABSTRACT: Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial metabolite producer that is difficult to genetically engineer. Although the Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted for genome editing of multiple bacteria, it cannot be introduced into C. glutamicum. Here we report a Francisella novicida (Fn) CRISPR-Cpf1-based genome-editing method for C. glutamicum. CRISPR-Cpf1, combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering, precisely introduces small changes into the bacterial genome at efficiencies of 86-100%. Large gene deletions and insertions are also obtained using an all-in-one plasmid consisting of FnCpf1, CRISPR RNA, and homologous arms. The two CRISPR-Cpf1-assisted systems enable N iterative rounds of genome editing in 3N+4 or 3N+2 days. A proof-of-concept, codon saturation mutagenesis at G149 of γ-glutamyl kinase relieves L-proline inhibition using Cpf1-assisted ssDNA recombineering. Thus, CRISPR-Cpf1-based genome editing provides a highly efficient tool for genetic engineering of Corynebacterium and other bacteria that cannot utilize the Sp CRISPR-Cas9 system.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial workhorse and advanced genetic engineering tools are urgently demanded. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. The CRISPR/Cas9 system that utilizes NGG as protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and has good targeting specificity can be developed into a powerful tool for efficient and precise genome editing of C. glutamicum.Herein, we developed a versatile CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing toolbox for C. glutamicum. Cas9 and gRNA expression cassettes were reconstituted to combat Cas9 toxicity and facilitate effective termination of gRNA transcription. Co-transformation of Cas9 and gRNA expression plasmids was exploited to overcome high-frequency mutation of cas9, allowing not only highly efficient gene deletion and insertion with plasmid-borne editing templates (efficiencies up to 60.0 and 62.5%, respectively) but also simple and time-saving operation. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ssDNA recombineering was developed to precisely introduce small modifications and single-nucleotide changes into the genome of C. glutamicum with efficiencies over 80.0%. Notably, double-locus editing was also achieved in C. glutamicum. This toolbox works well in several C. glutamicum strains including the widely-used strains ATCC 13032 and ATCC 13869.In this study, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox that could facilitate markerless gene deletion, gene insertion, precise base editing, and double-locus editing in C. glutamicum. The CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox holds promise for accelerating the engineering of C. glutamicum and advancing its application in the production of biochemicals and biofuels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial strain for the production of a diverse range of chemicals. Cpf1 nucleases are highly specific and programmable, with efficiencies comparable to those of Cas9. Although the Francisella novicida (Fn) CRISPR-Cpf1 system has been adapted for genome editing in C. glutamicum, the editing efficiency is currently less than 15%, due to false positives caused by the poor targeting efficiency of the crRNA. RESULTS:To address this limitation, a screening strategy was developed in this study to systematically evaluate crRNA targeting efficiency in C. glutamicum. We quantitatively examined various parameters of the C. glutamicum CRISPR-Cpf1 system, including the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence, the length of the spacer sequence, and the type of repair template. We found that the most efficient C. glutamicum crRNA contained a 5'-NYTV-3' PAM and a 21 bp spacer sequence. Moreover, we observed that linear DNA could be used to repair double strand breaks. CONCLUSIONS:Here, we identified optimized PAM-related parameters for the CRISPR-Cpf1 system in C. glutamicum. Our study sheds light on the function of the FnCpf1 endonuclease and Cpf1-based genome editing. This optimized system, with higher editing efficiency, could be used to increase the production of bulk chemicals, such as isobutyrate, in C. glutamicum.
Project description:Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas12a (Cpf1) has emerged as an effective genome editing tool in many organisms. Here, we developed and optimized a CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted recombineering system to facilitate genetic manipulation in bacteria. Using this system, point mutations, deletions, insertions, and gene replacements can be easily generated on the chromosome or native plasmids in Escherichia coli, Yersinia pestis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis Because CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted recombineering does not require introduction of an antibiotic resistance gene into the chromosome to select for recombinants, it is an efficient approach for generating markerless and scarless mutations in bacteria.IMPORTANCE The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been widely used to facilitate genome editing in many bacteria. CRISPR-Cas12a (Cpf1), a new type of CRISPR-Cas system, allows efficient genome editing in bacteria when combined with recombineering. Cas12a and Cas9 recognize different target sites, which allows for more precise selection of the cleavage target and introduction of the desired mutation. In addition, CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted recombineering can be used for genetic manipulation of plasmids and plasmid curing. Finally, Cas12a-assisted recombineering in the generation of point mutations, deletions, insertions, and replacements in bacteria has been systematically analyzed. Taken together, our findings will guide efficient Cas12a-mediated genome editing in bacteria.
Project description:Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR-Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR-Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. We established proof-of-concept showing that CRISPR-Cas9 selection combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a realistic approach to identify at high efficiencies edited cells in a lactic acid bacterium. We show for three independent targets that subtle changes in the bacterial genome can be recovered at efficiencies ranging from 90 to 100%. By combining CRISPR-Cas9 and recombineering, we successfully applied codon saturation mutagenesis in the L. reuteri chromosome. Also, CRISPR-Cas9 selection is critical to identify low-efficiency events such as oligonucleotide-mediated chromosome deletions. This also means that CRISPR-Cas9 selection will allow identification of recombinant cells in bacteria with low recombineering efficiencies, eliminating the need for ssDNA recombineering optimization procedures. We envision that CRISPR-Cas genome editing has the potential to change the landscape of genome editing in lactic acid bacteria, and other Gram-positive bacteria.
Project description:Extensive modification of genome is an efficient manner to regulate the metabolic network for producing target metabolites or non-native products using Corynebacterium glutamicum as a cell factory. Genome editing approaches by means of homologous recombination and counter-selection markers are laborious and time consuming due to multiple round manipulations and low editing efficiencies. The current two-plasmid-based CRISPR-Cas9 editing methods generate false positives due to the potential instability of Cas9 on the plasmid, and require a high transformation efficiency for co-occurrence of two plasmids transformation.Here, we developed a RecET-assisted CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing method using a chromosome-borne Cas9-RecET and a single plasmid harboring sgRNA and repair templates. The inducible expression of chromosomal RecET promoted the frequencies of homologous recombination, and increased the efficiency for gene deletion. Due to the high transformation efficiency of a single plasmid, this method enabled 10- and 20-kb region deletion, 2.5-, 5.7- and 7.5-kb expression cassette insertion and precise site-specific mutation, suggesting a versatility of this method. Deletion of argR and farR regulators as well as site-directed mutation of argB and pgi genes generated the mutant capable of accumulating L-arginine, indicating the stability of chromosome-borne Cas9 for iterative genome editing. Using this method, the model-predicted target genes were modified to redirect metabolic flux towards 1,2-propanediol biosynthetic pathway. The final engineered strain produced 6.75?±?0.46 g/L of 1,2-propanediol that is the highest titer reported in C. glutamicum. Furthermore, this method is available for Corynebacterium pekinense 1.563, suggesting its universal applicability in other Corynebacterium species.The RecET-assisted CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing method will facilitate engineering of metabolic networks for the synthesis of interested bio-based products from renewable biomass using Corynebacterium species as cell factories.
Project description:Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) has traditionally been used as a microbial cell factory for the industrial production of many amino acids and other industrially important commodities. C. glutamicum has recently been established as a host for recombinant protein expression; however, some intrinsic disadvantages could be improved by genetic modification. Gene editing techniques, such as deletion, insertion, or replacement, are important tools for modifying chromosomes.In this research, we report a CRISPR/Cas9 system in C. glutamicum for rapid and efficient genome editing, including gene deletion and insertion. The system consists of two plasmids: one containing a target-specific guide RNA and a homologous sequence to a target gene, the other expressing Cas9 protein. With high efficiency (up to 100%), this system was used to disrupt the porB, mepA, clpX and Ncgl0911 genes, which affect the ability to express proteins. The porB- and mepA-deletion strains had enhanced expression of green fluorescent protein, compared with the wild-type stain. This system can also be used to engineer point mutations and gene insertions.In this study, we adapted the CRISPR/Cas9 system from S. pyogens to gene deletion, point mutations and insertion in C. glutamicum. Compared with published genome modification methods, methods based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system can rapidly and efficiently achieve genome editing. Our research provides a powerful tool for facilitating the study of gene function, metabolic pathways, and enhanced productivity in C. glutamicum.
Project description:Genome editing has been harnessed through the development of CRISPR system, and the CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) system has emerged as a promising alternative to CRISPR-Cas9 for use in various circumstances. Despite the inherent multiple advantages of Cpf1 over Cas9, the adoption of Cpf1 has been unsatisfactory because of target-dependent insufficient indel efficiencies. Here, we report an engineered CRISPR RNA (crRNA) for highly efficient genome editing by Cpf1, which includes a 20-base target-complementary sequence and a uridinylate-rich 3'-overhang. When the crRNA is transcriptionally produced, crRNA with a 20-base target-complementary sequence plus a U4AU4 3'-overhang is the optimal configuration. U-rich crRNA also maximizes the utility of the AsCpf1 mutants and multiplexing genome editing using mRNA as the source of multiple crRNAs. Furthermore, U-rich crRNA enables a highly safe and specific genome editing using Cpf1 in human cells, contributing to the enhancement of a genome-editing toolbox.
Project description:Cpf1, a CRISPR endonuclease discovered in Prevotella and Francisella 1 bacteria, offers an alternative platform for CRISPR-based genome editing beyond the commonly used CRISPR-Cas9 system originally discovered in Streptococcus pyogenes. This protocol enables the design of engineered CRISPR-Cpf1 components, both CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide the endonuclease and Cpf1 mRNAs to express the endonuclease protein, and provides experimental procedures for effective genome editing using this system. We also describe quantification of genome-editing activity and off-target effects of the engineered CRISPR-Cpf1 in human cell lines using both T7 endonuclease I (T7E1) assay and targeted deep sequencing. This protocol enables rapid construction and identification of engineered crRNAs and Cpf1 mRNAs to enhance genome-editing efficiency using the CRISPR-Cpf1 system, as well as assessment of target specificity within 2 months. This protocol may also be appropriate for fine-tuning other types of CRISPR systems.
Project description:Background DNA-free, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein (Cas) ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-based genome editing is a simple, convincing, and promising tool for precision crop breeding. The efficacy of designed CRISPR-based genome editing tools is a critical prerequisite for successful precision gene editing in crops. Results This study demonstrates that soil-grown leaf- or callus-derived pepper protoplasts are a useful system for screening of efficient guide RNAs for CRISPR/Cas9 or CRISPR/Cas12a (Cpf1). CRISPR/Cas9 or Cpf1 were delivered as CRISPR/RNP complexes of purified endonucleases mixed with the designed single guide RNA, which can edit the target gene, CaMLO2 in two pepper cultivars with whole genome sequenced, Capsicum annuum ‘CM334’ and C. annuum ‘Dempsey’. The designed guide RNAs (sgRNAs for Cas9 or crRNAs for Cpf1) are conserved for CaMLO2 in both CM334 and Dempsey and cleave CaMLO2 in vitro. CRISPR/Cas9- or /Cpf1-RNP complexes were transfected into purely isolated protoplasts of the hot pepper CM334 and sweet pepper Dempsey by PEG-mediated delivery. Targeted deep sequencing analysis indicated that the targeted CaMLO2 gene was differentially edited in both cultivars, depending on the applied CRISPR/RNPs. Conclusions Pepper protoplast-based CRISPR guide-RNA selection is a robust method to check the efficacy of designed CRISPR tools and is a prerequisite for regenerating edited plants, which is a critical time-limiting procedure. The rapid and convincing selection of guide RNA against a target genome reduces the laborious efforts for tissue culture and facilitates effective gene editing for pepper improvement.