Microglia amplify inflammatory activation of astrocytes in manganese neurotoxicity.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:As the primary immune response cell in the central nervous system, microglia constantly monitor the microenvironment and respond rapidly to stress, infection, and injury, making them important modulators of neuroinflammatory responses. In diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-induced dementia, activation of microglia precedes astrogliosis and overt neuronal loss. Although microgliosis is implicated in manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity, the role of microglia and glial crosstalk in Mn-induced neurodegeneration is poorly understood. METHODS:Experiments utilized immunopurified murine microglia and astrocytes using column-free magnetic separation. The effect of Mn on microglia was investigated using gene expression analysis, Mn uptake measurements, protein production, and changes in morphology. Additionally, gene expression analysis was used to determine the effect Mn-treated microglia had on inflammatory responses in Mn-exposed astrocytes. RESULTS:Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analysis of immunopurified microglia and astrocytes indicated cultures were 97 and 90% pure, respectively. Mn treatment in microglia resulted in a dose-dependent increase in pro-inflammatory gene expression, transition to a mixed M1/M2 phenotype, and a de-ramified morphology. Conditioned media from Mn-exposed microglia (MCM) dramatically enhanced expression of mRNA for Tnf, Il-1β, Il-6, Ccl2, and Ccl5 in astrocytes, as did exposure to Mn in the presence of co-cultured microglia. MCM had increased levels of cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, TNF, CCL2, and CCL5. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB in microglia using Bay 11-7082 completely blocked microglial-induced astrocyte activation, whereas siRNA knockdown of Tnf in primary microglia only partially inhibited neuroinflammatory responses in astrocytes. CONCLUSIONS:These results provide evidence that NF-κB signaling in microglia plays an essential role in inflammatory responses in Mn toxicity by regulating cytokines and chemokines that amplify the activation of astrocytes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure to increased manganese (Mn) causes inflammation and neuronal injury in the cortex and basal ganglia, resulting in neurological symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease. The mechanisms underlying neuronal death from exposure to Mn are not well understood but involve inflammatory activation of microglia and astrocytes. Expression of neurotoxic inflammatory genes in glia is highly regulated through the NF-κB pathway, but factors modulating neurotoxic glial-glial and glial-neuronal signaling by Mn are not well understood. METHODS:We examined the role of NF-κB in Mn-induced neurotoxicity by exposing purified microglia, astrocytes (from wild-type and astrocyte-specific IKK knockout mice), and mixed glial cultures to varying Mn concentrations and then treating neurons with the conditioned media (GCM) of each cell type. We hypothesized that mixed glial cultures exposed to Mn (0-100 μM) would enhance glial activation and neuronal death compared to microglia, wild-type astrocytes, or IKK-knockout astrocytes alone or in mixed cultures. RESULTS:Mixed glial cultures treated with 0-100 μM Mn for 24 h showed the most pronounced effect of increased expression of inflammatory genes including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2), Tnf, Ccl5, Il6, Ccr2, Il1b, and the astrocyte-specific genes, C3 and Ccl2. Gene deletion of IKK2 in astrocytes dramatically reduced cytokine release in Mn-treated mixed glial cultures. Measurement of neuronal viability and apoptosis following exposure to Mn-GCM demonstrated that mixed glial cultures induced greater neuronal death than either cell type alone. Loss of IKK in astrocytes also decreased neuronal death compared to microglia alone, wild-type astrocytes, or mixed glia. CONCLUSIONS:This suggests that astrocytes are a critical mediator of Mn neurotoxicity through enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including those most associated with a reactive phenotype such as CCL2 but not C3.
Project description:The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high in patients infected with HIV-1. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by astrocytes/microglia exposed to viral proteins is thought to be one of the mechanisms leading to HIV-1- mediated neurotoxicity. In the present study we examined the effects of Nef on CCL5 induction in astrocytes. The results demonstrate that CCL5 is significantly induced in Nef-transfected SVGA astrocytes. To determine the mechanisms responsible for the increased CCL5 caused by Nef, we employed siRNA and chemical antagonists. Antagonists of NF-κB, PI3K, and p38 significantly reduced the expression levels of CCL5 induced by Nef transfection. Furthermore, specific siRNAs demonstrated that the Akt, p38MAPK, NF-κB, CEBP, and AP-1 pathways play a role in Nef-mediated CCL5 expression. The results demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, along with the transcription factors NF-κB, CEBP, and AP-1, are involved in Nef-induced CCL5 production in astrocytes.
Project description:The mechanisms underlying cognitive and neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with childhood exposure to manganese (Mn) are not well understood but may be influenced by neuroinflammatory activation of microglia and astrocytes that results in nitrosative stress due to expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2). We therefore postulated that gene deletion of NOS2 would protect against the neurotoxic effects of Mn in vivo and in vitro. Juvenile NOS2 knockout (NOS2(-/-)) mice were orally exposed to 50 mg/kg of MnCl? by intragastric gavage from days 21 to 34 postnatal. Results indicate that NOS2(-/-) mice exposed to Mn were protected against neurobehavioral alterations, despite histopathological activation of astrocytes and microglia in Mn-treated mice in both genotypes. NOS2(-/-) mice had decreased Mn-induced formation of 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts within neurons in the basal ganglia that correlated with protection against Mn-induced neurobehavioral defects. Primary striatal astrocytes from wildtype mice caused apoptosis in cocultured striatal neurons following treatment with MnCl? and tumor necrosis factor-?, whereas NOS2(-/-) astrocytes failed to cause any increase in markers of apoptosis in striatal neurons. Additionally, scavenging nitric oxide (NO) with 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) prevented the ability of Mn- and cytokine-treated wildtype astrocytes to cause apoptosis in cocultured striatal neurons. These data demonstrate that NO plays a crucial role in Mn-induced neurological dysfunction in juvenile mice and that NOS2 expression in activated glia is an important mediator of neuroinflammatory injury during Mn exposure.
Project description:Neuroinflammatory roles of central innate immunity in brain parenchyma are well-regarded in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, the roles of peripheral immunity in central nervous system (CNS) diseases are less clear. Here, we created a microfluidic environment of human AD brains: microglial neuroinflammation induced by soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta), a signature molecule in AD and employed the environment to investigate the roles of neutrophils through the central-peripheral innate immunity crosstalk. We observed that soluble Abeta-activated human microglial cells produced chemoattractants for neutrophils including IL6, IL8, CCL2, CCL3/4, CCL5 and consequently induced reliable recruitment of human neutrophils. Particularly, we validated the discernable chemo-attractive roles of IL6, IL8, and CCL2 for neutrophils by interrupting the recruitment with neutralizing antibodies. Upon recruitment, microglia-neutrophils interaction results in the production of inflammatory mediators such as MIF and IL2, which are known to up-regulate neuroinflammation in AD. We envision that targeting the crosstalk between central-peripheral immune community is a potential strategy to reduce immunological burdens in other neuroinflammatory CNS diseases.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra. Inflammatory mediators from activated microglia, astrocytes, neurons, T-cells and mast cells mediate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Administration of neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induces PD like motor deficits in rodents. 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), a toxic metabolite of MPTP activates glial cells, neurons and mast cells to release neuroinflammatory mediators. Glia maturation factor (GMF), mast cells and proteinase activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) are implicated in neuroinflammation. Alpha-synuclein which induces neurodegeneration increases PAR-2 expression in the brain. However, the exact mechanisms are not yet understood. In this study, we quantified inflammatory mediators in the brains of MPTP-administered wild type (Wt), GMF-knockout (GMF-KO), and mast cell knockout (MC-KO) mice. Additionally, we analyzed the effect of MPP+, GMF, and mast cell proteases on PAR-2 expression in astrocytes and neurons in vitro. Results show that the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) were lesser in the brains of GMF-KO mice and MC-KO mice when compared to Wt mice brain after MPTP administration. Incubation of astrocytes and neurons with MPP+, GMF, and mouse mast cell protease-6 (MMCP-6) and MMCP-7 increased the expression of PAR-2. Our studies show that the absence of mast cells and GMF reduce the expression of neuroinflammatory mediators in the brain. We conclude that GMF along with mast cell interactions with glial cells and neurons during neuroinflammation can be explored as a new therapeutic target for PD and other neuroinflammatory disorders.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? and interleukin (IL) 1? have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, but the intracellular signaling of these cytokines in glial cells is not fully understood. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) plays a key role in signal transduction in the TNF receptor superfamily and the IL-1 receptor superfamily. In this study, we investigated the role of TRAF6 in neuropathic pain in mice after spinal nerve ligation (SNL). SNL induced persistent TRAF6 upregulation in the spinal cord. Interestingly, TRAF6 was mainly colocalized with the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein on SNL day 10 and partially expressed in microglia on SNL day 3. In cultured astrocytes, TRAF6 was upregulated after exposure to TNF-? or IL-1?. TNF-? or IL-1? also increased CCL2 expression, which was suppressed by both siRNA and shRNA targeting TRAF6. TRAF6 siRNA treatment also inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in astrocytes induced by TNF-? or IL-1?. JNK inhibitor D-NKI-1 dose-dependently decreased IL-1?-induced CCL2 expression. Moreover, spinal injection of TRAF6 siRNA decreased intrathecal TNF-?- or IL-1?-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. Spinal TRAF6 inhibition via TRAF6 siRNA, shRNA lentivirus, or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides partially reversed SNL-induced neuropathic pain and spinal CCL2 expression. Finally, intrathecal injection of TNF-?-activated astrocytes induced mechanical allodynia, which was attenuated by pretreatment of astrocytes with TRAF6 siRNA. Taken together, the results suggest that TRAF6, upregulated in spinal cord astrocytes in the late phase after nerve injury, maintains neuropathic pain by integrating TNF-? and IL-1? signaling and activating the JNK/CCL2 pathway in astrocytes.
Project description:Astrocytes and microglia play critical roles in brain inflammation. Here, we report that glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), particularly GSTM1, promote proinflammatory signaling in astrocytes and contribute to astrocyte-mediated microglia activation during brain inflammation. In vivo, astrocyte-specific knockdown of GSTM1 in the prefrontal cortex attenuated microglia activation in brain inflammation induced by systemic injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Knocking down GSTM1 in astrocytes also attenuated LPS-induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) by microglia when the two cell types were cocultured. In astrocytes, GSTM1 was required for the activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), both of which enhance microglia activation. Our study suggests that GSTs play a proinflammatory role in priming astrocytes and enhancing microglia activation in a microglia-astrocyte positive feedback loop during brain inflammation.
Project description:Modified Wu-Zi-Yan-Zong prescription (MWP), a traditional Chinese medicinal decoction, has possessed the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanisms associated with these properties, however, are not completely understood. We designed the experiments to elucidate the antineuroinflammatory property of MWP in BV2 microglia activated by β-amyloid (Aβ), which is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The composition of MWP was studied using HPLC. BV2 microglia cells were then treated with Aβ in the presence or absence of MWP. The effects of MWP treatment on Aβ-activated neuroinflammation were determined using PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. MWP significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1, as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in Aβ-activated BV2 microglia. MWP also inhibited the nuclear translocation and signaling pathway of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by suppressing inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB) degradation and downregulating IκB kinase β (IKKβ) phosphorylation. Moreover, MWP decreased extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, which is an important signaling pathway for proinflammatory gene expression. We concluded that MWP could suppress neuroinflammatory responses in Aβ-activated BV2 microglia via the NF-κB and ERK/p38 MAPK signaling cascades and could prove an effective therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases such as AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interactions between neurons, astrocytes, and microglia critically influence neuroinflammatory responses to insult in the central nervous system. In vitro astrocyte and microglia cultures are powerful tools to study specific molecular pathways involved in neuroinflammation; however, in order to better understand the influence of cellular crosstalk on neuroinflammation, new multicellular culture models are required. METHODS:Primary cortical cells taken from neonatal rats were cultured in a serum-free "tri-culture" medium formulated to support neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, or a "co-culture" medium formulated to support only neurons and astrocytes. Caspase 3/7 activity and morphological changes were used to quantify the response of the two culture types to different neuroinflammatory stimuli mimicking sterile bacterial infection (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure), mechanical injury (scratch), and seizure activity (glutamate-induced excitotoxicity). The secreted cytokine profile of control and LPS-exposed co- and tri-cultures were also compared. RESULTS:The tri-culture maintained a physiologically relevant representation of neurons, astrocytes, and microglia for 14?days in vitro, while the co-cultures maintained a similar population of neurons and astrocytes, but lacked microglia. The continuous presence of microglia did not negatively impact the overall health of the neurons in the tri-culture, which showed reduced caspase 3/7 activity and similar neurite outgrowth as the co-cultures, along with an increase in the microglia-secreted neurotrophic factor IGF-1 and a significantly reduced concentration of CX3CL1 in the conditioned media. LPS-exposed tri-cultures showed significant astrocyte hypertrophy, increase in caspase 3/7 activity, and the secretion of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1?, IL-1?, and IL-6), none of which were observed in LPS-exposed co-cultures. Following mechanical trauma, the tri-culture showed increased caspase 3/7 activity, as compared to the co-culture, along with increased astrocyte migration towards the source of injury. Finally, the microglia in the tri-culture played a significant neuroprotective role during glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, with significantly reduced neuron loss and astrocyte hypertrophy in the tri-culture. CONCLUSIONS:The tri-culture consisting of neurons, astrocytes, and microglia more faithfully mimics in vivo neuroinflammatory responses than standard mono- and co-cultures. This tri-culture can be a useful tool to study neuroinflammation in vitro with improved accuracy in predicting in vivo neuroinflammatory phenomena.
Project description:Manganese toxicity can cause a neurodegenerative disorder affecting cortical and basal ganglia structures with a neurological presentation resembling features of Parkinson's disease. Children are more sensitive to Mn-induced neurological dysfunction than adults, and recent studies from our laboratory revealed a marked sensitivity of male juvenile mice to neuroinflammatory injury from Mn, relative to females. To determine the role of estrogen (E2) in mediating sex-dependent vulnerability to Mn-induced neurotoxicity, we exposed transgenic mice expressing an NF-?B-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter construct (NF-?B-EGFP mice) to Mn, postulating that supplementing male mice with E2 during juvenile development would attenuate neuroinflammatory changes associated with glial activation, including expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and neuronal protein nitration. Juvenile NF-?B-EGFP mice were separated in groups composed of females, males, and males surgically implanted with Silastic capsules containing 25 ?g of 17-?-estradiol (E2) or vehicle control. Mice were then treated with 0 or 100 mg/Kg MnCl(2) by intragastric gavage from postnatal days 21-34. Manganese treatment caused alterations in levels of striatal dopamine, as well as increases in NF-?B reporter activity and NOS2 expression in both microglia and astrocytes that were prevented by supplementation with E2. E2 also decreased neuronal protein nitration in Mn-treated mice and inhibited apoptosis in striatal neurons cocultured with Mn-treated astrocytes in vitro. These data indicate that E2 protects against Mn-induced neuroinflammation in developing mice and that NF-?B is an important regulator of neuroinflammatory gene expression in glia associated with nitrosative stress in the basal ganglia during Mn exposure.