Interference of the T Cell and Antigen-Presenting Cell Costimulatory Pathway Using CTLA4-Ig (Abatacept) Prevents Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Pathology.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a bacterial superantigen that binds the receptors in the APC/T cell synapse and causes increased proliferation of T cells and a cytokine storm syndrome in vivo. Exposure to the toxin can be lethal and cause significant pathology in humans. The lack of effective therapies for SEB exposure remains an area of concern, particularly in scenarios of acute mass casualties. We hypothesized that blockade of the T cell costimulatory signal by the CTLA4-Ig synthetic protein (abatacept) could prevent SEB-dependent pathology. In this article, we demonstrate mice treated with a single dose of abatacept 8 h post SEB exposure had reduced pathology compared with control SEB-exposed mice. SEB-exposed mice showed significant reductions in body weight between days 4 and 9, whereas mice exposed to SEB and also treated with abatacept showed no weight loss for the duration of the study, suggesting therapeutic mitigation of SEB-induced morbidity. Histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that SEB mediated lung damage and edema, which were absent after treatment with abatacept. Analysis of plasma and lung tissues from SEB-exposed mice treated with abatacept demonstrated significantly lower levels of IL-6 and IFN-? (p < 0.0001), which is likely to have resulted in less pathology. In addition, exposure of human and mouse PBMCs to SEB in vitro showed a significant reduction in levels of IL-2 (p < 0.0001) after treatment with abatacept, indicating that T cell proliferation is the main target for intervention. Our findings demonstrate that abatacept is a robust and potentially credible drug to prevent toxic effects from SEB exposure.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of infection and this risk appears to be higher with anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) agents. We pooled data from the cumulative abatacept RA clinical development program, both double-blind and open-label periods, to estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of infections requiring hospitalization including pneumonia and opportunistic infections, in comparison with RA patients treated with non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) from several reference cohorts.<h4>Methods</h4>Infections reported in seven abatacept clinical trials of RA patients (double-blind and open-label periods) were tabulated. Comparisons were made between the observed IRs in abatacept-treated patients and those in over 133,000 patients exposed to non-biologic DMARDs in six reference RA cohorts. Age- and sex-adjusted IRs of infections requiring hospitalization, including pneumonia (most frequent hospital infection), were used to estimate the expected IRs with abatacept by the method of indirect adjustment. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% CI were calculated comparing incidence in the cumulative abatacept experience with incidence in each RA cohort.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1,955 (double-blind period) and 4,134 (double-blind + open-label periods with a cumulative exposure of 8,392 person-years) abatacept-treated RA patients were analyzed. Observed IRs for infections requiring hospitalization during the double-blind period were 3.05 per 100-patient years for abatacept-treated patients and 2.15 per 100 patient years for placebo. In the cumulative population, observed IR for infections requiring hospitalization was 2.72 per 100-patient years. Rates for abatacept were similar to expected IRs based on other RA non-biologic DMARD cohorts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>IRs of infections requiring hospitalization and pneumonia in abatacept trials are consistent with expected IRs based on reference RA DMARD cohorts. RA patients are at higher risk of infection compared with the general population, making the RA DMARD cohorts an appropriate reference group. The safety of abatacept, including incidence of infections requiring hospitalization, will continue to be monitored in a post-marketing surveillance program.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Costimulatory blockade of T lymphocytes with the CTLA4-Ig fusion protein abatacept could be an effective treatment for the immune-mediated neuroinflammatory disease relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). OBJECTIVE:To evaluate efficacy and safety of abatacept in RRMS. METHODS:ACCLAIM (A Cooperative Clinical Study of Abatacept in Multiple Sclerosis) was a Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial. In all, 65 of 123 planned participants with RRMS were randomized to monthly intravenous infusions of abatacept or placebo for 24?weeks in a 2:1 ratio, switched to the opposite treatment at 28?weeks, and received their final dose of study medication at 52?weeks. Enrollment was closed early due to slow accrual. The primary endpoint was the mean number of new gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions obtained on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed every 4?weeks. RESULTS:No statistically significant differences were observed in mean number of new Gd+ MRI lesions between the abatacept and placebo groups. No statistically significant differences were observed in other MRI and clinical parameters of RRMS disease activity. Abatacept was well tolerated. CONCLUSION:The ACCLAIM study did not demonstrate efficacy of abatacept in reducing the number of new Gd+ MRI lesions, or clinical measures of disease activity in RRMS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To evaluate incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with abatacept in clinical trials.<h4>Methods</h4>This pooled analysis of 16 randomized, double-blind/open-label trials, with ??1 abatacept (intravenous or subcutaneous) arm, and with/without placebo control covered cumulative (controlled short-term and open-label long-term) abatacept exposure periods. OIs were analyzed separately in controlled (abatacept and placebo individually) and cumulative periods. OIs were identified using a prespecified list; events were independently adjudicated. Unadjusted incidence rates (IRs; per 100 patient-years) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>In cumulative periods, 7044 patients received abatacept, with a mean (standard deviation) duration of exposure of 36.9 (26.2) months (21,274 patient-years of exposure). IRs (95% CIs) of OIs were 0.17 (0.05-0.43) for abatacept and 0.56 (0.22-1.15) for placebo during the controlled periods and 0.21 (0.15-0.28) for abatacept during the cumulative periods. There was 1 case of tuberculosis in both the abatacept (IR [95% CI] 0.04 [0.00-0.24]) and placebo (IR [95% CI] 0.08 [0.00-0.44]) groups during the controlled periods; 13 verified tuberculosis cases (IR [95% CI] 0.06 [0.03-0.10]) were reported in the cumulative period. Herpes zoster was reported numerically more often with abatacept (IR 1.9 [1.4-2.5]), versus placebo (1.7 [1.1-2.6]) in the controlled periods; within the cumulative period, herpes zoster IR (95% CI) was 1.53 (1.36-1.71) for abatacept-treated patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In controlled periods of the clinical trials, abatacept-treated patients had similarly low rates of OIs compared with placebo-treated patients. Overall, OI rates were similar among abatacept-treated patients in the controlled and cumulative periods and consistent with the ranges reported in the literature.
Project description:Objective:To assess the safety of abatacept treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using integrated data from multiple clinical trials. Methods:Data from nine double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of abatacept treatment (seven intravenous, two subcutaneous) in patients with RA were pooled, focusing on safety events in the double-blind treatment period of each study. Incidence rates (IRs) of adverse events (AEs) per 100 patient-years of exposure were calculated for abatacept- and placebo-treated patients. AEs in abatacept-treated patients were combined regardless of dose and formulation. Results:In total, 2653 patients received abatacept and 1485 received placebo, with 2357 and 1254 patient-years of exposure, respectively. The mean (SD) durations of exposure in the abatacept and placebo groups were 10.8 (3.3) and 10.3 (3.5) months, respectively. The IRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) for serious AEs were 14.8 (13.3, 16.5) and 14.6 (12.5, 17.0) in the abatacept and placebo groups, respectively. Death occurred in 12 (0.5%) and 12 (0.8%) patients in the abatacept and placebo groups, respectively, and was most commonly caused by cardiac disorders. Malignancies were observed in 31 patients (1.2%) treated with abatacept (IR: 1.32 [95% CI: 0.90, 1.87]) versus 14 (0.9%; IR: 1.12 [0.61, 1.88]) who received placebo. Solid organ tumor was the most frequent malignancy reported in both groups (abatacept: 1.0%; IR: 1.11 [95% CI: 0.72, 1.62]; placebo: 0.8%; 0.96 [0.50, 1.67]). Conclusion:In this integrated analysis, the IRs of safety events in the abatacept and placebo groups were similar with no new safety concerns identified.
Project description:To compare the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) abatacept.In this phase IIIb double-blind, double-dummy, 6-month study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inadequate responses to methotrexate were randomized to receive 125 mg SC abatacept on days 1 and 8 and weekly thereafter (plus an IV loading dose [?10 mg/kg] on day 1) or IV abatacept (?10 mg/kg) on days 1, 15, and 29 and every 4 weeks thereafter. The primary end point for determining the noninferiority of SC abatacept to IV abatacept was the proportion of patients in each group meeting the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (achieving an ACR20 response) at month 6. Other efficacy end points, immunogenicity, and safety were also assessed.Of 1,457 patients, 693 of 736 (94.2%) treated with SC abatacept and 676 of 721 (93.8%) treated with IV abatacept completed 6 months. At month 6, 76.0% (95% confidence interval 72.9, 79.2) of SC abatacept-treated patients versus 75.8% (95% confidence interval 72.6, 79.0) of IV abatacept-treated patients achieved an ACR20 response (estimated difference between groups 0.3% [95% confidence interval -4.2, 4.8]), confirming noninferiority of SC abatacept to IV abatacept. Onset and magnitude of ACR responses and disease activity and physical function improvements were comparable between the SC and IV abatacept-treated groups. The proportions of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs over 6 months were 67.0% and 4.2%, respectively, in the SC abatacept-treated group and 65.2% and 4.9%, respectively, in the IV abatacept-treated group, with comparable frequencies of serious infections, malignancies, and autoimmune events between groups. SC injection site reactions (mostly mild) occurred in 19 SC abatacept (IV placebo)-treated patients (2.6%) and 18 IV abatacept (SC placebo)-treated patients (2.5%). Abatacept-induced antibodies occurred in 1.1% of SC abatacept-treated patients and 2.3% of IV abatacept-treated patients.SC abatacept provides efficacy and safety comparable with that of IV abatacept, with low immunogenicity and high retention rates, consistent with the established IV abatacept profile. Rates of injection site reactions were low. SC abatacept will provide additional treatment options, such as an alternative route of administration, for patients with RA.
Project description:Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most severe complications of diabetes and remains the largest cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world. Treatment options are limited and novel therapies that effectively slow disease progression are warranted. Previous work suggested that treatment with CTLA4-Ig (abatacept), a molecule that binds and blocks B7-1 and is licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, could ameliorate DN. This study was designed to assess whether B7-1 signalling constitutes a promising therapeutic pathway for DN. Mice injected with streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with abatacept and glycemia and renal function were assessed. No differences were found in diabetes progression, albumin excretion rates or albumin/creatine ratios, while mesangial expansion was unaltered at endpoint. Except for increased renal CCL5, treatment did not affect a panel of gene expression endpoints reflecting early fibrotic changes, inflammation and kidney injury. Finally, abatacept treatment effectively reduced the accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in the kidney, suggesting that renal T cell inflammation is not a driving factor in the pathology of the STZ model. In conjunction with the recent data discounting the expression of B7-1 on podocytes, our present data do not support a role for abatacept in DN treatment.
Project description:Objective:This study is aimed at investigating the efficacy of CTLA4-Ig abatacept in normalizing proteinuria and its possible mechanism in adriamycin-induced nephropathy (AIN) rats. Methods:A total of 32 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group, an AIN group, an abatacept group, and a prednisone group. Adriamycin (6.5?mg/kg) was injected once via the tail vein of rats to induce nephrotic syndrome. After adriamycin treatment, the abatacept group rats were given abatacept (0.5?mg/kg) once by intraperitoneal injection on day 14. In addition, the prednisone group rats were given prednisone (12.5?mg/kg) daily consecutively by gavage from day 14 to day 21. Blood, urine, and kidney tissue specimens were collected when sacrificed on day 21. The 24-hour urinary protein, serum albumin, cholesterol, creatinine, and urea nitrogen were then detected. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of urine CD80 and serum IL-17. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the prevalence of circulating Treg. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and electron microscopy were used for a renal histological study. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to confirm the CD80 expression of renal tissue. Results:The 24-hour urinary protein of the abatacept group was significantly lower than that of the prednisone group and the AIN group. The level of urine CD80 of the abatacept group was significantly lower than that of the AIN group. Compared with the AIN group and the prednisone group, the circulating Treg prevalence of the abatacept group was significantly higher, while the level of serum IL-17 was lower. A negative kidney staining of CD80 expression was demonstrated in each group in this study. The 24-hour urinary protein had a negative correlation with the circulating Treg prevalence and Treg/IL-17 and a positive correlation with the urine CD80 and serum IL-17. Urinary CD80 had a positive correlation with serum IL-17 and no correlation with the circulating Treg prevalence. Conclusions:CTLA4-Ig abatacept can reduce proteinuria of adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats, possibly at least partially as a result of regulating circulating Treg/IL-17. CTLA4-Ig abatacept could be a promising regimen for idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a strong MHC class II component and where many patients develop characteristic autoantibodies towards the noncoding amino acid citrulline. Such anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have recently been put forward as an independent predictive factor for treatment response by co-stimulation blockade by CTLA4-Ig (abatacept). We have performed a mechanism of action study to dissect T cell functionality in RA patients with long-standing disease undergoing abatacept treatment and the influence of ACPA status.<h4>Results</h4>Peripheral blood samples were collected from RA patients as they started CTLA4-Ig treatment and 3 and 6 months later. A general decrease of regulatory T cell subsets was observed in the cohort. Additionally within the ACPA-positive group significant down-regulation of all key T cell effector subsets including Th1, Th2, and Th17 was observed by analyzing cytokines by intracellular flow cytometry and in cell culture supernatants.RA synovial fluid samples were cultured in vitro in the presence or absence of CTLA4-Ig (abatacept). T cell cytokine production was diminished, but without increasing the functional capacity of CD4+CD25hi regulatory T cells as previously demonstrated in the context of TNF-blockade and anti-IL6R therapy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our immunological study of T cell functionality in RA patients, both ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative starting biological therapy with the co-stimulation blockade abatacept (CTLA4-Ig) supports the recently published registry study implicating ACPA seropositivity as an independent predictive factor to treatment response as we observed the most striking effect on T cell subset modulation in ACPA-positive patients. These data further support the notion of RA as a disease with several sub-entities, where the ACPA-positive fraction represents a classical HLA-associated autoimmune disorder while ACPA-negative patients may have other driving forces apart from classical adaptive immune responses.
Project description:Abatacept population pharmacokinetics (PK) and exposure-response (E-R) models for selective efficacy end points were developed using phase 2 and 3 study data in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with abatacept (intravenous [IV] or subcutaneous [SC]), followed by simulations. Two efficacy end points were assessed in the E-R analyses: Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) and American College of Rheumatology response criteria for 20/50/70% improvement (ACR20/50/70). The analyses were performed with data from 11 clinical studies for the population PK analysis and from 3 clinical studies for the E-R analyses (DAS28 and ACR20/50/70). The PK of abatacept were time invariant and can be described by a linear 2-compartment model with first-order elimination and with zero-order IV infusion or first-order absorption for SC abatacept. Baseline body weight was the only clinically meaningful covariate; that is, abatacept clearance and volume of central compartment increased with increasing baseline body weight. Steady-state trough concentration (C<sub>minss</sub> ) of abatacept was identified as the best exposure predictor of DAS28 response compared with other exposure measures. In addition, the E-R relationship was the same for IV and SC abatacept. Similar results were confirmed in the ACR20/50/70 E-R analyses. Efficacy responses increased with increasing C<sub>minss</sub> and a near-maximal response was associated with C<sub>minss</sub> ≥10 μg/mL. The model-based analyses confirmed that the weight-tiered ∼10 mg/kg IV and fixed 125 mg SC abatacept dosing regimens are comparable and achieved plateau responses, by delivering C<sub>minss</sub> ≥10 μg/mL in RA patients across all body weights.
Project description:This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIIb study evaluated the impact of abatacept on MRI pathology as a primary outcome in methotrexate (MTX)-refractory patients with rheumatoid arthritis.Patients received intravenous abatacept (?10 mg/kg) or placebo, on background MTX, for 4 months, followed by an 8-month open-label extension (OLE; all patients received abatacept plus MTX). Patients had 1.5T MRI with intravenous contrast at baseline, Months 4 and 12; wrist synovitis (three locations assessed), and wrist and hand (15 and eight locations assessed, respectively) osteitis and erosion were scored using OMERACT-RAMRIS.26/27 abatacept- and 23/23 placebo-randomised patients completed Month 4 and entered the OLE; 26 and 21 completed Month 12. The primary endpoint was not achieved; mean change (SD) from baseline in synovitis was -0.44 (1.47) for abatacept versus 0.52 (1.38) for placebo (p=0.103) at Month 4. For mean change in synovitis adjusted for baseline score (sensitivity analysis), the difference between groups was -0.69, p=0.078. Adjusted mean changes (SE) in osteitis and erosion were -1.94 (0.86) and 0.45 (0.43) for abatacept, and 1.54 (0.90) and 0.95 (0.45) for placebo. Further MRI improvements were observed up to Month 12 for abatacept and from Months 4 to 12 for placebo-treated patients switched to abatacept at Month 4. Clinical efficacy was shown with abatacept and sustained to Month 12.Despite small patient numbers, MRI detected structural and synovial benefit, sustained to Month 12 in abatacept+MTX-treated patients, and improvements in structural and inflammatory outcomes for placebo+MTX-treated patients following addition of abatacept.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00420199.