In vivo instability of platensimycin and platencin: Synthesis and biological evaluation of urea- and carbamate-platensimycin.
ABSTRACT: Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), two natural products and promising drug leads that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases, are known to have unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties. It is not clear, however, what the metabolic fates of PTM and PTN are and no efforts have been reported to address this key roadblock in the development of these compounds as viable drug options. Here we describe the pharmacokinetics of PTM and PTN, and reveal rapid renal clearance as the primary metabolic liability with three additional sites of chemical liability: (i) amide hydrolysis, (ii) glucuronidation, and (iii) oxidation. We determined that hydrolysis is a viable clearance mechanism in vivo and synthesized two PTM analogues to address in vivo hydrolysis. Urea- and carbamate-PTM analogues showed no detectable hydrolysis in vivo, at the expense of antibacterial activity, with no further improvement in systemic exposure. The antibacterial sulfur-containing analogues PTM D1 and PTM ML14 showed significant decreases in renal clearance. These studies set the stage for continued generation of PTM and PTN analogues in an effort to improve their pharmacokinetics while retaining or improving their biological activities.
Project description:The platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) class of natural products are promising drug leads that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. Natural congeners and synthetic analogues of PTM and PTN have been instrumental in determining their structure-activity relationships, with only a few analogues retaining the potencies of PTM and PTN. Here we describe the identification and isolation of two new sulfur-containing PTM congeners (3 and 5) from the engineered dual PTM-PTN overproducing Streptomyces platensis SB12029. Structure elucidation of platensimycin D1 (5), a sulfur-containing PTM pseudo-dimer, revealed the existence of its presumptive thioacid precursor (3). The unstable thioacid 3 was isolated and confirmed by structural characterization of its permethylated product (6). LC-MS analysis of crude extracts of SB12029 confirmed the presence of the thioacid analogue of PTN (4). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 5 revealing retention of the strong antibacterial activity of PTM.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases and have emerged as promising drug leads for both antibacterial and antidiabetic therapies. Comparative analysis of the PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries in Streptomyces platensis MA7327 and MA7339 revealed that the divergence of PTM and PTN biosynthesis is controlled by dedicated ent-kaurene and ent-atiserene synthases, the latter of which represents a new pathway for diterpenoid biosynthesis. The PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries provide a rare glimpse at how secondary metabolic pathway evolution increases natural product structural diversity and support the wisdom of applying combinatorial biosynthesis methods for the generation of novel PTM and/or PTN analogues, thereby facilitating drug development efforts based on these privileged natural product scaffolds.
Project description:Natural products have served as the main source of drugs and drug leads, and natural products produced by microorganisms are one of the most prevalent sources of clinical antibiotics. Their unparalleled structural and chemical diversities provide a basis to investigate fundamental biological processes while providing access to a tremendous amount of chemical space. There is a pressing need for novel antibiotics with new mode of actions to combat the growing challenge of multidrug resistant pathogens. This review begins with the pioneering discovery and biological activities of platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN), two antibacterial natural products isolated from Streptomyces platensis. The elucidation of their unique biochemical mode of action, structure-activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics is presented to highlight key aspects of their biological activities. It then presents an overview of how microbial genomics has impacted the field of PTM and PTN and revealed paradigm-shifting discoveries in terpenoid biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and antibiotic and antidiabetic therapies. It concludes with a discussion covering the future perspectives of PTM and PTN in regard to natural products discovery, bacterial diterpenoid biosynthesis, and the pharmaceutical promise of PTM and PTN as antibiotics and for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PTM and PTN have inspired new discoveries in chemistry, biology, enzymology, and medicine and will undoubtedly continue to do so.
Project description:Inactivation of ptmB1, ptmB2, ptmT2, or ptmC in Streptomyces platensis SB12029, a platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) overproducer, revealed that PTM and PTN biosynthesis features two distinct moieties that are individually constructed and convergently coupled to afford PTM and PTN. A focused library of PTM and PTN analogues was generated by mutasynthesis in the ?ptmB1 mutant S. platensis SB12032. Of the 34 aryl variants tested, 18 were incorporated with high titers.
Project description:Several sulfur-containing platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) analogues, with activities comparable to the parent natural products, have recently been discovered from microorganisms, implying a biomimetic route to diversify the PTM and PTN scaffolds for structure-activity relationship study. We present here a substrate-directed and scaleable semisynthetic strategy to make PTM and PTN sulfur analogues with excellent diasteroselectivity, without using any chiral catalysts. Most of the sulfur analogues showed strong activities against clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5-2 ?g mL-1. Density functional theory calculations were in agreement with the observed selectivity for these analogues and suggest that the conformation restraints of the terpene cages of PTM and PTN on the transition states determine the si-face attack selectivity.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent inhibitors of bacterial fatty acid synthases and have emerged as promising antibacterial drug leads. We previously characterized the PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries in the Streptomyces platensis producers. We now identify two mechanisms for PTM and PTN resistance in the S. platensis producers-the ptmP3 or ptnP3 gene within the PTM-PTN or PTN biosynthetic cluster and the fabF gene within the fatty acid synthase locus. PtmP3/PtnP3 and FabF confer PTM and PTN resistance by target replacement and target modification, respectively. PtmP3/PtnP3 also represents an unprecedented mechanism for fatty acid biosynthesis in which FabH and FabF are functionally replaced by a single condensing enzyme. These findings challenge the current paradigm for fatty acid biosynthesis and should be considered in future development of effective therapeutics targeting fatty acid synthase.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are highly functionalized bacterial diterpenoid natural products that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. PTM and PTN feature varying diterpene-derived ketolides that are linked to the same 3-amino-2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid moiety. As a result, PTM is a selective inhibitor for FabF/FabB, while PTN is a dual inhibitor of FabF/FabB and FabH. We previously determined that the PTM cassette, consisting of five genes found in the ptm, but not ptn, gene cluster, partitions the biosynthesis of the PTM and PTN diterpene-derived ketolides. We now report investigation of the PTM cassette through the construction of diterpene production systems in E. coli and genetic manipulation in the PTM-PTN dual overproducer Streptomyces platensis SB12029, revealing two genes, ptmT3 and ptmO5, that are responsible for the biosynthetic divergence between the PTM and PTN diterpene-derived ketolides. PtmT3, a type I diterpene synthase, was determined to be a (16R)-ent-kauran-16-ol synthase, the first of its kind found in bacteria. PtmO5, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, is proposed to catalyze the formation of the characteristic 11S,16S-ether ring found in PTM. Inactivation of ptmO5 in SB12029 afforded the ?ptmO5 mutant SB12036 that accumulated nine PTM and PTN congeners, seven of which were new, including seven 11-deoxy-16R-hydroxy-PTM congeners. The two fully processed PTM analogues showed antibacterial activities, albeit lower than that of PTM, indicating that the ether ring, or minimally the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at C-16, is crucial for the activity of PTM.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases and have emerged as promising drug leads for both antibacterial and antidiabetic therapies. We have previously cloned and sequenced the PTM-PTN dual biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces platensis MA7327 and the PTN biosynthetic gene cluster from S. platensis MA7339, the latter of which is composed of 31 genes encoding PTN biosynthesis, regulation, and resistance. We have also demonstrated that PTM or PTN production can be significantly improved upon inactivation of the pathway-specific regulator ptmR1 or ptnR1 in S. platensis MA7327 or MA7339, respectively. We now report engineered production of PTN and congeners in a heterologous Streptomyces host. Expression constructs containing the ptn biosynthetic gene cluster were engineered from SuperCos 1 library clones and introduced into five model Streptomyces hosts, and PTN production was achieved in Streptomyces lividans K4-114. Inactivation of ptnR1 was crucial for expression of the ptn biosynthetic gene cluster, thereby PTN production, in S. lividans K4-114. Six PTN congeners, five of which were new, were also isolated from the recombinant strain S. lividans SB12606, revealing new insights into PTN biosynthesis. Production of PTN in a model Streptomyces host provides new opportunities to apply combinatorial biosynthetic strategies to the PTN biosynthetic machinery for structural diversity.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are members of a new class of promising drug leads that target bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases. We previously cloned and sequenced the PTM and PTN gene clusters, discovered six additional PTM-PTN dual producing strains, and demonstrated the dramatic overproduction of PTM and PTN by inactivating the pathway-specific regulators ptmR1 or ptnR1 in five different strains. Our ability to utilize these PTM-PTN dual overproducing strains was limited by their lack of genetic amenability. Here we report the construction of Streptomyces platensis SB12029, a genetically amenable, in-frame ?ptmR1 dual PTM-PTN overproducing strain. To highlight the potential of this strain for future PTM and PTN biosynthetic studies, we created the ?ptmR1 ?ptmO4 double mutant S. platensis SB12030. Fourteen PTM and PTN congeners, ten of which were new, were isolated from SB12030, shedding new insights into PTM and PTN biosynthesis. PtmO4, a long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, is strongly implicated to catalyze ?-oxidation of the diterpenoid intermediates into the PTM and PTN scaffolds. SB12029 sets the stage for future biosynthetic and bioengineering studies of the PTM and PTN family of natural products.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are highly functionalized bacterial diterpenoids of ent-kauranol and ent-atiserene biosynthetic origin. C7 oxidation in the B-ring plays a key biosynthetic role in generating structural complexity known for ent-kaurane and ent-atisane derived diterpenoids. While all three oxidation patterns, ?-hydroxyl, ?-hydroxyl, and ketone, at C7 are seen in both the ent-kaurane and ent-atisane derived diterpenoids, their biosynthetic origins remain largely unknown. We previously established that PTM and PTN are produced by a single biosynthetic machinery, featuring cryptic C7 oxidations at the B-rings that transform the ent-kauranol and ent-atiserene derived precursors into the characteristic PTM and PTN scaffolds. Here, we report a three-enzyme cascade affording C7 ?-hydroxylation in PTM and PTN biosynthesis. Combining in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that PtmO3 and PtmO6 are two functionally redundant ?-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that generate a cryptic C7 ?-hydroxyl on each of the ent-kauranol and ent-atiserene scaffolds, and PtmO8 and PtmO1, a pair of NAD+/NADPH-dependent dehydrogenases, subsequently work in concert to invert the C7 ?-hydroxyl to ?-hydroxyl via a C7 ketone intermediate. PtmO3 and PtmO6 represent the first dedicated C7 ?-hydroxylases characterized to date and, together with PtmO8 and PtmO1, provide an account for the biosynthetic origins of all three C7 oxidation patterns that may shed light on other B-ring modifications in bacterial, plant, and fungal diterpenoid biosynthesis. Given their unprecedented activities in C7 oxidations, PtmO3, PtmO6, PtmO8, and PtmO1 enrich the growing toolbox of novel enzymes that could be exploited as biocatalysts to rapidly access complex diterpenoid natural products.