Probing the activity of NTHL1 orthologs by targeting conserved amino acid residues.
ABSTRACT: The base excision repair DNA glycosylases, EcoNth and hNTHL1, are homologous, with reported overlapping yet different substrate specificities. The catalytic amino acid residues are known and are identical between the two enzymes although the exact structures of the substrate binding pockets remain to be determined. We sought to explore the sequence basis of substrate differences using a phylogeny-based design of site-directed mutations. Mutations were made for each enzyme in the vicinity of the active site and we examined these variants for glycosylase and lyase activity. Single turnover kinetics were done on a subgroup of these, comparing activity on two lesions, 5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine, with different opposite bases. We report that wild type hNTHL1 and EcoNth are remarkably alike with respect to the specificity of the glycosylase reaction, and although hNTHL1 is a much slower enzyme than EcoNth, the tighter binding of hNTHL1 compensates, resulting in similar kcat/Kd values for both enzymes with each of the substrates tested. For the hNTHL1 variant Gln287Ala, the specificity for substrates positioned opposite G is lost, but not that of substrates positioned opposite A, suggesting a discrimination role for this residue. The EcoNth Thr121 residue influences enzyme binding to DNA, as binding is significantly reduced with the Thr121Ala variant. Finally, we present evidence that hNTHL1 Asp144, unlike the analogous EcoNth residue Asp44, may be involved in resolving the glycosylase transition state.
Project description:In the present work, a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between endonuclease VIII (Endo VIII) and model DNA substrates containing damaged nucleotides, such as 5,6-dihydrouridine and 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran (F-site), was performed. The changes in the fluorescence intensity of the 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tC°) residue located in the complementary chain opposite to the specific site were recorded in the course of the enzyme-substrate interaction. The kinetics was analyzed by the stopped-flow method at different temperatures. The changes of standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sequential steps of DNA substrate binding, as well as activation enthalpy and entropy for the transition complex formation of the catalytic stage, were calculated. The comparison of the kinetic and thermodynamic data characterizing the conformational transitions of enzyme and DNA in the course of their interaction made it possible to specify the nature of the molecular processes occurring at the stages of substrate binding, recognition of the damaged base, and its removal from DNA.
Project description:The DNA glycosylases that remove oxidized DNA bases fall into two general families: the Fpg/Nei family and the Nth superfamily. Based on protein sequence alignments, we identified four putative Fpg/Nei family members, as well as a putative Nth protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All four Fpg/Nei proteins were successfully overexpressed using a bicistronic vector created in our laboratory. The MtuNth protein was also overexpressed in soluble form. The substrate specificities of the purified enzymes were characterized in vitro with oligodeoxynucleotide substrates containing single lesions. Some were further characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of products released from gamma-irradiated DNA. MtuFpg1 has substrate specificity similar to that of EcoFpg. Both EcoFpg and MtuFpg1 are more efficient at removing spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) than 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). However, MtuFpg1 shows a substantially increased opposite base discrimination compared to EcoFpg. MtuFpg2 contains only the C-terminal domain of an Fpg protein and has no detectable DNA binding activity or DNA glycosylase/lyase activity and thus appears to be a pseudogene. MtuNei1 recognizes oxidized pyrimidines on both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA and exhibits uracil DNA glycosylase activity. MtuNth recognizes a variety of oxidized bases, including urea, 5,6-dihydrouracil (DHU), 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU), 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OHC) and methylhydantoin (MeHyd). Both MtuNei1 and MtuNth excise thymine glycol (Tg); however, MtuNei1 strongly prefers the (5R) isomers, whereas MtuNth recognizes only the (5S) isomers. MtuNei2 did not demonstrate activity in vitro as a recombinant protein, but like MtuNei1 when expressed in Escherichia coli, it decreased the spontaneous mutation frequency of both the fpg mutY nei triple and nei nth double mutants, suggesting that MtuNei2 is functionally active in vivo recognizing both guanine and cytosine oxidation products. The kinetic parameters of the MtuFpg1, MtuNei1 and MtuNth proteins on selected substrates were also determined and compared to those of their E. coli homologs.
Project description:Escherichia coli endonuclease III (Endo III or Nth) is a DNA glycosylase with a broad substrate specificity for oxidized or reduced pyrimidine bases. Endo III possesses two types of activities: N-glycosylase (hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond) and AP lyase (elimination of the 3'-phosphate of the AP-site). We report a pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of structural rearrangements of the DNA substrates and uncleavable ligands during their interaction with Endo III. Oligonucleotide duplexes containing 5,6-dihydrouracil, a natural abasic site, its tetrahydrofuran analog, and undamaged duplexes carried fluorescent DNA base analogs 2-aminopurine and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine as environment-sensitive reporter groups. The results suggest that Endo III induces several fast sequential conformational changes in DNA during binding, lesion recognition, and adjustment to a catalytically competent conformation. A comparison of two fluorophores allowed us to distinguish between the events occurring in the damaged and undamaged DNA strand. Combining our data with the available structures of Endo III, we conclude that this glycosylase uses a multistep mechanism of damage recognition, which likely involves Gln(41) and Leu(81) as DNA lesion sensors.
Project description:MBD4 is a member of the methyl-CpG-binding protein family. It contains two DNA binding domains, an amino-proximal methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) and a C-terminal mismatch-specific glycosylase domain. Limited in vitro proteolysis of mouse MBD4 yields two stable fragments: a 139-residue fragment including the MBD, and the other 155-residue fragment including the glycosylase domain. Here we show that the latter fragment is active as a glycosylase on a DNA duplex containing a G:T mismatch within a CpG sequence context. The crystal structure confirmed the C-terminal domain is a member of the helix-hairpin-helix DNA glycosylase superfamily. The MBD4 active site is situated in a cleft that likely orients and binds DNA. Modeling studies suggest the mismatched target nucleotide will be flipped out into the active site where candidate residues for catalysis and substrate specificity are present.
Project description:Endonuclease VIII (Nei), which recognizes and repairs oxidized pyrimidines in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, is sparsely distributed among both the prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Recently, we and others identified three homologs of Escherichia coli endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) proteins in humans. Here, we report identification of human NEIL homologs in Mimivirus, a giant DNA virus that infects Acanthamoeba. Characterization of the two mimiviral homologs, MvNei1 and MvNei2, showed that they share not only sequence homology but also substrate specificity with the human NEIL proteins, that is, they recognize oxidized pyrimidines in duplex DNA and in bubble substrates and as well show 5'2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity. However, unlike MvNei1 and the human NEIL proteins, MvNei2 preferentially cleaves oxidized pyrimidines in single stranded DNA forming products with a different end chemistry. Interestingly, opposite base specificity of MvNei1 resembles human NEIL proteins for pyrimidine base damages whereas it resembles E. coli formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) for guanidinohydantoin (Gh), an oxidation product of 8-oxoguanine. Finally, a conserved arginine residue in the "zincless finger" motif, previously identified in human NEIL1, is required for the DNA glycosylase activity of MvNei1. Thus, Mimivirus represents the first example of a virus to carry oxidative DNA glycosylases with substrate specificities that resemble human NEIL proteins. Based on the sequence homology to the human NEIL homologs and novel bacterial NEIL homologs identified here, we predict that Mimivirus may have acquired the DNA glycosylases through the host-mediated lateral transfer from either a bacterium or from vertebrates.
Project description:DNA bases continuously undergo modifications in response to endogenous reactions such as oxidation, alkylation or deamination. The modified bases are primarily removed by DNA glycosylases, which cleave the N-glycosylic bond linking the base to the sugar, to generate an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site, and this latter lesion is highly mutagenic. Previously, no study has demonstrated the processing of these lesions in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Herein, we report the existence of uracil-DNA glycosylase and AP endonuclease activities in extracts derived from embryos of C. elegans. These enzyme activities were monitored using a defined 5'-end (32)P-labelled 42-bp synthetic oligonucleotide substrate bearing a single uracil residue opposite guanine at position 21. The embryonic extract rapidly cleaved the substrate in a time-dependent manner to produce a 20-mer product. The extract did not excise adenine or thymine opposite guanine, although uracil opposite either adenine or thymine was processed. Addition of the highly specific inhibitor of uracil-DNA glycosylase produced by Bacillus subtilis to the extract prevented the formation of the 20-mer product, indicating that removal of uracil is catalysed by uracil-DNA glycosylase. The data suggest that the 20-mer product was generated by a sequential reaction, i.e., removal of the uracil base followed by 5'-cleavage of the AP site. Further analysis revealed that product formation was dependent upon the presence of Mg(2+), suggesting that cleavage of the AP site, following uracil excision, is carried out by a Mg(2+)-dependent AP endonuclease. It would appear that these activities correspond to the first two steps of a putative base-excision-repair pathway in C. elegans.
Project description:?-Transaminases are attractive biocatalysts for the production of chiral amines. These enzymes usually have a broad substrate range. Their substrates include hydrophobic amines as well as amino acids, a feature referred to as dual-substrate recognition. In the present study, the reaction mechanism for the half-transamination of l-alanine to pyruvate in (S)-selective Chromobacterium violaceum ?-transaminase is investigated using density functional theory calculations. The role of a flexible arginine residue, Arg416, in the dual-substrate recognition is investigated by employing two active-site models, one including this residue and one lacking it. The results of this study are compared to those of the mechanism of the conversion of (S)-1-phenylethylamine to acetophenone. The calculations suggest that the deaminations of amino acids and hydrophobic amines follow essentially the same mechanism, but the energetics of the reactions differ significantly. It is shown that the amine is kinetically favored in the half-transamination of l-alanine/pyruvate, whereas the ketone is kinetically favored in the half-transamination of (S)-1-phenylethylamine/acetophenone. The calculations further support the proposal that the arginine residue facilitates the dual-substrate recognition by functioning as an arginine switch, where the side chain is positioned inside or outside of the active site depending on the substrate. Arg416 participates in the binding of l-alanine by forming a salt bridge to the carboxylate moiety, whereas the conversion of (S)-1-phenylethylamine is feasible in the absence of Arg416, which here represents the case in which the side chain of Arg416 is positioned outside of the active site.
Project description:Nanoseconds long molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of differently active complexes of human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (inactive CDK2/ATP, semiactive CDK2/Cyclin A/ATP, fully active pT160-CDK2/Cyclin A/ATP, inhibited pT14-; pY15-; and pT14,pY15,pT160-CDK2/Cyclin A/ATP) were compared. The MD simulations results of CDK2 inhibition by phosphorylation at T14 and/or Y15 sites provide insight into the structural aspects of CDK2 deactivation. The inhibitory sites are localized in the glycine-rich loop (G-loop) positioned opposite the activation T-loop. Phosphorylation of T14 and both inhibitory sites T14 and Y15 together causes ATP misalignment for phosphorylation and G-loop conformational change. This conformational change leads to the opening of the CDK2 substrate binding box. The phosphorylated Y15 residue negatively affects substrate binding or its correct alignment for ATP terminal phospho-group transfer to the CDK2 substrate. The MD simulations of the CDK2 activation process provide results in agreement with previous X-ray data.
Project description:In recent years, significant progress has been made in determining the catalytic mechanisms by which base excision repair (BER) DNA glycosylases and glycosylase-abasic site (AP) lyases cleave the glycosyl bond. While these investigations have identified active site residues and active site architectures, few investigations have analyzed postincision turnover events. Previously, we identified a critical residue (His16) in the T4-pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4-Pdg) that, when mutated, interferes with enzyme turnover [Meador et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 3348-3353]. To test whether comparable residues and mechanisms might be operative for other BER glycosylase:AP-lyases, molecular modeling studies were conducted comparing the active site regions of T4-Pdg and the Escherichia coli formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg). These analyses revealed that His71 in Fpg might perform a similar function to His16 in T4-Pdg. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Fpg gene and analyses of the reaction mechanism of the mutant enzyme revealed that the H71A enzyme retained activity on a DNA substrate containing an 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) opposite cytosine and DNA containing an AP site. The H71A Fpg mutant was severely compromised in enzyme turnover on the 8-oxoG-C substrate but had turnover rates comparable to that of wild-type Fpg on AP-containing DNA. The similar mutant phenotypes for these two enzymes, despite a complete lack of structural or sequence homology between them, suggest a common mechanism for the rate-limiting step catalyzed by BER glycosylase:AP-lyases.
Project description:The aminopeptidase PfA-M1 is a key contributor to peptide catabolism in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfA-M1 substrate specificity is shaped by the cylindrical S1 subsite, which accommodates the sidechain of the substrate P1 residue. At the top of the S1 subsite are two "cap" residues, E572 and M1034, that are positioned to influence S1 subsite specificity. In this study, we have mutated the cap residues, individually and together, and have evaluated the effects on PfA-M1 specificity and catalytic efficiency. When the P1 residue was too small to engage the cap residues, the mutations had no effect on catalysis. Hydrolysis of dipeptide substrates with a basic P1 residue was significantly impaired in the E572A mutant, most likely due to the loss of a stabilizing salt bridge between E572 and the P1 sidechain. With M1034A, a substantial reduction in catalytic efficiency was observed when the P1 sidechain was large and non-polar. The double E572A/M1034A exhibited significant decreases in catalytic efficiency for most substrates. This effect was not reversed with the polar substitutions E572N/M1034Q, which replaced the PfA-M1 cap residues with those of Escherichia coli aminopeptidase N. Both E572 and M1034 contributed to the binding of the competitive aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin.