Human CD8+ CD57- TEMRA cells: Too young to be called "old".
ABSTRACT: End-stage differentiation of antigen-specific T-cells may precede loss of immune responses against e.g. viral infections after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells detected by HLA/peptide multimers largely comprise CD45RA-/CCR7- effector memory (TEM) and CD45RA+/CCR7- TEMRA subsets. A majority of terminally differentiated T-cells is considered to be part of the heterogeneous TEMRA subset. The senescence marker CD57 has been functionally described in memory T-cells mainly composed of central memory (TCM) and TEM cells. However, its role specifically in TEMRA cells remained undefined. Here, we investigated the relevance of CD57 to separate human CD8+ TEMRA cells into functionally distinct subsets. CD57- CD8+ TEMRA cells isolated from healthy donors had considerably longer telomeres and showed significantly more BrdU uptake and IFN-? release upon stimulation compared to the CD57+ counterpart. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific T-cells isolated from patients after allogeneic SCT were purified into CD57+ and CD57- TEMRA subsets. CMV specific CD57- TEMRA cells had longer telomeres and a considerably higher CMV peptide sensitivity in BrdU uptake and IFN-? release assays compared to CD57+ TEMRA cells. In contrast, CD57+ and CD57- TEMRA cells showed comparable peptide specific cytotoxicity. Finally, CD57- CD8+ TEMRA cells partially changed phenotypically into TEM cells and gained CD57 expression, while CD57+ CD8+ TEMRA cells hardly changed phenotypically and showed considerable cell death after in vitro stimulation. To the best of our knowledge, these data show for the first time that CD57 separates CD8+ TEMRA cells into a terminally differentiated CD57+ population and a so far functionally undescribed "young" CD57- TEMRA subset with high proliferative capacity and differentiation plasticity.
Project description:Accumulating evidence demonstrates that CD8+ T cells contribute to protection from severe dengue virus (DENV) disease and vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, molecular programs associated with DENV-specific CD8+ T cell subsets have not been defined. Here, we studied the transcriptomic profiles of human DENV-specific CD8+ T cells isolated after stimulation with DENV epitopes from donors who had been infected with DENV multiple times and would therefore be expected to have significant levels of adaptive immunity. We found that DENV-specific CD8+ T cells mainly consisted of effector memory subsets, namely CD45RA-CCR7- effector memory (Tem) and CD45RA+CCR7- effector memory re-expressing CD45RA (Temra) cells, which enacted specific gene expression profiles upon stimulation with cognate antigens. DENV-specific CD8+ T cell subsets in general, and Temra cells in particular, were fully activated and polyfunctional, yet associated with relatively narrow transcriptional responses. Furthermore, we found that DENV-specific CD8+ Tem and Temra cells showed some unique T cell receptor features in terms of overlap and variable (V) gene usage. This study provides a transcriptomic definition of DENV-specific activated human CD8+ T cell subsets and defines a benchmark profile that vaccine-specific responses could aim to reproduce.
Project description:The developing immune system is an adaptive system, primed by antigens, responsive to infectious pathogens, and can be affected by other aspects of the early rearing environment, including deviations from the normal provision of parental care. We investigated whether early rearing in an institutional setting, even when followed by years living in supportive and well-resourced families, would be associated with a persistent shift in T cell profiles. Immunophenotyping was used to enumerate CD4+ CD57+ and CD8+ CD57+ subsets, with gating strategies employed to differentiate naïve, central-memory, effector-memory, and terminally differentiated EM cells expressing CD45RA (TEMRA). Blood samples were collected from 96 adolescents, and PBMC isolated via Ficol gradient, followed by an optimized immunophenotypic characterization. CMV antibody titers were determined via ELISA. Adopted adolescents had lower CD4/CD8 ratios than did the control adolescents. Early rearing had a significant effect on the T cells, especially the CD8+ CD57+ CM, EM, and TEMRA cells and the CD4+ CD57+ EM cells. Adolescents who had spent their infancy in institutions before adoption were more likely to be seropositive for CMV, with higher antibody titers. CMV antibody titers were significantly correlated with the percentages of all CD8+ CD57+ cell subsets. In the statistical modeling, CMV antibody titer also completely mediated the relationship between institutional exposure and the ratio of CD4-to-CD8 cells, as well as the percentages of CD4+ CD57+ and CD8+ CD57+ subsets. These findings demonstrate that persistent immune differences are still evident even years after adoption by supportive American families. The shift in the T cells was associated with being a latent carrier of CMV and may reflect the role of specific T cell subsets in Herpes virus containment. In older adults, sustained CMV antigen persistence and immunoregulatory containment ultimately contributes to an accumulation of differentiated T cells with a decreased proliferative capacity and to immune senescence.
Project description:Chronic T cell activation and accelerated immune senescence are hallmarks of HIV infection, which may contribute to the increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases in people living with HIV (PLWH). T lymphocytes play a central role in modulating adipose tissue inflammation and, by extension, adipocyte energy storage and release. Here, we assessed the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell profiles in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and blood of non-diabetic (n = 9; fasting blood glucose [FBG] < 100 mg/dL), pre-diabetic (n = 8; FBG = 100-125 mg/dL) and diabetic (n = 9; FBG ? 126 mg/dL) PLWH, in addition to non- and pre-diabetic, HIV-negative controls (n = 8). SAT was collected by liposuction and T cells were extracted by collagenase digestion. The proportion of naïve (TNai) CD45RO-CCR7+, effector memory (TEM) CD45RO+CCR7-, central memory (TCM) CD45RO+CCR7+, and effector memory revertant RA+(TEMRA) CD45RO-CCR7- CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were measured by flow cytometry. CD4+ and CD8+ TEM and TEMRA were significantly enriched in SAT of PLWH compared to blood. The proportions of SAT CD4+ and CD8+ memory subsets were similar across metabolic status categories in the PLWH, but CD4+ T cell expression of the CD69 early-activation and tissue residence marker, particularly on TEM cells, increased with progressive glucose intolerance. Use of t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) identified a separate group of predominantly CD69lo TEM and TEMRA cells co-expressing CD57, CX3CR1, and GPR56, which were significantly greater in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Expression of the CX3CR1 and GPR56 markers indicate these TEM and TEMRA cells may have anti-viral specificity. Compared to HIV-negative controls, SAT from PLWH had an increased CD8:CD4 ratio, but the distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ memory subsets was similar irrespective of HIV status. Finally, whole adipose tissue from PLWH had significantly higher expression of TLR2, TLR8, and multiple chemokines potentially relevant to immune cell homing compared to HIV-negative controls with similar glucose tolerance.
Project description:Flexibility of the HIV-specific T-cell receptor repertoire is a hallmark of HIV-1 infection. Altered differentiation of HIV-specific CD45RO(+)/CCR7(-) (TemRO) CD8(+) effector-memory T cells into CD45RA(+)/CCR7(-) (TemRA) CD8(+) effector-memory T cells as well as increased expression of the senescence marker CD57 has been frequently observed HIV-1 infection, but the structural relationship between clonal expansion and T-cell differentiation has not been defined. In this study, we demonstrate that HIV-specific clonotypes have differing degrees of TemRA differentiation but always maintain a significant proportion of TemRO-phenotype cells. These data indicate that structural constraints of the TCR/peptide major histocompatibility complex interaction play a central role in the TemRA differentiation of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in chronic HIV-1 infection. Clonotypes with a predominantly TemRA phenotype had a substantial fraction of cells without expression of CD57; and in contrast to the high clonotypic variability of TemRA differentiation, expression of CD57 was highly correlated among T-cell clonotypes within epitope-specific responses, indicating TCR-independent expression of CD57 in vivo. Our data highlight the importance of the structural composition of the TCR repertoire for the effector-memory differentiation of the immune response in chronic viral infections and suggest that TCR-dependent and -independent homeostasis shapes the pathogen-specific effector-memory repertoire in vivo.
Project description:The aim was to assess miRNA expression in 3 human ex-vivo CD8+ T cell subsets which span from antigen inexperienced cells (NaM-CM-/ve) to early memory cells (central memory, Tcm) and later stage memory cells (effector memory, Tem) CD8+ T cells were sorted on a FACS Aria II machine. N = naM-CM-/ve = CD8+, CCR7+, CD45RA+, CD45RO-, Tcm = central memory = CD8+, CCR7+, CD45RA-, CD45RO-,Tem= effector memory = CD8+, CCR7-, CD45RA-, CD45RO+ PBMC were isolated from 3 healthy human donors and sorted by FACS into 3 CD8+ T cell subsets. Total RNA was purified using the miRVANA kit (Ambion)
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine if immune phenotypes associated with immunosenescence predict risk of respiratory viral infection in elderly nursing home residents.<h4>Methods</h4>Residents ? 65 years from 32 nursing homes in 4 Canadian cities were enrolled in Fall 2009, 2010 and 2011, and followed for one influenza season. Following influenza vaccination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained and analysed by flow cytometry for T-regs, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets (CCR7+CD45RA+, CCR7-CD45RA+ and CD28-CD57+) and CMV-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained and tested for viruses in symptomatic residents. A Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex and frailty, determined the relationship between immune phenotypes and time to viral infection.<h4>Results</h4>1072 residents were enrolled; median age 86 years and 72% female. 269 swabs were obtained, 87 were positive for virus: influenza (24%), RSV (14%), coronavirus (32%), rhinovirus (17%), human metapneumovirus (9%) and parainfluenza (5%). In multivariable analysis, high T-reg% (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.81) and high CMV-reactive CD4+ T-cell% (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.03-2.78) were predictive of respiratory viral infection.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In elderly nursing home residents, high CMV-reactive CD4+ T-cells were associated with an increased risk and high T-regs were associated with a reduced risk of respiratory viral infection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic antigenic stimulation by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is thought to increase "immunosenesence" of aging, characterized by accumulation of terminally differentiated CD28- CD8+ T cells and increased CD57, a marker of proliferative history. Whether chronic HIV infection causes similar effects is currently unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>We compared markers of CD8+ T cell differentiation (e.g., CD28, CD27, CCR7, CD45RA) and CD57 expression on CD28- CD8+ T cells in healthy HIV-uninfected adults with and without CMV infection and in both untreated and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed HIV-infected adults with asymptomatic CMV infection.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to HIV-uninfected adults without CMV (n=12), those with asymptomatic CMV infection (n=31) had a higher proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 (P=0.005). Older age was also associated with greater proportions of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 (rho: 0.47, P=0.007). In contrast, untreated HIV-infected CMV+ participants (n=55) had much lower proportions of CD28- CD8+ cells expressing CD57 than HIV-uninfected CMV+ participants (P<0.0001) and were enriched for less well-differentiated CD28- transitional memory (TTR) CD8+ T cells (P<0.0001). Chronically HIV-infected adults maintaining ART-mediated viral suppression (n=96) had higher proportions of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 than untreated patients (P<0.0001), but continued to have significantly lower levels than HIV-uninfected controls (P=0.001). Among 45 HIV-infected individuals initiating their first ART regimen, the proportion of CD28-CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 declined (P<0.0001), which correlated with a decline in percent of transitional memory CD8+ T cells, and appeared to be largely explained by a decline in CD28-CD57- CD8+ T cell counts rather than an expansion of CD28-CD57+ CD8+ T cell counts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Unlike CMV and aging, which are associated with terminal differentiation and proliferation of effector memory CD8+ T cells, HIV inhibits this process, expanding less well-differentiated CD28- CD8+ T cells and decreasing the proportion of CD28- CD8+ T cells that express CD57.
Project description:The aim was to assess miRNA expression in 3 human ex-vivo CD8+ T cell subsets which span from antigen inexperienced cells (Naïve) to early memory cells (central memory, Tcm) and later stage memory cells (effector memory, Tem) CD8+ T cells were sorted on a FACS Aria II machine. N = naïve = CD8+, CCR7+, CD45RA+, CD45RO-, Tcm = central memory = CD8+, CCR7+, CD45RA-, CD45RO-,Tem= effector memory = CD8+, CCR7-, CD45RA-, CD45RO+ PBMC were isolated from 3 healthy human donors and sorted by FACS into 3 CD8+ T cell subsets. Total RNA was purified using the miRVANA kit (Ambion)
Project description:CD8(+) T cells play important roles in anti-tumor immunity but distribution profile or functional characteristics of effector memory subsets during tumor progression are unclear. We found that, in oral squamous carcinoma patients, circulating CD8(+) T cell pools skewed toward effector memory subsets with the distribution frequency of CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-) CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells negatively correlated with each other. A significantly higher frequency of CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells among total CD8(+) T cells was found in peripheral blood or tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, but not in regional lymph nodes. The CD127(hi) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells maintained significantly higher IFN-?, IL-2 productivity and ex vivo proliferative capacity, while the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells exhibited higher granzyme B productivity and susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A higher ratio of CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells to CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells was associated with advanced cancer staging and poor differentiation of tumor cells. Therefore, the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells are functionally similar CD8(+) T cell subsets which exhibit late differentiated effector phenotypes and the shift of peripheral CD8(+) effector memory balance toward CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells is associated with OSCC progression.
Project description:Early cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. CMVPepVax is an investigational peptide vaccine designed to control CMV infection in HCT recipients seropositive for CMV by stimulating the expansion of T cell subsets that target the CMV tegument protein pp65. In a randomized Phase Ib pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01588015), two injections of CMVPepVax (at days 28 and 56 post-HCT) demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, increased relapse-free survival, and reduced CMV reactivation and use of antivirals. In the present study, we assessed the phenotypes and time courses of the pp65-specific CD8 T cell subsets that expanded in response to CMVPepVax vaccination. The functionality and antiviral role of CMV-specific T cells have been linked to immune reconstitution profiles characterized predominantly by differentiated effector memory T (TEM) subsets that have lost membrane expression of the costimulatory molecule CD28 and often reexpress the RA isoform of CD45 (TEMRA). Major histocompatibility complex class I pp65495-503 multimers, as well as CD28 and CD45 memory markers, were used to detect immune reconstitution in blood specimens from HCT recipients enrolled in the Phase Ib clinical trial. Specimens from the 10 (out of 18) vaccinated patients who had adequate (?.2%) multimer binding to allow for memory analysis showed highly differentiated TEM and TEMRA phenotypes for pp65495-503-specific CD8 T cells during the first 100days post-transplantation. In particular, by day 70, during the period of highest risk for CMV reactivation, combined TEM and TEMRA phenotypes constituted a median of 90% of pp65495-503-specific CD8 T cells in these vaccinated patients. CMV viremia was not detectable in the patients who received CMVPepVax, although their pp65495-503-specific CD8 T cell profiles were strikingly similar to those observed in viremic patients who did not receive the vaccine. Collectively, our findings indicate that in the absence of clinically relevant viremia, CMVPepVax reconstituted significant levels of differentiated pp65495-503-specific CD8 TEMs early post-HCT. Our data indicate that the rapid reconstitution of CMV-specific T cells with marked levels of effector phenotypes may have been key to the favorable outcomes of the CMVPepVax clinical trial.