Somatic mutation detection using various targeted detection assays in paired samples of circulating tumor DNA, primary tumor and metastases from patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases.
ABSTRACT: Assessing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising method to evaluate somatic mutations from solid tumors in a minimally-invasive way. In a group of twelve metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients undergoing liver metastasectomy, from each patient DNA from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the primary tumor, metastatic liver tissue, normal tumor-adjacent colon or liver tissue, and whole blood were obtained. Investigated was the feasibility of a targeted NGS approach to identify somatic mutations in ctDNA. This targeted NGS approach was also compared with NGS preceded by mutant allele enrichment using synchronous coefficient of drag alteration technology embodied in the OnTarget assay, and for selected mutations with digital PCR (dPCR). All tissue and cfDNA samples underwent IonPGM sequencing for a CRC-specific 21-gene panel, which was analyzed using a standard and a modified calling pipeline. In addition, cfDNA, whole blood and normal tissue DNA were analyzed with the OnTarget assay and with dPCR for specific mutations in cfDNA as detected in the corresponding primary and/or metastatic tumor tissue. NGS with modified calling was superior to standard calling and detected ctDNA in the cfDNA of 10 patients harboring mutations in APC, ATM, CREBBP, FBXW7, KRAS, KMT2D, PIK3CA and TP53. Using this approach, variant allele frequencies in plasma ranged predominantly from 1 to 10%, resulting in limited concordance between ctDNA and the primary tumor (39%) and the metastases (55%). Concordance between ctDNA and tissue markedly improved when ctDNA was evaluated for KRAS, PIK3CA and TP53 mutations by the OnTarget assay (80%) and digital PCR (93%). Additionally, using these techniques mutations were observed in tumor-adjacent tissue with normal morphology in the majority of patients, which were not observed in whole blood. In conclusion, in these mCRC patients with oligometastatic disease NGS on cfDNA was feasible, but had limited sensitivity to detect all somatic mutations present in tissue. Digital PCR and mutant allele enrichment before NGS appeared to be more sensitive to detect somatic mutations.
Project description:Liquid biopsy by genotyping circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has provided a non-invasive approach in assessing tumor genomic alterations in clinical oncology. However, emerging evidence in clinical settings has shown significant discordance in the genomic alterations between matched tumor tissue and blood ctDNA samples, and even between the same set of blood samples analyzed on different testing platforms. Thus, it is necessary to study underlying causes of discrepancies in these studies by genotyping tumor tissue and ctDNA in parallel using next generation sequencing (NGS) panels based on the same technology. Here we enrolled 56 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and evaluated tumor tissue genotyping and ctDNA based liquid biopsy by parallel NGS panel testing and compared different sample preparation conditions. Somatic mutations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) were detected in 63.6% patients with early-stage NSCLC and 60% patients with advanced-stage NSCLC. The overall concordance between matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sample and cfDNA was 54.6% in early-stage NSCLC patients and 80% in advanced-stage NSCLC patients. The positive concordance rate was 44.4% and 71.4% in early-stage and advanced-stage patients, respectively. Using fresh frozen tumor samples did not improve the overall concordance rate between matched tumor tissue and cfDNA. Processing blood samples beyond 4 h after blood draw significantly decreased the detection rate of somatic mutations in cfDNA. Thus, the concordance rate between tumor tissue-based and ctDNA-based genotyping in clinical samples can be affected by multiple pre-analytical, analytical and biologic factors. Parallel NGS panel testing on both sample types for each patient may be warranted for effective guidance of cancer targeted therapies and possible early detection of cancer.
Project description:Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has emerged as a potential new biomarker with diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic applications for various solid tumor types. Before beginning large prospective clinical trials to prove the added value of utilizing ctDNA in clinical practice, it is essential to investigate the effects of various preanalytical conditions on the quality of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in general and of ctDNA in particular in order to optimize and standardize these conditions. Whole blood samples were collected from patients with metastatic cancer bearing a known somatic variant. The following preanalytical conditions were investigated: (a) different time intervals to plasma isolation (1, 24, and 96 h) and (b) different preservatives in blood collection tubes (EDTA, CellSave, and BCT). The quality of cfDNA/ctDNA was assessed by DNA quantification, digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) for somatic variant detection and a ?-actin fragmentation assay for DNA contamination from lysed leukocytes. In 11 (69%) of our 16 patients, we were able to detect the known somatic variant in ctDNA. We observed a time-dependent increase in cfDNA concentrations in EDTA tubes, which was positively correlated with an increase in wild-type copy numbers and large DNA fragments (> 420 bp). Using different preservatives did not affect somatic variant detection ability, but did stabilize cfDNA concentrations over time. Variant allele frequency was affected by fluctuations in cfDNA concentration only in EDTA tubes at 96 h. Both CellSave and BCT tubes ensured optimal ctDNA quality in plasma processed within 96 h after blood collection for downstream somatic variant detection by dPCR.
Project description:Robust identification of genetic alterations is important for the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of tumors. Screening for genetic alterations using tumor tissue samples may lead to biased interpretations because of the heterogeneous nature of the tumor mass. Liquid biopsy has been suggested as an attractive tool for the non-invasive follow-up of cancer treatment outcomes. In this study, we aimed to verify whether the mutations identified in primary tumor tissue samples could be consistently detected in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) by digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). We first examined the genetic alteration profiles of three colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) and identified 11 non-silent amino acid changes across six cancer-related genes (APC, KRAS, TP53, TERT, ARIDIA, and BRCA1). All three samples had KRAS mutations (G12V, G12C, and G13D), which were well-known driver events. Therefore, we examined the KRAS mutations by dPCR. When we examined the three KRAS mutations by dPCR using tumor tissue samples, all of them were consistently detected and the variant allele frequencies (VAFs) of the mutations were almost identical between targeted NGS and dPCR. When we examined the KRAS mutations using the plasma cfDNA of the three CRC patients by dPCR, all three mutations were consistently identified. However, the VAFs were lower (range, 0.166% to 2.638%) than those obtained using the CRC tissue samples. In conclusion, we confirmed that the KRAS mutations identified from CRC tumor tissue samples were consistently detected in the plasma cfDNA of the three CRC patients by dPCR.
Project description:Objective: Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) in general and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in particular is becoming an increasingly used form of liquid biopsy biomarkers. In this study, we are investigating the ability to detect ctDNA from the plasma of pituitary adenoma (PA) patients. Design: Tumor tissue samples were obtained from planed PA resections, before which blood plasma samples were taken. Somatic variants found in PA tissue samples were evaluated in related cfDNA, isolated from plasma samples. Methods: Sanger sequencing, as well as previously obtained whole-exome sequencing data, were used to evaluate somatic variants composition in tumor tissue samples. cfDNA was isolated from the same PA patients and competitive allele-specific TaqMan PCR and amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach were used for targeted detection of variants found in corresponding tumor tissue samples. Results: Using NGS-based analysis, we detected five out of 17 somatic variants in 40 to 60% of total reads, three variants in 0.50-5.00% of total read count, including GNAS c.601C>T, which was detected using ultra-deep NGS (1.78 million X) in 0.77% of amplicons reads. Nine variants were not detected. We also detected We were not able to detect variant found in PA tissue in cfDNA using cast-PCR, indicating that the portion of variant-containing ctDNA in total isolated cfDNA is too small to be detected with this method. Conclusions: For the first time, we demonstrate the possibility to detect somatic variants of PA in cfDNA isolated from patients' blood plasma. Whether the source of variant detected in cfDNA is PA should be further tested.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Identifying and tracking somatic mutations in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) by next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to transform the clinical management of subjects with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:Baseline tumor tissue (n?=?47) and longitudinal plasma (n?=?445) were collected from 71 NSCLC subjects treated with chemotherapy. cfDNA was enriched using a targeted-capture NGS kit containing 197 genes. Clinical responses to treatment were determined using RECIST v1.1 and correlations between changes in plasma somatic variant allele frequencies and disease progression were assessed. RESULTS:Somatic variants were detected in 89.4% (42/47) of tissue and 91.5% (407/445) of plasma samples. The most commonly mutated genes in tissue were TP53 (42.6%), KRAS (25.5%), and KEAP1 (19.1%). In some subjects, the allele frequencies of mutations detected in plasma increased 3-5?months prior to disease progression. In other cases, the allele frequencies of detected mutations declined or decreased to undetectable levels, indicating clinical response. Subjects with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) levels above background had significantly shorter progression-free survival (median: 5.6 vs 8.9?months, respectively; log-rank p?=?0.0183). CONCLUSION:Longitudinal monitoring of mutational changes in plasma has the potential to predict disease progression early. The presence of ctDNA mutations during first-line treatment is a risk factor for earlier disease progression in advanced NSCLC.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine an optimal workflow to detect TP53 mutations in baseline and longitudinal serum cell free DNA (cfDNA) from high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) patients and to define whether TP53 mutations are suitable as biomarker for disease. TP53 was investigated in tissue and archived serum from 20 HGSOC patients by a next-generation sequencing (NGS) workflow alone or combined with digital PCR (dPCR). AmpliSeq™-focused NGS panels and customized dPCR assays were used for tissue DNA and longitudinal cfDNAs, and Oncomine NGS panel with molecular barcoding was used for baseline cfDNAs. TP53 missense mutations were observed in 17 tissue specimens and in baseline cfDNA for 4/8 patients by AmpliSeq, 6/9 patients by Oncomine, and 4/6 patients by dPCR. Mutations in cfDNA were detected in 4/6 patients with residual disease and 3/4 patients with disease progression within six months, compared to 5/11 patients with no residual disease and 6/13 patients with progression after six months. Finally, mutations were detected at progression in 5/6 patients, but not during chemotherapy. NGS with molecular barcoding and dPCR were most optimal workflows to detect TP53 mutations in baseline and longitudinal serum cfDNA, respectively. TP53 mutations were undetectable in cfDNA during treatment but re-appeared at disease progression, illustrating its promise as a biomarker for disease monitoring.
Project description:Circulating cell-free tumor DNA (cfDNA) is the DNA released by apoptotic and necrotic cells of the primary tumor into the blood during the period of tumor development. The cfDNA reflects the genetic and epigenetic alterations of the original tumor. TP53 mutations are a defining feature of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. We optimized the methods for detecting TP53 mutations in cfDNA from blood samples. We confirmed the correlation of TP53 mutation in primary ovarian cancer tissue and it in cfDNA using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR).We found 12 frequent mutation sites in TP53 using The Cancer Genome Atlas and Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer data and manufactured 12 primers. The mutations in tissues were evaluated in fresh-frozen tissue (FFT) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET). We performed a prospective analysis of serial plasma samples collected from 4 patients before debulking surgery. We extracted cfDNA and calculated its concentration in blood. dPCR was used to analyze TP53 mutations in cfDNA, and we compared TP53 mutations in ovarian cancer tissue with those in cfDNA.Ten primers out of 12 detected the presence of TP53 mutations in FFT, FFPET, and cfDNA. In FFT and FFPET tissue, there were no significant differences. The average cfDNA concentration was 2.12±0.59 ng/mL. We also confirmed that mutations of cfDNA and those of FFT were all in R282W site.This study developed detection methods for TP53 mutations in cfDNA in ovarian cancer patients using dPCR. The results demonstrated that there are the same TP53 mutations in both ovarian cancer tissue and cfDNA.
Project description:Because circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) studies focusing on only one or a few genes to monitor the disease progress or treatment response are unlikely to find its clinical significance, the development of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) panel covering hundreds of mutation hot spots is important for the establishment of clinically practical ctDNA detection system. We enrolled 101 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who received chemotherapy. Amplicon-based genomic profiling of 14 genes, which are commonly mutated in CRC, in plasma by next-generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of this assay and was compared with their clinical parameters and RAS status in matched tissue samples. Somatic mutations of the 14 genes in plasma cfDNA were detected in 88 patients (87.1%) with mCRC. Mutations in TP53, KRAS, and APC genes were detected in 70 (69.3%), 39 (38.6%), and 24 (23.7%) patients, respectively. Mutant allele frequencies in plasma were significantly associated with metastasis (liver, P = 0.00004, lymph node, P = 0.008, number of metastatic organs, P = 0.0006), tumor markers (CEA, P = 0.000007, CA19-9, P = 0.006, LDH, P = 0.00001), and tumor diameter (maximum, P = 0.00002, sum of diameter, P = 0.00009). The overall concordance rate of RAS status between ctDNA and matched tissue was 77.2% (78/101). Our data confirmed that mutant allele in cfDNA can be sensitively detected by amplicon-based NGS system. These results suggest that ctDNA could be a novel diagnostic biomarker to monitor changes in mutational status and tumor burden in patients with mCRC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Central nervous system lymphomas (CNSL) is a devastating disease. Currently, a confirmatory biopsy is required prior to treatment. OBJECTIVE:Our investigation aims to prove the feasibility of a minimally-invasive diagnostic approach for the molecular characterization of CNSL. METHODS:Tissue biopsies from 6 patients with suspected CNSL were analyzed using a 649gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) tumor panel (tumor vs. reference tissue (EDTA-blood)). The individual somatic mutation pattern was used as a basis for the digital PCR analyzing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, identifying one selected tumor mutation during this first step of the feasibility investigation. RESULTS:NGS-analysis of biopsy tissue revealed a specific somatic mutation pattern in all confirmed lymphoma samples (n = 5, NGS-sensitivity 100%) and none in the sample identified as normal brain tissue (NGS-specificity 100%). cfDNA-extraction was dependent on the extraction-kit used and feasible in 3 samples, in all of which somatic mutations were detectable (100%). Analysis of CSF-derived cfDNA was superior to plasma-derived cfDNA and routine microscopic analysis (lymphoma cells: n = 2, 40%). One patient showed a divergent molecular pattern, typical of Burkitt-Lymphoma (HIV+, serologic evidence of EBV-infection). Lumbar puncture was tolerated without complications, whereas biopsy caused 3 hemorrhages. CONCLUSIONS:Our investigation provides evidence that analysis of cfDNA in central nervous system tumors is feasible using the described protocol. Molecular characterization of CNSL could be achieved by analysis of CSF-derived cfDNA. Knowledge of a tumor's specific mutation pattern may allow initiation of targeted therapies, treatment surveillance and could lead to minimally-invasive diagnostics in the future.
Project description:In metastatic colorectal cancer, RAS and BRAF mutations cause resistance to anti-EGFR therapies, such as cetuximab. Heterogeneity in RAS and BRAF mutations might explain nonresponse in a subset of patients receiving cetuximab. Analyzing mutations in plasma-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could provide a more comprehensive overview of the mutational landscape as compared to analyses of primary and/or metastatic tumor tissue. Therefore, this prospective multicenter study followed 34 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who were tissue-tested as RAS wild-type (exons 2-4) during routine work-up and received third-line cetuximab monotherapy. BRAF mutation status was also tested but did not exclude patients from therapy. At baseline and upon disease progression, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was isolated for targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). At 8 weeks, we determined that patients had benefited from treatment. NGS of cfDNA identified three patients with RAS mutations not detected in tumor tissue during routine work-up. Another six patients had a BRAF or rare RAS mutation in ctDNA and/or tumor tissue. Relative to patients without mutations in RAS/BRAF, patients with mutations at baseline had shorter progression-free survival [1.8 versus 4.9 months (P < 0.001)] and overall survival [3.1 versus 9.4 months (P = 0.001)]. In patients with clinical benefit (progressive disease after 8 weeks), ctDNA testing revealed previously undetected mutations in RAS/BRAF (71%) and EGFR (47%), which often emerged polyclonally. Our results indicate that baseline NGS of ctDNA can identify additional RAS mutation carriers, which could improve patient selection for anti-EGFR therapies. Acquired resistance, in patients with initial treatment benefit, is mainly explained by polyclonal emergence of RAS, BRAF, and EGFR mutations in ctDNA.