Recombinant heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1) protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in human cervical cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogen with several well-described toxicological effects in humans, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1)-a multifunctional protein chaperone-has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis triggered by Cd exposure. The aims of this work were to investigate the potential use of extracellular recombinant HSP27 to prevent/counteract Cd-induced cellular toxicity and to evaluate if peroxynitrite was involved in the development of Cd-induced toxicity. Here, we report that the harmful effects of Cd correlated with changes in oxidative stress markers: upregulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, increment in lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite (PN), and protein nitration; intracellular HSP27 was reduced. Treatments with Cd (100 ?M) for 24 h or with the peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1, decreased HSP27 levels (~50%), suggesting that PN formation is responsible for the reduction of HSP27. Pre-treatments of the cells either with N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (a pharmacological inhibitor of NO synthase) or with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) attenuated the disruption of the cellular metabolism induced by Cd, increasing in a 55 and 52%, respectively, the cell viability measured by CCK-8. Cd induced necrotic cell death pathways, although apoptosis was also activated; pre-treatment with L-NAME or rHSP27 mitigated cell death. Our findings show for the first time a direct relationship between Cd-induced toxicity and PN production and a role for rHSP27 as a potential therapeutic agent that may counteract Cd toxicity.
Project description:The formation of acellular capillaries in the retina, a hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy, is caused by apoptosis of endothelial cells and pericytes. The biochemical mechanism of such apoptosis remains unclear. Small heat shock proteins play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. In the diabetic retina, pro-inflammatory cytokines are upregulated. In this study, we investigated the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) in human retinal endothelial cells (HREC). In HREC cultured in the presence of cytokine mixtures (CM), a significant downregulation of Hsp27 at the protein and mRNA level occurred, with no effect on HSF-1, the transcription factor for Hsp27. The presence of high glucose (25mM) amplified the effects of cytokines on Hsp27. CM activated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and enhanced the production of kynurenine and ROS. An inhibitor of IDO, 1-methyl tryptophan (MT), inhibited the effects of CM on Hsp27. CM also upregulated NOS2 and, consequently, nitric oxide (NO). A NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, and a ROS scavenger blocked the CM-mediated Hsp27 downregulation. While a NO donor in the culture medium did not decrease the Hsp27 content, a peroxynitrite donor and exogenous peroxynitrite did. The cytokines and high glucose-induced apoptosis of HREC were inhibited by MT and L-NAME. Downregulation of Hsp27 by a siRNA treatment promoted apoptosis in HREC. Together, these data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines induce the formation of ROS and NO, which, through the formation of peroxynitrite, reduce the Hsp27 content and bring about apoptosis of retinal capillary endothelial cells.
Project description:High expression of Hsp27 in glioma cells has been closely associated with tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition. The aim of the present study was to asses the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) on Hsp27 expression and apoptosis in non-transfected and transfected human U-87 MG cells. The effect of rosmarinic acid was compared to quercetin, which is known to be a good Hsp27 inhibitor. In order to block the expression of Hsp27 gene (HSPB1), transfection with specific siRNAs was performed. Western blotting technique was used to assess the Hsp27 expression, and caspase-3 colorimetric activity assay was performed to determine apoptosis induction. According to the results, it was found that RA and quercetin effectively silenced Hsp27 and both agents induced apoptosis by activating the caspase-3 pathway. Eighty and 215 μM RA decreased the level of Hsp27 by 28.8 and 46.7% and induced apoptosis by 30 and 54%, respectively. For the first time, we reported that rosmarinic acid has the ability to trigger caspase-3 induced apoptosis in human glioma cells. As a result of siRNA transfection, the Hsp27 gene was silenced by ~ 50% but did not cause a statistically significant change in caspase-3 activation. It was also observed that apoptosis was induced at a higher level as a result of Hsp27 siRNA and subsequent quercetin or RA treatment. siRNA transfection and 215 μM RA treatment suppressed Hsp27 expression level by 90.5% and increased caspase-3 activity by 58%. Herein, we demonstrated that RA administered with siRNA seems to be a potent combination for glioblastoma therapy.
Project description:The tyrosine kinase encoded by the MET oncogene is activated by gene mutation or amplification in tumors, which in most instances maintain addiction, i.e., dependency, to MET activation. This makes MET an attractive candidate for targeted therapies. Here we show that, in 3/3 MET-addicted human gastric cancer cell lines, MET kinase inhibition resulted in a 3- to 4-fold increased expression of the antiapoptotic small heat-shock protein of 27 kDa (HSP27, HSPB1). HSP27 increase depended on the inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway and on heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) regulation. Importantly, HSP27-silenced MET-addicted cells underwent 2- and 3-fold more apoptosis following MET inhibition in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Likewise, in human cancer cells susceptible to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, EGFR inhibitors induced HSP27 expression and were strengthened by HSP27 suppression. In control cell lines that were not affected by drugs targeting MET or EGFR, these drugs did not induce HSP27 increase. Therefore, in cancer therapies targeting the MET pathway, the induction of HSP27 might limit the efficacy of anti-MET agents. As HSP27 increase also impairs the effectiveness of EGFR inhibitors and is known to protect cells from chemotherapeutics, the induction of HSP27 by targeted agents might strongly affect the success of combination treatments.
Project description:In vitro, small Hsps (heat-shock proteins) have been shown to have chaperone function capable of keeping unfolded proteins in a form competent for Hsp70-dependent refolding. However, this has never been confirmed in living mammalian cells. In the present study, we show that Hsp27 (HspB1) translocates into the nucleus upon heat shock, where it forms granules that co-localize with IGCs (interchromatin granule clusters). Although heat-induced changes in the oligomerization status of Hsp27 correlate with its phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, Hsp27 phosphorylation alone is not sufficient for effective nuclear translocation of HspB1. Using firefly luciferase as a heat-sensitive reporter protein, we demonstrate that HspB1 expression in HspB1-deficient fibroblasts enhances protein refolding after heat shock. The positive effect of HspB1 on refolding is completely diminished by overexpression of Bag-1 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene), the negative regulator of Hsp70, consistent with the idea of HspB1 being the substrate holder for Hsp70. Although HspB1 and luciferase both accumulate in nuclear granules after heat shock, our results suggest that this is not related to the refolding activity of HspB1. Rather, granular accumulation may reflect a situation of failed refolding where the substrate is stored for subsequent degradation. Consistently, we found 20S proteasomes concentrated in nuclear granules of HspB1 after heat shock. We conclude that HspB1 contributes to an increased chaperone capacity of cells by binding unfolded proteins that are hereby kept competent for refolding by Hsp70 or that are sorted to nuclear granules if such refolding fails.
Project description:Human small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) undergoes concentration-dependent equilibrium dissociation from an ensemble of large oligomers to a dimer. This phenomenon plays a critical role in Hsp27 chaperone activity in vitro enabling high affinity binding to destabilized proteins. In vivo dissociation, which is regulated by phosphorylation, controls Hsp27 role in signaling pathways. In this study, we explore the sequence determinants of Hsp27 dissociation and define the structural basis underlying the increased affinity of Hsp27 dimers to client proteins. A systematic cysteine mutagenesis is carried out to identify residues in the N-terminal domain important for the equilibrium between Hsp27 oligomers and dimers. In addition, spin-labels were attached to the cysteine mutants to enable electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of residue environment and solvent accessibility in the context of the large oligomers, upon dissociation to the dimer, and following complex formation with the model substrate T4 Lysozyme (T4L). The mutagenic analysis identifies residues that modulate the equilibrium dissociation in favor of the dimer. EPR analysis reveals that oligomer dissociation disrupts subunit contacts leading to the exposure of Hsp27 N-terminal domain to the aqueous solvent. Moreover, regions of this domain are highly dynamic with no evidence of a packed core. Interaction between T4L and sequences in this domain is inferred from transition of spin-labels to a buried environment in the substrate/Hsp27 complex. Together, the data provide the first structural analysis of sHSP dissociation and support a model of chaperone activity wherein unstructured and highly flexible regions in the N-terminal domain are critical for substrate binding.
Project description:The small heat-shock protein of 27 kDa (HSP27) is highly expressed in many cancers and is associated with aggressive tumour behaviour, metastasis, poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. We aimed at assessing the role of HSP27 in modulating responses to target therapies. We selected several oncogene-addicted cancer cell lines, which undergo either cell cycle blockade or cell death in response to agents that target the specific oncogene. Surprisingly, HSP27 suppression alone resulted in the apoptotic death of MET-addicted EBC-1 lung cancer cells, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-addicted colorectal carcinoma (CRC) DiFi cells and BRAF-addicted CRC COLO205 and OXCO-1 and melanoma COLO741 cells, all of which also undergo death when treated with the specific targeted agent. In other cell lines, such as MET-addicted gastric carcinoma MKN45 and EGFR-addicted CRC SW48 lines, where oncogene inhibition only blocked proliferation, HSP27 knockdown made targeted agents switch from cytostatic to cytotoxic activity. Mechanistically, the more the cells were susceptible to HSP27 suppression, the more they were primed for death, as demonstrated by increased levels of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Priming for death was accompanied by the increase in pro-apoptotic proteins of the BCL2 family and of active caspase-3 and lamin B. Together, these data suggest that oncogene-addicted cells require HSP27 for survival and that HSP27 might interfere with the effectiveness of targeted agents.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The small stress heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has recently turned as a promising target for cancer treatment. Hsp27 upregulation is associated with tumour growth and resistance to chemo- and radio-therapeutic treatments, and several ongoing drugs inhibiting Hsp27 expression are under clinical trial. Hsp27 is now well described to counteract apoptosis and its elevated expression is associated with increased aggressiveness of several primary tumours. However, its role in the later stage of tumour progression and, more specifically, in the later and most deadly stage of tumour metastasis is still unclear.<h4>Methods/results</h4>In the present study, we showed by qRT-PCR that Hsp27 gene is overexpressed in a large fraction of the metastatic breast cancer area in 53 patients. We further analysed the role of this protein in mice during bone metastasis invasion and establishment by using Hsp27 genetically depleted MDA-MB231/B02 human breast cancer cell line as a model. We demonstrate that Hsp27 silencing led to reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro and that in vivo it correlated with a decreased ability of breast cancer cells to metastasise and grow in the skeleton.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Altogether, these data characterised Hsp27 as a potent therapeutic target in breast cancer bone metastasis and skeletal tumour growth.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Despite its effectiveness in the treatment of various cancers, the use of doxorubicin is limited by a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy. Prevention of this cardiotoxicity remains a critical issue in clinical oncology. We hypothesized that flavaglines, a family of natural compounds that display potent neuroprotective effects, may also alleviate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our in vitro data established that a pretreatment with flavaglines significantly increased viability of doxorubicin-injured H9c2 cardiomyocytes as demonstrated by annexin V, TUNEL and active caspase-3 assays. We demonstrated also that phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein Hsp27 is involved in the mechanism by which flavaglines display their cardioprotective effect. Furthermore, knocking-down Hsp27 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes completely reversed this cardioprotection. Administration of our lead compound (FL3) to mice attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis, as reflected by a 50% decrease of mortality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest a prophylactic potential of flavaglines to prevent doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity.
Project description:Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, HSPB1) is an anti-apoptotic protein characterized for its tumorigenic and metastatic properties, and now referenced as a major therapeutic target in many types of cancer. The biochemical properties of HSP27 rely on a structural oligomeric and dynamic organization that is important for its chaperone activity. Down-regulation by small interfering RNA or inhibition with a dominant-negative mutant efficiently counteracts the anti-apoptotic and protective properties of HSP27. However, unlike other HSPs such as HSP90 and HSP70, small molecule approaches for neutralization of HSP27 are not well established because of the absence of an ATP binding domain. Previously, we found that a small molecule, zerumbone (ZER), induced altered dimerization of HSP27 by cross linking the cysteine residues required to build a large oligomer, led to sensitization in combination with radiation. In this study, we identified another small molecule, a xanthone compound, more capable of altering dimeric HSP27 than ZER and yielding sensitization in human lung cancer cells when combined with HSP90 inhibitors or standard anticancer modalities such as irradiation and cytotoxic anticancer drugs. Therefore, altered dimerization of HSP27 represents a good strategy for anticancer therapy in HSP27-overexpressing cancer cells.
Project description:Previously, we identified the stress-induced chaperone, Hsp27, as highly overexpressed in castration-resistant prostate cancer and developed an Hsp27 inhibitor (OGX-427) currently tested in phase I/II clinical trials as a chemosensitizing agent in different cancers. To better understand the Hsp27 poorly-defined cytoprotective functions in cancers and increase the OGX-427 pharmacological safety, we established the Hsp27-protein interaction network using a yeast two-hybrid approach and identified 226 interaction partners. As an example, we showed that targeting Hsp27 interaction with TCTP, a partner protein identified in our screen increases therapy sensitivity, opening a new promising field of research for therapeutic approaches that could decrease or abolish toxicity for normal cells. Results of an in-depth bioinformatics network analysis allying the Hsp27 interaction map into the human interactome underlined the multifunctional character of this protein. We identified interactions of Hsp27 with proteins involved in eight well known functions previously related to Hsp27 and uncovered 17 potential new ones, such as DNA repair and RNA splicing. Validation of Hsp27 involvement in both processes in human prostate cancer cells supports our system biology-predicted functions and provides new insights into Hsp27 roles in cancer cells.