A genome wide association study of fast beta EEG in families of European ancestry.
ABSTRACT: Differences in fast beta (20-28Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory activity distinguish some individuals with psychiatric and substance use disorders, suggesting that it may be a useful endophenotype for studying the genetics of disorders characterized by neural hyper-excitability. Despite the high heritability estimates provided by twin and family studies, there have been relatively few genetic studies of beta EEG, and to date only one genetic association finding has replicated (i.e., GABRA2).In a sample of 1564 individuals from 117 families of European Ancestry (EA) drawn from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) on resting-state fronto-central fast beta EEG power, adjusting regression models for family relatedness, age, sex, and ancestry. To further characterize genetic findings, we examined the functional and behavioral significance of GWAS findings.Three intronic variants located within DSE (dermatan sulfate epimerase) on 6q22 were associated with fast beta EEG at a genome wide significant level (p<5×10-8). The most significant SNP was rs2252790 (p<2.6×10-8; MAF=0.36; ?=0.135). rs2252790 is an eQTL for ROS1 expressed most robustly in the temporal cortex (p=1.2×10-6) and for DSE/TSPYL4 expressed most robustly in the hippocampus (p=7.3×10-4; ?=0.29). Previous studies have indicated that DSE is involved in a network of genes integral to membrane organization; gene-based tests indicated that several variants within this network (i.e., DSE, ZEB2, RND3, MCTP1, and CTBP2) were also associated with beta EEG (empirical p<0.05), and of these genes, ZEB2 and CTBP2 were associated with DSM-V Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD; empirical p<0.05).'In this sample of EA families enriched for AUDs, fast beta EEG is associated with variants within DSE on 6q22; the most significant SNP influences the mRNA expression of DSE and ROS1 in hippocampus and temporal cortex, brain regions important for beta EEG activity. Gene-based tests suggest evidence of association with related genes, ZEB2, RND3, MCTP1, CTBP2, and beta EEG. Converging data from GWAS, gene expression, and gene-networks presented in this study provide support for the role of genetic variants within DSE and related genes in neural hyperexcitability, and has highlighted two potential candidate genes for AUD and/or related neurological conditions: ZEB2 and CTBP2. However, results must be replicated in large, independent samples.
Project description:Fast beta (20-28?Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory activity may be a useful endophenotype for studying the genetics of disorders characterized by neural hyperexcitability, including substance use disorders (SUDs). However, the genetic underpinnings of fast beta EEG have not previously been studied in a population of African-American ancestry (AA). In a sample of 2382 AA individuals from 482 families drawn from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on resting-state fast beta EEG power. To further characterize our genetic findings, we examined the functional and clinical/behavioral significance of GWAS variants. Ten correlated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (r2>0.9) located in an intergenic region on chromosome 3q26 were associated with fast beta EEG power at P<5 × 10-8. The most significantly associated SNP, rs11720469 (?: -0.124; P<4.5 × 10-9), is also an expression quantitative trait locus for BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase), expressed in thalamus tissue. Four of the genome-wide SNPs were also associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Alcohol Dependence in COGA AA families, and two (rs13093097, rs7428372) were replicated in an independent AA sample (Gelernter et al.). Analyses in the AA adolescent/young adult (offspring from COGA families) subsample indicated association of rs11720469 with heavy episodic drinking (frequency of consuming 5+ drinks within 24?h). Converging findings presented in this study provide support for the role of genetic variants within 3q26 in neural and behavioral disinhibition. These novel genetic findings highlight the importance of including AA populations in genetics research on SUDs and the utility of the endophenotype approach in enhancing our understanding of mechanisms underlying addiction susceptibility.
Project description:Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. To identify genetic variants underlying BD genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out. While many variants of small effect associated with BD have been identified few have yet been confirmed, partly because of the low power of GWAS due to multiple comparisons being made. Complementary mapping studies using murine models have identified genetic variants for behavioral traits linked to BD, often with high power, but these identified regions often contain too many genes for clear identification of candidate genes. In the current study we have aligned human BD GWAS results and mouse linkage studies to help define and evaluate candidate genes linked to BD, seeking to use the power of the mouse mapping with the precision of GWAS. We use quantitative trait mapping for open field test and elevated zero maze data in the largest mammalian model system, the BXD recombinant inbred mouse population, to identify genomic regions associated with these BD-like phenotypes. We then investigate these regions in whole genome data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's bipolar disorder GWAS to identify candidate genes associated with BD. Finally we establish the biological relevance and pathways of these genes in a comprehensive systems genetics analysis. We identify four genes associated with both mouse anxiety and human BD. While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1, and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR coexpress with genes linked to psychiatric disorders and identify the striatum as a potential site of action. CMYA5, MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR are associated with mouse anxiety and human BD. We hypothesize that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR influence intercellular signaling in the striatum.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) damages multiple organs by producing various autoantibodies. Insufficient interleukin-2 (IL-2) production causes decreased regulatory T cells and permits expansion of autoreactive T cells in the development of SLE. We here show that decreased miR-200a-3p causes IL-2 hypoproduction through directly recruiting ZEB1 or ZEB2 and CtBP2 (ZEB1/ZEB2-CtBP2) complex in SLE T cells. First, we performed RNA sequencing with Illumina Hiseq to obtain the candidate miRNAs and mRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. We found that miR-200a-3p was significantly downregulated, while its putative targets, ZEB2 and CtBP2 were upregulated in CD4+ T cells in MRL/lpr lupus model mice compared with those of C57BL/6J control mice. ZEB1 and ZEB2 compose ZEB family and suppress various genes including IL-2 by recruiting CtBP2. IL-2 plays a critical role in immune tolerance and IL-2 defect has been recognized in SLE pathogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased miR-200a-3p cause IL-2 defect through ZEB1/ZEB2-CtBP2 complex in SLE CD4+T cells. Overexpression of miR-200a-3p induced IL-2 production though downregulating ZEB1, ZEB2 and CtBP2 in EL4 cell lines. We further revealed that miR-200a-3p promote IL-2 expression by reducing the bindings of suppressive ZEB1/ZEB2-CtBP2 complex on NRE-A of IL-2 promoter in SLE murine T cells. Interestingly, ZEB1/ZEB2-CtBP2 complex on NRE-A (a negative regulatory element) were significantly upregulated after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and ionomycin (PMA/Iono) stimulation in lupus T cells. Our findings provide a new insight for the epigenetic regulation of IL-2 defect in SLE. Overall design: To identify the new candidate miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of SLE, we performed Illumina Hiseq to analyze the expression of miRNA and mRNA of CD4+ T cell isolated from spleens in MRL/lpr-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL) mice and C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Both mice are female, 16 weeks old. For Illumina analysis, we used one mouse of MRL mice and two mice of B6 mice.
Project description:Higher resting heart rate is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Though heritable factors play a substantial role in population variation, little is known about specific genetic determinants. This knowledge can impact clinical care by identifying novel factors that influence pathologic heart rate states, modulate heart rate through cardiac structure and function or by improving our understanding of the physiology of heart rate regulation. To identify common genetic variants associated with heart rate, we performed a meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 38,991 subjects of European ancestry, estimating the association between age-, sex- and body mass-adjusted RR interval (inverse heart rate) and approximately 2.5 million markers. Results with P < 5 × 10(-8) were considered genome-wide significant. We constructed regression models with multiple markers to assess whether results at less stringent thresholds were likely to be truly associated with RR interval. We identified six novel associations with resting heart rate at six loci: 6q22 near GJA1; 14q12 near MYH7; 12p12 near SOX5, c12orf67, BCAT1, LRMP and CASC1; 6q22 near SLC35F1, PLN and c6orf204; 7q22 near SLC12A9 and UfSp1; and 11q12 near FADS1. Associations at 6q22 400 kb away from GJA1, at 14q12 MYH6 and at 1q32 near CD34 identified in previously published GWAS were confirmed. In aggregate, these variants explain approximately 0.7% of RR interval variance. A multivariant regression model including 20 variants with P < 10(-5) increased the explained variance to 1.6%, suggesting that some loci falling short of genome-wide significance are likely truly associated. Future research is warranted to elucidate underlying mechanisms that may impact clinical care.
Project description:The intravenous injection of the anaesthetic propofol is clinical routine to induce loss of responsiveness (LOR). However, there are only a few studies investigating the influence of the injection rate on the frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) during LOR. Therefore, we focused on changes of the frontal EEG especially during this period. We included 18 patients which were randomly assigned to a slow or fast induction group and recorded the frontal EEG. Based on this data, we calculated the power spectral density, the band powers and band ratios. To analyse the behaviour of processed EEG parameters we calculated the beta ratio, the spectral entropy, and the spectral edge frequency. Due to the prolonged induction period in the slow injection group we were able to distinguish loss of responsiveness to verbal command (LOvR) from loss of responsiveness to painful stimulus (LOpR) whereas in the fast induction group we could not. At LOpR, we observed a higher relative alpha and beta power in the slow induction group while the relative power in the delta range was lower than in the fast induction group. When concentrating on the slow induction group the increase in relative alpha power pre-LOpR and even before LOvR indicated that frontal EEG patterns, which have been suggested as an indicator of unconsciousness, can develop before LOR. Further, LOvR was best reflected by an increase of the alpha to delta ratio, and LOpR was indicated by a decrease of the beta to alpha ratio. These findings highlight the different spectral properties of the EEG at various levels of responsiveness and underline the influence of the propofol injection rate on the frontal EEG during induction of general anesthesia.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable disease of the lung that is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), resulting in disruption of normal lung function. The signals regulating fibrosis include both transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) and tissue rigidity and a major signaling pathway implicated in fibrosis involves activation of the GTPase RhoA. During studies exploring how elevated RhoA activity is sustained in IPF, we discovered that not only is RhoA activated by profibrotic stimuli but also that the expression of Rnd3, a major antagonist of RhoA activity, and the activity of p190RhoGAP (p190), a Rnd3 effector, are both suppressed in IPF fibroblasts. Restoration of Rnd3 levels in IPF fibroblasts results in an increase in p190 activity, a decrease in RhoA activity and a decrease in the overall fibrotic phenotype. We also find that treatment with IPF drugs nintedanib and pirfenidone decreases the fibrotic phenotype and RhoA activity through up-regulation of Rnd3 expression and p190 activity. These data provide evidence for a pathway in IPF where fibroblasts down-regulate Rnd3 levels and p190 activity to enhance RhoA activity and drive the fibrotic phenotype.
Project description:During aging, intracranial volume remains unchanged and represents maximally attained brain size, while various interacting biological phenomena lead to brain volume loss. Consequently, intracranial volume and brain volume in late life reflect different genetic influences. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 8,175 community-dwelling elderly persons did not reveal any associations at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for brain volume. In contrast, intracranial volume was significantly associated with two loci: rs4273712 (P = 3.4 × 10(-11)), a known height-associated locus on chromosome 6q22, and rs9915547 (P = 1.5 × 10(-12)), localized to the inversion on chromosome 17q21. We replicated the associations of these loci with intracranial volume in a separate sample of 1,752 elderly persons (P = 1.1 × 10(-3) for 6q22 and 1.2 × 10(-3) for 17q21). Furthermore, we also found suggestive associations of the 17q21 locus with head circumference in 10,768 children (mean age of 14.5 months). Our data identify two loci associated with head size, with the inversion at 17q21 also likely to be involved in attaining maximal brain size.
Project description:Chronic renal failure (CRF), also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a common renal disorder characterized by gradual kidney dysfunction. Molecular dissection reveals that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of CRF. However, the mechanism underlying TGF-? upregulation has not been demonstrated. Here, we verified that the elevated level of TGF-? was associated with the severity of CRF stages and the activation of TGF-?-mediated signaling in 120 renal biopsies from CRF patients. By analyzing the promoter region of the TGFB1 gene, we identified one AP-1 (activator protein 1) and four NF-?B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) binding sites. Knockdown of two AP-1 subunits (c-Jun and c-FOS) or blockage of AP-1 signaling with two inhibitors T-5224 and SR11302 could cause the downregulation of TGFB1, whereas knockdown of two NF-?B subunits (p65 and p50) or blockage of NF-?B signaling with two inhibitors TPCA1 and BOT-64 could not change the expression of TGFB1. Using mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation analyses, we found that both c-Jun and c-FOS formed a complex with CtBP2 (C-terminal binding protein 2) and histone acetyltransferase p300. Our in vitro data demonstrated that induction of CtBP2 by recombinant IL-1? (interleukin-1 beta) led to the upregulation of TGFB1 and the activation of TGF-? downstream signaling, while knockdown of CtBP2 resulted in the reversed effects. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we revealed that the CtBP2-p300-AP1 complex specifically bound to the promoter of TGFB and that knockdown or blockage of CtBP2 significantly decreased the occupancies of the p300 and AP-1 subunits. Our results support a model in which the CtBP2-p300-AP1 transcriptional complex activates the expression of TGFB1, increasing its production and extracellular secretion. The secreted TGF-? binds to its receptors and initiates downstream signaling.
Project description:Abnormal resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations are reported in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder, illnesses with overlapping symptoms and genetic risk. However, less evidence exists on whether similar EEG spectral abnormalities are present in individuals with both disorders or whether these abnormalities are present in first-degree relatives, possibly representing genetic predisposition for these disorders.Investigators examined 64-channel resting state EEGs of 225 SZ probands and 201 first-degree relatives (SZR), 234 psychotic bipolar (PBP) probands and 231 first-degree relatives (PBPR), and 200 healthy control subjects. Eight independent resting state EEG spectral components and associated spatial weights were derived using group independent component analysis. Analysis of covariance was conducted on spatial weights to evaluate group differences. Relative risk estimates and familiality were evaluated on abnormal spectral profiles in probands and relatives.Both SZ and PBP probands exhibited increased delta, theta, and slow and fast alpha activity. Post-hoc pair-wise comparison revealed increased frontocentral slow beta activity in SZ and PBP probands as well as SZR and PBPR. Augmented frontal delta activity was exhibited by SZ probands and SZR, whereas PBP probands and PBPR showed augmented fast alpha activity.Both SZ and PBP probands demonstrated aberrant low-frequency activity. Slow beta activity was abnormal in SZ and PBP probands as well as SZR and PBPR perhaps indicating a common endophenotype for both disorders. Delta and fast alpha activity were unique endophenotypes for SZ and PBP probands, respectively. The EEG spectral activity exhibited moderate relative risk and heritability estimates, serving as intermediate phenotypes in future genetic studies for examining biological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the two disorders.
Project description:P pili are hair-like adhesive structures that are assembled on the outer membrane (OM) of uropathogenic Escherichia coli by the chaperone-usher pathway. In this pathway, chaperone-subunit complexes are formed in the periplasm and targeted to an OM assembly platform, the usher. Pilus subunits display a large groove caused by a missing β-strand which, in the chaperone-subunit complex, is provided by the chaperone. At the usher, pilus subunits are assembled in a mechanism termed "donor-strand exchange (DSE)" whereby the β-strand provided by the chaperone is exchanged by the incoming subunit's N-terminal extension (Nte). This occurs in a zip-in-zip-out fashion, starting with a defined residue, P5, in the Nte inserting into a defined site in the groove, the P5 pocket. Here, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been used to measure DSE rates in vitro. Second order rate constants between the chaperone-subunit complex and a range of Nte peptides substituted at different residues confirmed the importance of the P5 residue of the Nte in determining the rate of DSE. In addition, residues either side of the P5 residue (P5 + 1 and P5 - 1), the side-chains of which are directed away from the subunit groove, also modulate the rates of DSE, most likely by aiding the docking of the Nte into the P5 pocket on the accepting subunit prior to DSE. The ESI-MS approach developed is applicable to the measurement of rates of DSE in pilus biogenesis in general and demonstrates the scope of ESI-MS in determining biomolecular processes in molecular detail.