Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Genotype and HIV Infection Influence Intracerebral Inflammation and Survival From Tuberculous Meningitis.
ABSTRACT: Background:Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of tuberculosis, yet very little is known about the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the genotype of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (encoded by LTA4H), which determines inflammatory eicosanoid expression, influences intracerebral inflammation, and predicts survival from TBM. Methods:We characterized the pretreatment clinical and intracerebral inflammatory phenotype and 9-month survival of 764 adults with TBM. All were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17525495, and inflammatory phenotype was defined by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte and cytokine concentrations. Results:LTA4H genotype predicted survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected patients, with TT-genotype patients significantly more likely to survive TBM than CC-genotype patients, according to Cox regression analysis (univariate P = .040 and multivariable P = .037). HIV-uninfected, TT-genotype patients had high CSF proinflammatory cytokine concentrations, with intermediate and lower concentrations in those with CT and CC genotypes. Increased CSF cytokine concentrations correlated with more-severe disease, but patients with low CSF leukocytes and cytokine concentrations were more likely to die from TBM. HIV infection independently predicted death due to TBM (hazard ratio, 3.94; 95% confidence interval, 2.79-5.56) and was associated with globally increased CSF cytokine concentrations, independent of LTA4H genotype. Conclusions:LTA4H genotype and HIV infection influence pretreatment inflammatory phenotype and survival from TBM. LTA4H genotype may predict adjunctive corticosteroid responsiveness in HIV-uninfected individuals.
Project description:Background: Tuberculosis kills more people than any other bacterial infection worldwide. In tuberculous meningitis (TBM), a common functional promoter variant (C/T transition) in the gene encoding leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), predicts pre-treatment inflammatory phenotype and response to dexamethasone in HIV-uninfected individuals. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether LTA4H genotype determines benefit or harm from adjunctive dexamethasone in HIV-uninfected Vietnamese adults with TBM. The secondary aim is to investigate alternative management strategies in individuals who develop drug induced liver injury (DILI) that will enable the safe continuation of rifampicin and isoniazid therapy. Methods: We will perform a parallel group, randomised (1:1), double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre Phase III non-inferiority trial, comparing dexamethasone versus placebo for 6-8 weeks in addition to standard anti-tuberculosis treatment in HIV-uninfected patients with TBM stratified by LTA4H genotype. The primary endpoint will be death or new neurological event. The trial will enrol approximately 720 HIV-uninfected adults with a clinical diagnosis of TBM, from two hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. 640 participants with CC or CT- LTA4H genotype will be randomised to either dexamethasone or placebo, and the remaining TT- genotype participants will be treated with standard-of-care dexamethasone. We will also perform a randomised comparison of three management strategies for anti-tuberculosis DILI. An identical ancillary study will also be perfomed in the linked randomised controlled trial of dexamethasone in HIV-infected adults with TBM (ACT HIV). Discussion: Previous data have shown that LTA4H genotype may be a critical determinant of inflammation and consequently of adjunctive anti-inflammatory treatment response in TBM. We will stratify dexamethasone therapy according to LTA4H genotype in HIV-uninfected adults, which may indicate a role for targeted anti-inflammatory therapy according to variation in LTA4H C/T transition. A comparison of DILI management strategies may allow the safe continuation of rifampicin and isoniazid.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The CryptoDex trial showed that dexamethasone caused poorer clinical outcomes and slowed fungal clearance in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcal meningitis. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine concentrations from participants over the first week of treatment to investigate mechanisms of harm and test 2 hypotheses: (1) dexamethasone reduced proinflammatory cytokine concentrations, leading to poorer outcomes and (2) leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) genotype influenced the clinical impact of dexamethasone, as observed in tuberculous meningitis. METHODS:We included participants from Vietnam, Thailand, and Uganda. Using the Luminex system, we measured CSF concentrations of the following: interferon ?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ?, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1?, and interleukin 6, 12p70, 8, 4, 10, and 17. We determined the LTA4H genotype based on the promoter region single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17525495. We assessed the impact of dexamethasone on cytokine concentration dynamics and the association between cytokine concentration dynamics and fungal clearance with mixed effect models. We measured the influence of LTA4H genotype on outcomes with Cox regression models. RESULTS:Dexamethasone increased the rate TNF-? concentration's decline in (-0.13 log2pg/mL/d (95% confidence interval, -.22 to -.06 log2pg/mL/d; P = .03), which was associated with slower fungal clearance (correlation, -0.62; 95% confidence interval, -.83 to -.26). LTA4H genotype had no statistically significant impact on outcome or response to dexamethasone therapy. Better clinical outcomes were associated with higher baseline concentrations of interferon ?. CONCLUSIONS:Dexamethasone may slow fungal clearance and worsen outcomes by increasing TNF-? concentration's rate of decline.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Adjunctive dexamethasone reduces mortality from tuberculous meningitis, but how it produces this effect is not known. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important in the immunopathology of many inflammatory CNS diseases thus we hypothesized that that their secretion is important in TBM and might be influenced by dexamethasone.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>The kinetics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MMP and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) concentrations were studied in a subset of HIV uninfected adults (n = 37) with TBM recruited to a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of adjuvant dexamethasone. Analysis followed a pre-defined plan. Dexamethasone significantly reduced CSF MMP-9 concentrations in early follow up samples (median 5 days (range 3-8) of treatment), but had no significant influence on other MMPs/TIMPs. Additionally CSF MMP-9 concentration was strongly correlated to concomitant CSF neutrophil count.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Dexamethasone decreased CSF MMP-9 concentrations early in treatment and this may represent one mechanism by which corticosteroids improve outcome in TBM. The strong correlation between CSF MMP-9 and neutrophil count suggests that polymorphonuclear leukocytes may play a central role in the early pathogenesis of TBM.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans are major causes of meningitis in HIV-1-infected patients. Identifying differences in the inflammatory profiles of HIV-1-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis may inform differences in immunopathogenic mechanisms in these diseases. In this study we compared the clinical and inflammatory features of HIV-1-associated TBM, and cryptococcal meningitis.<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective study of HIV-1-infected adults who presented with either TBM [antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive] or cryptococcal meningitis (regardless of ART prescription). Clinical and laboratory findings and concentrations of 40 inflammatory mediators measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, 33 paired with blood) were compared between TBM and cryptococcal meningitis patients regardless of ART prescription and between TBM and cryptococcal meningitis patients not receiving ART.<h4>Results</h4>Clinical and laboratory findings were similar in TBM (n=34) and cryptococcal meningitis (n?=?19; ART prescribed: n?=?10, no ART prescribed: n?=?9). Exceptions included a higher median CD4 cell count [interquartile: 113 (69-199) vs. 25 (8-49) cells/?l, P?=?0.0001] and higher HIV-1 median viral load [plasma: 5.46 (4.82-5.89) vs. 4.87 (4.36-5.17) log10copies/ml, P?=?0.037; CSF: 6.05 (5.43-6.56) vs. 5.56 (4.52-5.80) log10copies/ml, P?=?0.03] in TBM vs. cryptococcal meningitis patients not receiving ART. CSF interleukin (IL)-17A was lower in TBM compared with cryptococcal meningitis [1.00 (0.25-2.35) vs. 9.31 (1.24-23.36) pg/ml, P-adjusted?=?0.03].<h4>Conclusion</h4>Despite presenting with higher peripheral CD4 cell counts, TBM patients also presented with higher HIV-1 viral loads compared with cryptococcal meningitis patients, suggesting a greater propensity of M. tuberculosis compared with C. neoformans to increase HIV-1 replication in vivo. CSF IL-17A was lower in TBM; its role in the immunopathogenesis of TBM and cryptococcal meningitis deserves further research.
Project description:Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Co-infection with HIV increases the risk of developing TBM, complicates treatment, and substantially worsens outcome. Whether corticosteroids confer a survival benefit in HIV-infected patients with TBM remains uncertain. Hepatitis is the most common drug-induced serious adverse event associated with anti-tuberculosis treatment, occurring in 20% of HIV-infected patients. The suggested concentration thresholds for stopping anti-tuberculosis drugs are not evidence-based. This study aims to determine whether dexamethasone is a safe and effective addition to the first 6-8 weeks of anti-tuberculosis treatment of TBM in patients with HIV, and investigate alternative management strategies in a subset of patients who develop drug induced liver injury (DILI) that will enable the safe continuation of rifampicin and isoniazid therapy. Methods: We will perform a parallel group, randomised (1:1), double blind, placebo-controlled multi-centre Phase III trial, comparing the effect of dexamethasone versus placebo on overall survival in HIV-infected patients with TBM, in addition to standard anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral treatment. The trial will be set in two hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and two hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia. The trial will enrol 520 HIV-infected adults. An ancillary study will perform a randomised comparison of three DILI management strategies with the aim of demonstrating which strategy results in the least interruption in rifampicin and isoniazid treatment. An identical ancillary study will also be performed in the linked randomised controlled trial of dexamethasone in HIV-uninfected adults with TBM stratified by LTA4H genotype (LAST ACT). Discussion: Whether corticosteroids confer a survival benefit in HIV-infected patients remains uncertain, and the current evidence base for using corticosteroids in this context is limited. Interruptions in anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy is a risk factor for death from TBM. Alternative management strategies in DILI may allow the safe continuation of rifampicin and isoniazid therapy.
Project description:Tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a common cause of deterioration in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving tuberculosis treatment after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). Potentially life-threatening neurological involvement occurs frequently and has been suggested as a reason to defer ART.We conducted a prospective study of HIV-infected, ART-naive patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). At presentation, patients started tuberculosis treatment and prednisone; ART was initiated 2 weeks later. Clinical and laboratory findings were compared between patients who developed TBM-IRIS (TBM-IRIS patients) and those who did not (non-TBM-IRIS patients). A logistic regression model was developed to predict TBM-IRIS.Forty-seven percent (16/34) of TBM patients developed TBM-IRIS, which manifested with severe features of inflammation. At TBM diagnosis, TBM-IRIS patients had higher cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neutrophil counts compared with non-TBM-IRIS patients (median, 50 vs 3 cells ×10(6)/L, P = .02). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from CSF of 15 TBM-IRIS patients (94%) compared with 6 non-TBM-IRIS patients (33%) at time of TBM diagnosis; relative risk of developing TBM-IRIS if CSF was Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positive = 9.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-62.2). The combination of high CSF tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and low interferon (IFN)-? at TBM diagnosis predicted TBM-IRIS (area under the curve = 0.91 [95% CI, .53-.99]).TBM-IRIS is a frequent, severe complication of ART in HIV-associated TBM and is characterized by high CSF neutrophil counts and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity at TBM presentation. The combination of CSF IFN-? and TNF-? concentrations may predict TBM-IRIS and thereby be a means to individualize patients to early or deferred ART.
Project description:The immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) remains incompletely understood, and we know of only 1 disease site-specific study of the underlying immunology; we recently showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity and increased neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are associated with TBM-IRIS. In this study we investigated inflammatory mediators at the disease site in patients with TBM-IRIS.We performed lumbar puncture at 3-5 time points in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with TBM (n = 34), including at TBM diagnosis, at initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (day 14), 14 days after ART initiation, at presentation of TBM-IRIS, and 14 days thereafter. We determined the concentrations of 40 mediators in CSF (33 paired with blood) with Luminex or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Findings were compared between patients who developed TBM-IRIS (n = 16) and those who did not (TBM-non-IRIS; n = 18).At TBM diagnosis and 2 weeks after ART initiation, TBM-IRIS was associated with severe, compartmentalized inflammation in the CSF, with elevated concentrations of cytokines, chemokines, neutrophil-associated mediators, and matrix metalloproteinases, compared with TBM-non-IRIS. Patients with TBM-non-IRIS whose CSF cultures were positive for M. tuberculosis at TBM diagnosis (n = 6) showed inflammatory responses similar to those seen in patients with TBM-IRIS at both time points. However, at 2 weeks after ART initiation, S100A8/A9 was significantly increased in patients with TBM-IRIS, compared with patients with TBM-non-IRIS whose cultures were positive at baseline.A high baseline M. tuberculosis antigen load drives an inflammatory response that manifests clinically as TBM-IRIS in most, but not all, patients with TBM. Neutrophils and their mediators, especially S100A8/A9, are closely associated with the central nervous system inflammation that characterizes TBM-IRIS.
Project description:Efavirenz (EFZ) has been associated with neuropsychiatric side effects. Recently, the 8-hydroxy-EFZ (8OH-EFZ) metabolite has been shown to be a potent neurotoxin in vitro, inducing neuronal damage at concentrations of 3.3 ng/ml. EFZ induced similar neuronal damage at concentrations of 31.6 ng/ml. We investigated the effect of genotype and blood-brain barrier integrity on EFZ metabolite concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We measured CSF drug concentrations in subjects from two separate study populations: 47 subjects with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) coinfection in Vietnam receiving 800 mg EFZ with standard antituberculous treatment and 25 subjects from the PARTITION study in the United Kingdom without central nervous system infection receiving 600 mg EFZ. EFZ and metabolite concentrations in CSF and plasma were measured and compared with estimates of effectiveness and neurotoxicity from available published in vitro and in vivo data. The effect of the CYP2B6 c.516G?T genotype (GG genotype, fast EFV metabolizer status; GT genotype, intermediate EFV metabolizer status; TT genotype, slow EFV metabolizer status) was examined. The mean CSF concentrations of EFZ and 8OH-EFZ in the TBM group were 60.3 and 39.3 ng/ml, respectively, and those in the no-TBM group were 15.0 and 5.9 ng/ml, respectively. Plasma EFZ and 8OH-EFZ concentrations were similar between the two groups. CSF EFZ concentrations were above the in vitro toxic concentration in 76% of samples (GG genotype, 61%; GT genotype, 90%; TT genotype, 100%) in the TBM group and 13% of samples (GG genotype, 0%; GT genotype, 18%; TT genotype, 50%) in the no-TBM group. CSF 8OH-EFZ concentrations were above the in vitro toxic concentration in 98% of the TBM group and 87% of the no-TBM group; levels were independent of genotype but correlated with the CSF/plasma albumin ratio. Potentially neurotoxic concentrations of 8OH-EFZ are frequently observed in CSF independently of the CYP2B6 genotype, particularly in those with impaired blood-brain barrier integrity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Mycobacterium tuberculosis load in the brain of individuals with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) may reflect the host's ability to control the pathogen, determine disease severity, and determine treatment outcomes. METHODS:We used the GeneXpert assay to measure the pretreatment M. tuberculosis load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 692 adults with TBM. We sought to understand the relationship between CSF bacterial load and inflammation, and their respective impact on disease severity and treatment outcomes. RESULTS:A 10-fold higher M. tuberculosis load was associated with increased disease severity (odds ratio, 1.59; P = .001 for the comparison between grade 1 and grade 3 severity), CSF neutrophil count (r = 0.364 and P < .0001), and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.438 and P < .0001). A high M. tuberculosis load predicted new neurological events after starting treatment (P = .005, by multinomial logistic regression) but not death. Patients who died had an attenuated inflammatory response at the start of treatment, with reduced cytokine concentrations as compared to survivors. In contrast, patients with high pretreatment CSF bacterial loads, cytokine concentrations, and neutrophil counts were more likely to subsequently experience neurological events. CONCLUSIONS:The pretreatment GeneXpert-determined M. tuberculosis load may be a useful predictor of neurological complications occurring during TBM treatment. Given the evidence for the divergent pathogenesis of TBM-associated neurological complications and deaths, therapeutic strategies to reduce them may need reassessment.
Project description:We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a simple and label-free pathogen enrichment method using homobifunctional imidoesters (HI) and a microfluidic system, called the SLIM assay, followed by real-time PCR from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected patients with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Patients with suspected TBM were prospectively enrolled in a tertiary hospital in an intermediate tuberculosis (TB)-burden country during a 30-month period. TBM was classified according to the uniform case definition. Definite and probable TBM were regarded as the reference standards for TBM, and possible TBM and not-TBM as the reference standards for not-TBM. Of 72 HIV-uninfected patients with suspected TBM, 10 were diagnosed with definite (n?=?2) and probable (n?=?8) TBM by the uniform case definition. The sensitivity of the SLIM assay was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69 to 100%) compared with definite or probable TBM, and it was superior to those of mycobacterial culture (20% [95% CI, 3 to 56%]) and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (0% [95% CI, 0 to 31%]). Of 21 possible TBM and 41 not-TBM patients by the uniform case definition, 5 possible TBM and no not-TBM patients gave positive results in the SLIM assay. The specificity of the SLIM assay was 92% (95% CI, 82 to 97%; 5/62). We demonstrated that the SLIM assay had a very high sensitivity and specificity with small samples of 10 cases of definite or probable TBM. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and to compare the SLIM assay with mycobacterial culture, Xpert MTB/RIF, and Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assays in a larger prospective cohort of patients with suspected TBM, including both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected cases.