The issue of plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine reference range - A systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, marker and mediator of endothelial dysfunction. Several studies have demonstrated its value in cardiovascular risk stratification and all-cause mortality prediction. The aim was to determine the reference range of plasma ADMA in healthy adults. METHODS AND RESULTS:Taking into account the most widely used ADMA measurement methods, only studies using either high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) -with fluorescence or mass spectrometric detection-, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify plasma ADMA concentrations were enrolled. 66 studies were included in the quantitative analysis (24 using ELISA and 42 using HPLC) reporting a total number of 5528 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, non-obese adults without any medication (3178 men and 2350 women, 41.6 ± 16.9 years old). The reference range of ADMA (in ?mol/l with 95% confidence interval in parenthesis) was 0.34 (0.29-0.38)- 1.10 (0.85-1.35) with a mean of 0.71 (0.57-0.85) (n = 4093) measured by HPLC and 0.25 (0.18-0.31)- 0.92 (0.76-1.09) with a mean of 0.57 (0.48-0.66) (n = 1435) by ELISA. CONCLUSIONS:Numerous publications suggested that asymmetric dimethylarginine is not only an outstanding tool of disease outcome prediction but also a new potential therapeutic target substance; the reference range provided by this meta-analysis can become of great importance and aid to further investigations. However, developing a standard measurement method would be beneficial to facilitate the clinical usage of ADMA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accumulating evidence links higher circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) to greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Relatively small differences in ADMA concentrations between healthy individuals and those with disease underscore the need to formulate reference intervals that may aid risk stratification of individuals. METHODS:We formulated reference intervals for plasma ADMA concentrations using a community-based reference sample from the Framingham Offspring Study consisting of 1126 nonsmoking individuals [mean (SD) age 56 (9) years; 60% women] who were free of clinical CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity and who attended a routine examination at which ADMA was assayed. ADMA concentrations were determined using a validated tandem mass spectrometry-liquid chromatography assay. RESULTS:In the study sample, the mean ADMA concentration was 0.52 (0.11) micromol/L, and the reference limits were 0.311 and 0.732 (2.5th and 97.5th percentile). The sex-specific reference limits were 0.310 and 0.745 in men and 0.313 and 0.721 micromol/L in women. In multivariable regression analysis, ADMA plasma concentrations were positively correlated with age and total plasma homocysteine (both P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Reference limits calculated for circulating ADMA in our large community-based healthy reference sample confirm the previous observation of a relatively narrow distribution of concentrations. This suggests a tight physiological control of ADMA plasma concentrations, presumably by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) metabolism of ADMA.
Project description:N(G) ,N(G) -dimethyl-l-arginine (asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA),N(G) -monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) and N(G) ,N(G') -dimethyl-l-arginine (symmetric dimethylarginine, SDMA) are released during hydrolysis of proteins containing methylated arginine residues. ADMA and l-NMMA inhibit nitric oxide synthase by competing with l-arginine substrate. All three methylarginine derivatives also inhibit arginine transport. To enable investigation of methylarginines in diseases involving impaired nitric oxide synthesis, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay to simultaneously quantify arginine, ADMA, l-NMMA and SDMA. Our assay requires 12??L of plasma and is ideal for applications where sample availability is limited. We extracted arginine and methylarginines with mixed-mode cation-exchange columns, using synthetic monoethyl-l-arginine as an internal standard. Metabolites were derivatized with ortho-phthaldialdeyhde and 3-mercaptopropionic acid, separated by reverse-phase HPLC and quantified with fluorescence detection. Standard curve linearity was ?0.9995 for all metabolites. Inter-day coefficient of variation (CV) values were ?5% for arginine, ADMA and SDMA in human plasma and for arginine and ADMA in mouse plasma. The CV value for l-NMMA was higher in human (10.4%) and mouse (15.8%) plasma because concentrations were substantially lower than ADMA and SDMA. This assay provides unique advantages of small sample volume requirements, excellent separation of target metabolites from contaminants and validation for both human and mouse plasma samples.
Project description:Dimethylarginines are inhibitors of NO synthesis and are involved in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In this study, we ask the question if asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) levels change during fatal and reversible acute rejection, and contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic vasculopathy.The Dark Agouti to Lewis rat strain combination was used to investigate fatal acute rejection. Fischer 344 kidneys were transplanted to Lewis rats to study reversible acute rejection episode and the process of chronic rejection. Isograft recipients and untreated Lewis rats were used as controls. l-arginine derivatives were determined by HPLC, and ADMA-metabolizing enzymes were studied by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting.Renal transplantation transiently increased dimethylarginine levels independent of acute rejection. ADMA plasma levels did not importantly differ between recipients undergoing fatal or reversible acute rejection, whereas SDMA was even lower in recipients of Fisher 344 grafts. In comparison to isograft recipients, ADMA and SDMA levels were slightly elevated during reversible, but not during the process of chronic rejection. Increased dimethylarginine levels, however, did not block NO synthesis. Interestingly, protein methylation, but not ADMA degradation, was increased in allografts.Our data do not support the concept that renal allografts are protected from fatal rejection by dimethylarginines. Dimethylarginines may play a role in triggering chronic rejection, but a contribution to vascular remodelling itself is improbable. In contrast, differential arginine methylation of yet unknown proteins by PRMT1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic rejection.
Project description:Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular diseases. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH 2) promotes the metabolism of ADMA and plays a key role in the regulation of acute inflammatory response. With the present study, we investigated the relationship between DDAH 2 polymorphisms and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its association to plasma ADMA concentrations. We used the haplotype-tagging SNP approach to identify tag SNPs in DDAH 2. The SNPs were genotyped by PCR and sequenced in 385 CAD patients and 353 healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of ADMA were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A promoter polymorphism -449C/G (rs805305) in DDAH 2 was identified. Compared with the ADMA concentrations in CC genotype (0.328?±?0.077??mol/l), ADMA concentrations in CG?+?GG genotype were significantly increased (0.517?±?0.090??mol/l, P?<?0.001). No significant associations between the -449C/G and risk of CAD were detected in the genetic models. The results of this study suggest that Genetic -499C/G polymorphism in DDAH 2 gene may affect the plasma ADMA concentrations in patients with CAD. However, it does not indicate a novel genetic risk marker for CAD.
Project description:Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). ADMA is degraded by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). Elevated levels of ADMA lead to reduction in nitric oxide (NO) production, which is linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is an herb that has shown stimulation on endothelial NO production by increasing both expression and activity of eNOS. Thus, this study determined whether the positive effect of P. sarmentosum on NO production is related to its modulation on the DDAH-ADMA pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). HUVEC were divided into four groups: control, treatment with 250 µg/ml of aqueous extract of P. sarmentosum leaves (AEPS), treatment with 30 ng/ml of TNF-?, and concomitant treatment with AEPS and TNF-? for 24 h. After treatments, HUVEC were collected to measure DDAH1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. DDAH1 protein level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and DDAH enzyme activity was measured using colorimetric assay. ADMA concentration was measured using ELISA, and NO level was measured using Griess assay. Compared to control, TNF-?-treated HUVEC showed reduction in DDAH1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05), DDAH1 protein level (P < 0.01), and DDAH activity (P < 0.05). Treatment with AEPS successfully increased DDAH1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05), DDAH1 protein level (P < 0.01), and DDAH activity (P < 0.05) in TNF-?-treated HUVEC. Treatment with TNF-? caused an increase in ADMA level (P < 0.01) and a decrease in endothelial NO production (P < 0.001). Whereas treatment with AEPS was able to reduce ADMA level (P < 0.01) and restore NO (P < 0.001) in TNF-?-treated HUVEC. The results suggested that AEPS promotes endothelial NO production by stimulating DDAH activity and thus reducing ADMA level in TNF-?-treated HUVEC.
Project description:Phenylketonuria's (PKU) treatment based on low natural protein diet may affect homocysteine (Hcys) metabolic pathway. Hcys alteration may be related to the methylation of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), which both modify nitric oxide production. The aim of this work is to evaluate the status of Hcys formation methylation cycle and ADMA and SDMA levels in patients with PKU in order to establish a potential relationship.Forty-two early diagnosed PKU patients under dietary treatment and good adherence to their diets were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Their nutritional and biochemical profile, as well as Hcys synthesis status, ADMA and SDMA levels were analyzed and compared with a control group of 40 healthy volunteers. ADMA and SDMA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.In this study, 23 classic PKU, 16 moderate PKU, and 3 mild HPA were enrolled. The median age was 10 years old. Median ADMA, SDMA, and Hcys concentration levels (5.1 μM [2.3-25.7], 0.35 μM [0.18-0.57], 0.43 μM [0.26-0.61], respectively) were lower in patients with PKU (P < .001 for ADMA and SDMA) whereas vitamin B12 and folate levels (616 pg/mL [218-1943] and 21 ng/mL [5-51], respectively) were higher comparing with controls. Statistically significant correlations were found between ADMA, and Phe (r = -0.504, P = .001) and Hcys (r = -0.458, P = .037) levels. Several nutrition biomarkers, such as prealbumin, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, selenium, and zinc, were below the normal range.Our study suggests that patients with PKU suffer from poor methylation capacity. Restriction of natural proteins in addition to high intake of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation in the dietary products, produce an impairment of methylation cycle that leads to low Hcys and ADMA levels. As a result, methylated compounds compete for methyl groups, and there is an impairment of methylation cycle due to low Hcys levels, which is related to the lack of protein quality, despite of elevated concentrations of cofactors.
Project description:Levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, are increased in lung, sputum, exhaled breath condensate and plasma samples from asthma patients. ADMA is metabolized primarily by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) and DDAH2. We determined the effect of DDAH1 overexpression on development of allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. The expression of DDAH1 and DDAH2 in mouse lungs was determined by RT-quantitative PCR (qPCR). ADMA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum samples were determined by mass spectrometry. Wild type and DDAH1-transgenic mice were intratracheally challenged with PBS or house dust mite (HDM). Airway inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) total and differential cell counts. The levels of IgE and IgG1 in BALF and serum samples were determined by ELISA. Gene expression in lungs was determined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR. Our data showed that the expression of DDAH1 and DDAH2 was decreased in the lungs of mice following HDM exposure, which correlated with increased ADMA levels in BALF and serum. Transgenic overexpression of DDAH1 resulted in decreased BAL total cell and eosinophil numbers following HDM exposure. Total IgE levels in BALF and serum were decreased in HDM-exposed DDAH1-transgenic mice compared to HDM-exposed wild type mice. RNA-Seq results showed downregulation of genes in the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling pathway in PBS-treated DDAH1-transgenic mice versus PBS-treated wild type mice and downregulation of genes in IL-13/FOXA2 signaling pathway in HDM-treated DDAH1-transgenic mice versus HDM-treated wild type mice. Our findings suggest that decreased expression of DDAH1 and DDAH2 in the lungs may contribute to allergic asthma and overexpression of DDAH1 attenuates allergen-induced airway inflammation through modulation of Th2 responses. Overall design: mRNA profiles of WT and DDAH1-transgenic mice treated with PBS or house dust mite (HDM).
Project description:It is encouraging to observe that a search for publications on "asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)" in PubMed, as updated on June 2016, yielded >2500 items, 24 years after a splendid paper published by Vallance et al in which the authors proposed that ADMA accumulation could be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney diseases. ADMA is the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and is related to endothelial dysfunction, which plays an important role in vascular damage elicited by various cardiometabolic risk factors. Although current knowledge suggests that ADMA has critical central roles in renal diseases, there are still unexplained details. The present article aims to provide a review on ADMA and its relation as a biomarker in nephrologic diseases. We aimed to systematize articles in which ADMA levels were assessed in order to clarify its role in many diseases and establish its reference values in different populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, which was associated with insulin resistance. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) is the major determinant of plasma ADMA. Examining data from the DIAGRAM+ (Diabetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis), we identified a variant (rs9267551) in the DDAH2 gene nominally associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 3 × 10(-5)). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: initially, we assessed the functional impact of rs9267551 in human endothelial cells (HUVECs), observing that the G allele had a lower transcriptional activity resulting in reduced expression of DDAH2 and decreased NO production in primary HUVECs naturally carrying it. We then proceeded to investigate whether this variant is associated with insulin sensitivity in vivo. To this end, two cohorts of nondiabetic subjects of European ancestry were studied. In sample 1 (n = 958) insulin sensitivity was determined by the insulin sensitivity index (ISI), while in sample 2 (n = 527) it was measured with a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. In sample 1, carriers of the GG genotype had lower ISI than carriers of the C allele (67 ± 33 vs.79 ± 44; P = 0.003 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI). ADMA levels were higher in subjects carrying the GG genotype than in carriers of the C allele (0.68 ± 0.14 vs. 0.57 ± 0.14 µmol/l; P = 0.04). In sample 2, glucose disposal was lower in GG carriers as compared with C carriers (9.3 ± 4.1 vs. 11.0 ± 4.2 mg × Kg(-1) free fat mass × min(-1); P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A functional polymorphism of the DDAH2 gene may confer increased risk for type 2 diabetes by affecting insulin sensitivity throughout increased ADMA levels.
Project description:Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, is known as mediator of endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Circulating ADMA levels are correlated with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperhomocysteinemia, age and smoking. Accordingly, clinical studies found evidence that increased ADMA levels are associated with a higher risk of cerebrovascular events. After the acute event of ischemic stroke, levels of ADMA and its analog symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are elevated through augmentation of protein methylation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, cleavage of ADMA through dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAHs) is reduced. This increase of dimethylarginines might be predictive for adverse clinical outcome. However, the definite role of ADMA after acute ischemic stroke still needs to be clarified. On the one hand, ADMA might contribute to brain injury by reduction of cerebral blood flow. On the other hand, ADMA might be involved in NOS-induced oxidative stress and excitotoxic neuronal death. In the present review, we highlight the current knowledge from clinical and experimental studies on ADMA and its role for stroke risk and ischemic brain injury in the hyperacute stage after stroke. Finally, further studies are warranted to unravel the relevance of the close association of dimethylarginines with stroke.