A mutation in the CACNA1C gene leads to early repolarization syndrome with incomplete penetrance: A Chinese family study.
ABSTRACT: Early repolarization syndrome (ERS) may be a near-Mendelian or an oligogenic disease; however, no direct evidence has been provided to support this theory.We described a large Chinese family with nocturnal sudden cardiac death induced by ERS in most of the young male adults. One missense mutation (p.Q1916R) was found in the major subunit of the L-type calcium channel gene CACNA1C by the direct sequencing of candidate genes. A concomitant gain-of-function variant in the sodium channel gene SCN5A (p.R1193Q) was found to rescue the phenotype of the female CACNA1C-Q1916R mutation carriers, which led to the incomplete penetrance. The functional studies, via the exogenous expression approach, revealed that the CACNA1C-Q1916R mutation led to a decreasing L-type calcium current and the protein expression defect. The decreased calcium current produced by the mutant channel was improved by isoproterenol but exacerbated by testosterone. The effects of CACNA1C-Q1916R mutation and testosterone on cellular electrophysiology were further confirmed by the human ventricular action potential simulation.Our results demonstrated that the loss-of-function CACNA1C-Q1916R mutation contributed to ERS-related sudden cardiac death, and the phenotypic incomplete penetrance was modified by the SCN5A-R1193Q variant and sex. These findings suggest that phenotypes of ERS are modified by multiple genetic factors, which supports the theory that ERS may be an oligogenic disease.
Project description:L-type calcium channel (LTCC) mutations have been associated with Brugada syndrome (BrS), short QT (SQT) syndrome, and Timothy syndrome (LQT8). Little is known about the extent to which LTCC mutations contribute to the J-wave syndromes associated with sudden cardiac death.The purpose of this study was to identify mutations in the ?1, ?2, and ?2? subunits of LTCC (Ca(v)1.2) among 205 probands diagnosed with BrS, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF), and early repolarization syndrome (ERS). CACNA1C, CACNB2b, and CACNA2D1 genes of 162 probands with BrS and BrS+SQT, 19 with IVF, and 24 with ERS were screened by direct sequencing.Overall, 23 distinct mutations were identified. A total of 12.3%, 5.2%, and 16% of BrS/BrS+SQT, IVF, and ERS probands displayed mutations in ?1, ?2, and ?2? subunits of LTCC, respectively. When rare polymorphisms were included, the yield increased to 17.9%, 21%, and 29.1% for BrS/BrS+SQT, IVF, and ERS probands, respectively. Functional expression of two CACNA1C mutations associated with BrS and BrS+SQT led to loss of function in calcium channel current. BrS probands displaying a normal QTc had additional variations known to prolong the QT interval.The study results indicate that mutations in the LTCCs are detected in a high percentage of probands with J-wave syndromes associated with inherited cardiac arrhythmias, suggesting that genetic screening of Ca(v) genes may be a valuable diagnostic tool in identifying individuals at risk. These results are the first to identify CACNA2D1 as a novel BrS susceptibility gene and CACNA1C, CACNB2, and CACNA2D1 as possible novel ERS susceptibility genes.
Project description:Common and rare variants of the CACNA1C voltage-gated calcium channel gene have been associated with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and ADHD. However, little is known about how CACNA1C variants affect cellular processes to alter neurodevelopment. The Timothy syndrome mutation is a rare de novo gain-of-function variant in CACNA1C that causes autism with high penetrance, providing a powerful avenue into investigating the role of CACNA1C variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we use egl-19, the C. elegans homolog of CACNA1C, to investigate the role of voltage-gated calcium channels in autism. We show that an egl-19(gof) mutation that is equivalent to the Timothy syndrome mutation can alter axon targeting and affect behavior in C. elegans. We find that wildtype egl-19 negatively regulates axon termination. The egl-19(gof) mutation represses axon termination to cause axon targeting defects that lead to the misplacement of electrical synapses and alterations in habituation to light touch. Moreover, genetic interactions indicate that the egl-19(gof) mutation functions with genes that promote selective autophagy to cause defects in axon termination and behavior. These results reveal a novel genetic mechanism whereby a de novo mutation in CACNA1C can drive alterations in circuit formation and behavior.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in the CACNA1C-encoded L-type calcium channel have been associated with Timothy syndrome (TS) with severe QT prolongation, syndactyly, facial dysmorphisms, developmental delay, and sudden death. Recently, patients hosting CACNA1C mutations with only long QT syndrome (LQTS) have been described. We sought to identify novel variants in CACNA1C associated with either TS or LQTS, and to determine the impact of the mutation on channel function. METHODS/RESULTS:Two probands were identified with mutations in CACNA1C, one with a TS-associated mutation, G406R, and a second with genotype-negative LQTS. Illumina HiSeq 2000 whole exome sequencing on the genotype-negative LQTS proband revealed a novel variant, CACNA1C-L762F, that co-segregated within a multi-generational family. The missense mutation localized to the DII/DIII intracellular interlinker segment of the channel in a highly conserved region in close proximity to the 6th transmembrane segment of domain II (DIIS6). Whole cell patch clamp of heterologously expressed CACNA1C-L762F in TSA201 cells demonstrated slower inactivation tau and increased sustained and window current. Comprehensive review and topological mapping of all described CACNA1C mutations revealed TS-specific hotspots localizing to the cytoplasmic aspect of 6th transmembrane segment of respective domains. Probands hosting TS mutations were associated with elevated QTc, higher prevalence of 2:1 AV block, and a younger age at presentation compared to LQTS. CONCLUSIONS:The CACNA1C-L762F mutation is associated with development of LQTS through slower channel inactivation and increased sustained and window current. TS-associated mutations localize to specific areas of CACNA1C and are associated with a younger age at presentation, higher QTc, and 2:1 AV block than isolated LQTS-associated mutations.
Project description:Mutation or common intronic variants in cardiac ion channel genes have been suggested to be associated with sudden cardiac death caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. This study aimed to find mutations in cardiac ion channel genes of Korean sudden cardiac arrest patients with structurally normal heart and to verify association between common genetic variation in cardiac ion channel and sudden cardiac arrest by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans. Study participants were Korean survivors of sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. All coding exons of the SCN5A, KCNQ1, and KCNH2 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Fifteen survivors of sudden cardiac arrest were included. Three male patients had mutations in SCN5A gene and none in KCNQ1 and KCNH2 genes. Intronic variant (rs2283222) in KCNQ1 gene showed significant association with sudden cardiac arrest (OR 4.05). Four male sudden cardiac arrest survivors had intronic variant (rs11720524) in SCN5A gene. None of female survivors of sudden cardiac arrest had SCN5A gene mutations despite similar frequencies of intronic variants between males and females in 55 normal controls. Common intronic variant in KCNQ1 gene is associated with sudden cardiac arrest caused by idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia in Koreans.
Project description:Genetic defects in KCNJ8, encoding the Kir6.1 subunit of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (I(K-ATP)), have previously been associated with early repolarization (ERS) and Brugada (BrS) syndromes. Here we test the hypothesis that genetic variants in ABCC9, encoding the ATP-binding cassette transporter of IK-ATP (SUR2A), are also associated with both BrS and ERS.Direct sequencing of all ERS/BrS susceptibility genes was performed on 150 probands and family members. Whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp methods were used to characterize mutant channels expressed in TSA201-cells. Eight ABCC9 mutations were uncovered in 11 male BrS probands. Four probands, diagnosed with ERS, carried a highly-conserved mutation, V734I-ABCC9. Functional expression of the V734I variant yielded a Mg-ATP IC?? that was 5-fold that of wild-type (WT). An 18-y/o male with global ERS inherited an SCN5A-E1784K mutation from his mother, who displayed long QT intervals, and S1402C-ABCC9 mutation from his father, who displayed an ER pattern. ABCC9-S1402C likewise caused a gain of function of IK-ATP with a shift of ATP IC?? from 8.5 ± 2 mM to 13.4 ± 5 ?M (p<0.05). The SCN5A mutation reduced peak INa to 39% of WT (p<0.01), shifted steady-state inactivation by -18.0 mV (p<0.01) and increased late I(Na) from 0.14% to 2.01% of peak I(Na) (p<0.01).Our study is the first to identify ABCC9 as a susceptibility gene for ERS and BrS. Our findings also suggest that a gain-of-function in I(K-ATP) when coupled with a loss-of-function in SCN5A may underlie type 3 ERS, which is associated with a severe arrhythmic phenotype.
Project description:SCN5A encodes the alpha-subunit (Na(v)1.5) of the principle Na(+) channel in the human heart. Genetic lesions in SCN5A can cause congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) variant 3 (LQT-3) in adults by disrupting inactivation of the Na(v)1.5 channel. Pharmacological targeting of mutation-altered Na(+) channels has proven promising in developing a gene-specific therapeutic strategy to manage specifically this LQTS variant. SCN5A mutations that cause similar channel dysfunction may also contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other arrhythmias in newborns, but the prevalence, impact, and therapeutic management of SCN5A mutations may be distinct in infants compared with adults.Here, in a multidisciplinary approach, we report a de novo SCN5A mutation (F1473C) discovered in a newborn presenting with extreme QT prolongation and differential responses to the Na(+) channel blockers flecainide and mexiletine. Our goal was to determine the Na(+) channel phenotype caused by this severe mutation and to determine whether distinct effects of different Na(+) channel blockers on mutant channel activity provide a mechanistic understanding of the distinct therapeutic responsiveness of the mutation carrier. Sequence analysis of the proband revealed the novel missense SCN5A mutation (F1473C) and a common variant in KCNH2 (K897T). Patch clamp analysis of HEK 293 cells transiently transfected with wild-type or mutant Na(+) channels revealed significant changes in channel biophysics, all contributing to the proband's phenotype as predicted by in silico modeling. Furthermore, subtle differences in drug action were detected in correcting mutant channel activity that, together with both the known genetic background and age of the patient, contribute to the distinct therapeutic responses observed clinically.The results of our study provide further evidence of the grave vulnerability of newborns to Na(+) channel defects and suggest that both genetic background and age are particularly important in developing a mutation-specific therapeutic personalized approach to manage disorders in the young.
Project description:Dysfunction of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 (encoded by the SCN5A gene) is associated with arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. SCN5A mutations associated with long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) lead to enhanced late sodium current and consequent action potential (AP) prolongation. Internalization and degradation of Nav1.5 is regulated by ubiquitylation, a post-translational mechanism that involves binding of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 to a proline-proline-serine-tyrosine sequence of Nav1.5, designated the PY-motif. We investigated the biophysical properties of the LQT3-associated SCN5A-p.Y1977N mutation located in the Nav1.5 PY-motif, both in HEK293 cells as well as in newly generated mice harboring the mouse homolog mutation Scn5a-p.Y1981N. We found that in HEK293 cells, the SCN5A-p.Y1977N mutation abolished the interaction between Nav1.5 and Nedd4-2, suppressed PY-motif-dependent ubiquitylation of Nav1.5, and consequently abrogated Nedd4-2 induced sodium current (INa) decrease. Nevertheless, homozygous mice harboring the Scn5a-p.Y1981N mutation showed no electrophysiological alterations nor changes in AP or (late) INa properties, questioning the in vivo relevance of the PY-motif. Our findings suggest the presence of compensatory mechanisms, with additional, as yet unknown, factors likely required to reduce the "ubiquitylation reserve" of Nav1.5. Future identification of such modulatory factors may identify potential triggers for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the setting of LQT3 mutations.
Project description:SCN5A is abundant in heart and has a major role in I<sub>Na</sub>. Loss-of-function mutation in SCN5A results in Brugada syndrome (BrS), which causes sudden death in adults. It remains unclear why disease phenotype does not manifest in the young even though mutated SCN5A is expressed in the young. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the timing of the disease manifestation in BrS. A gain-of-function mutation in SCN5A also results in Long QT syndrome type 3 (LQTS3), leading to sudden death in the young. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from a patient with a mixed phenotype of LQTS3 and BrS with the E1784K SCN5A mutation. Here we show that electrophysiological analysis revealed that LQTS3/BrS iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulate the phenotype of LQTS3 but not BrS. Each ?-subunit of the sodium channel is differentially expressed in embryonic and adult hearts. SCN3B is highly expressed in embryonic hearts and iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. A heterologous expression system revealed that I<sub>Na</sub> of mutated SCN5A is decreased and SCN3B augmented I<sub>Na</sub> of mutated SCN5A. Knockdown of SCN3B in LQTS3/BrS iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes successfully unmasked the phenotype of BrS. Isogenic control of LQTS3/BrS (corrected-LQTS3/BrS) iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes gained the normal electrophysiological properties.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an oligogenic arrhythmic disease with increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Several BrS or ECG traits-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified through previous genome-wide association studies in white patients. We aimed to validate these SNPs in BrS patients in the Taiwanese population, assessing the cumulative effect of risk alleles and the BrS-polygenic risk score in predicting cardiac events. METHODS:We genotyped 190 unrelated BrS patients using the TWB Array, and Taiwan Biobank was used as controls. SNPs not included in the array were imputed by IMPUTE2. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the associations between each particular SNP, the collective BrS-polygenic risk score, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS:Of the 88 previously reported SNPs, 22 were validated in Taiwanese BrS patients (P<0.05). Of the 22 SNPs, 2 (rs10428132 and rs9388451) were linked with susceptibility to BrS, 10 were SNPs previously reaching genome-wide significance, and 10 were SNPs associated with ECG traits. For the 3 most commonly reported SNPs, disease risk increased consistently with the number of risk alleles (odds ratio, 3.54; Ptrend=1.38×10-9 for 5 risk alleles versus 1). Similar patterns were observed in both SCN5A mutation+ (odds ratio, 3.66; Ptrend=0.049) and SCN5A mutation- (odds ratio, 3.75; Ptrend=8.54×10-9) subgroups. Furthermore, BrS patients without SCN5A mutations had more risk alleles than BrS patients with SCN5A mutations regardless of the range of polygenic risk scores. Three SNPs (rs4687718, rs7784776, and rs2968863) showed significant associations with the composite outcome (sudden cardiac arrest plus syncope, hazard ratio, 2.13, 1.48, and 0.41; P=0.02, 0.006, and 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggested that some SNPs associated with BrS or ECG traits exist across multiple populations. The cumulative risk of the BrS-related SNPs is similar to that in white BrS patients, but it appears to correlate with the absence of SCN5A mutations.
Project description:Brugada syndrome is an inherited disease associated with sudden cardiac death. The electrocardiographic pattern associated with Brugada syndrome has been linked to the use of sodium channel blockers, including antiarrhythmics, trycyclics and anesthetics.We report a case of bupivacaine-induced Brugada syndrome, in which we investigated the genetic, biophysical and path physiological mechanism involved.The patient developed a Brugada-like electrocardiographic pattern twice under the influence of bupivacaine. The first occurrence was accompanied by ventricular tachycardia (VT) which subsided after withdrawal of the anesthetic. The VT was also observed during co-administration of diltiazem and isosorbide-5-mononitrate, agents thought to facilitate ST segment elevation in the Brugada syndrome. Genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation in the alpha subunit of the cardiac sodium channel, SCN5A. Biophysical analysis by whole-cell patch-clamping revealed a reduction in sodium current as a result of the mutation. The study of bupivacaine in the wedge model revealed use-dependent changes in conduction, heterogeneous loss of the action potential dome in RV epicardium and phase 2 re-entry when the preparations were pretreated with low concentrations of the calcium channel blocker verapamil.Our findings indicate that bupivacaine may induce the electrocardiographic and arrhythmic manifestations of the Brugada syndrome in silent carriers of SCN5A mutations. The data have important implications in the management of patients who develop ST segment elevation when under the influence of anesthetics such as bupivacaine.