Cholesterol attenuates cytoprotective effects of phosphatidylcholine against bile salts.
ABSTRACT: Bile salts have potent detergent properties and damaging effects on cell membranes, leading to liver injury. However, the molecular mechanisms for the protection of hepatocytes against bile salts are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of nine human major bile salts to HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes was prevented by phosphatidylcholine (PC). In contrast, cholesterol had no direct cytotoxic effects but suppressed the cytoprotective effects of PC. PC reduced the cell-association of bile salt, which was reversed by cholesterol. Light scattering measurements and gel filtration chromatography revealed that cholesterol within bile salt/PC dispersions decreased mixed micelles but increased vesicles, bile salt simple micelles and monomers. These results suggest that cholesterol attenuates the cytoprotective effects of PC against bile salts by facilitating the formation of bile salt simple micelles and monomers. Therefore, biliary PC and cholesterol may play different roles in the pathogenesis of bile salt-induced liver injury.
Project description:ABCB4/MDR3 is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes and translocates PC-lipids from the cytoplasmic to the extracellular leaflet. ABCB4 is an ATP-dependent transporter that reduces the harsh detergent effect of the bile salts by counteracting self-digestion. To do so, ABCB4 provides PC lipids for extraction into bile. PC lipids account for 40% of the entire pool of lipids in the canalicular membrane with an unknown distribution over both leaflets. Extracted PC lipids end up in so-called mixed micelles. Mixed micelles are composed of phospholipids, bile salts, and cholesterol. Ninety to ninety-five percent of the phospholipids are members of the PC family, but only a subset of mainly 16.0-18:1 PC and 16:0-18:2 PC variants are present. To elucidate whether ABCB4 is the key discriminator in this enrichment of specific PC lipids, we used in vitro studies to identify crucial determinants in substrate selection. We demonstrate that PC-lipid moieties alone are insufficient for stimulating ABCB4 ATPase activity, and that at least two acyl chains and the backbone itself are required for a productive interaction. The nature of the fatty acids, like length or saturation has a quantitative impact on the ATPase activity. Our data demonstrate a two-step enrichment and protective function of ABCB4 to mitigate the harsh detergent effect of the bile salts, because ABCB4 can translocate more than just the PC-lipid variants found in bile.
Project description:Active secretion of bile salts into the canalicular lumen drives bile formation and promotes biliary cholesterol and phospholipid output. Disrupting hepatic bile salt uptake, by inhibition of sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypetide (NTCP; Slc10a1) with Myrcludex B, is expected to limit bile salt flux through the liver and thereby to decrease biliary lipid excretion. Here, we show that Myrcludex B-mediated NTCP inhibition actually causes an increase in biliary cholesterol and phospholipid excretion whereas biliary bile salt output and bile salt composition remains unchanged. Increased lysosomal discharge into bile was excluded as a potential contributor to increased biliary lipid secretion. Induction of cholesterol secretion was not a consequence of increased ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5/8 activity given that NTCP inhibition still promoted cholesterol excretion in Abcg8<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Stimulatory effects of NTCP inhibition were maintained in Sr-b1<sup>-/-</sup> mice, eliminating the possibility that the increase in biliary lipids was derived from enhanced uptake of high-density lipoprotein-derived lipids. NTCP inhibition shifts bile salt uptake, which is generally more periportally restricted, toward pericentral hepatocytes, as was visualized using a fluorescently labeled conjugated bile salt. As a consequence, exposure of the canalicular membrane to bile salts was increased, allowing for more cholesterol and phospholipid molecules to be excreted per bile salt. Conclusion: NTCP inhibition increases biliary lipid secretion, which is independent of alterations in bile salt output, biliary bile salt hydrophobicity, or increased activity of dedicated cholesterol and phospholipid transporters. Instead, NTCP inhibition shifts hepatic bile salt uptake from mainly periportal hepatocytes toward pericentral hepatocytes, thereby increasing exposure of the canalicular membrane to bile salts linking to increased biliary cholesterol secretion. This process provides an additional level of control to biliary cholesterol and phospholipid secretion.
Project description:Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) and taurolithocholate (TLC) are hepatotoxic and cholestatic bile salts, whereas tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) is cytoprotective and anticholestatic. Yet they all act, in part, through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K)-dependent mechanisms ("PI3K-paradox"). Hepatocytes express three catalytic PI3K Class I isoforms (p110?/?/?), specific functions of which, in liver, are unclear. In other cell types, p110? is associated with detrimental effects. To shed light on the PI3K enigma, we determined whether hydrophobic and hydrophilic bile salts differentially activate distinct p110 isoforms in hepatocytes, and whether p110? mediates bile salt-induced hepatocyte cell death.Isoform-specific PI3K activity assays were established to determine isoform activation by bile salts in rat hepatocytes. Activation of Akt and JNK was determined by immunoblotting. Following stimulation with hydrophobic bile salts, hepatocellular apoptosis was determined morphologically after Hoechst staining and by analysis of caspase-3/-7 activity or caspase-3 cleavage. Activity or expression of PI3K p110? was inhibited pharmacologically (AS604850) or by knock-down using specific siRNA.All bile salts tested activated p110?, while p110? was activated by TUDC and GCDC. Intriguingly, only hydrophobic bile salts activated p110?. Inhibition of p110? attenuated GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation, but did not alter TUDC- or cAMP-induced Akt-signaling in rat hepatocytes. Inhibition or knock-down of p110? markedly attenuated hydrophobic bile salt-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines but did not alter Fas-, tumor necrosis factor ?- and etoposide-induced apoptosis. Depletion of Ca(++) prevented GCDC-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes but did not affect GCDC-induced Akt- and JNK-activation.PI3K p110? is activated by hydrophobic, but not hydrophilic bile salts. Bile salt-induced hepatocyte apoptosis is partly mediated via a PI3K p110? dependent signaling pathway, potentially involving JNK.
Project description:Spectrophotometric measurements of bilirubin-IX alpha in water and in aqueous/organic solvent mixtures at pH 10.0 as a function of bilirubin-IX alpha concentration (approx. 0.6--400 microM) are consistent with the formation of dimers (KD - 1.5 microM) in dilute (less than 10 microM) aqueous solution and further self-aggregation to multimers at higher concentrations. Added urea (to 10M) and increases in temperature (to 62 degrees C) obliterate the dimer-multimer transition at 10 microM, but added NaCl (to 0.30 M) promotes strong aggregation of dimers over a narrow concentration range, suggesting a 'micellization' phenomenon. Concentrations of dioxan or ethanol greater than 60% (v/v) in water were required to obtain the absorption spectrum of bilirubin-IX alpha monomers, suggesting that both hydrophobic and electrostatic (pi-orbital) interactions are involved in stabilizing the dimeric state in water. Micellar concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate induced spectrophotometric shifts in the dimer absorption spectrum of bilirubin-IX alpha consistent with progressive partitioning of bilirubin-IX alpha monomers into a relatively non-polar region of the micelles and allowed a deduction of the apparent critical micellar concentration that closely approximated the literature values. The pattern of bilirubin IX alpha association with bile salts is complex, since the absorption spectrum shifts hypsochromically below and bathochromically above the critical micellar concentration of the bile salts. Consistent with these observations, bilirubin IX alpha appears to bind to the polar face of bile salt monomers and to the polar perimeter of small bile salt micelles. At higher bile salt concentrations some-bilirubin-IX alpha monomers partition into the hydrophobic interior of the bile salt micelles. Our results suggest that under physiological conditions the natural conjugates of bilirubin-IX alpha may exhibit similar physical chemical properties in bile, in that dimers, highly aggregated multimers and bile salt-associated monomers may co-exist.
Project description:This study was performed to determine the effects of various organic anions on biliary lipid secretion in rats. We infused bile-salt-pool-depleted rats with sodium taurocholate at a constant rate, with or without various organic anions: Indocyanine Green (ICG), bromosulphophthalein (BSP), BSP-glutathione and Phenol Red (PR). BSP decreased biliary secretion of cholesterol and phospholipids in a dose-dependent manner without affecting bile salt secretion (uncoupling), and this change was fully reversible. In contrast, ICG, BSP-glutathione and PR did not cause such an uncoupling of biliary lipids. In addition, the distribution pattern of each organic anion to various lipid particles was determined by gel-permeation chromatography. BSP was predominantly associated with bile salt micelles, whereas vesicular association was dominant for ICG, and both BSP-glutathione and PR formed only self-aggregations. From these data, we concluded that the uncoupling of biliary lipids from bile salt secretion by BSP resulted from the interaction between BSP and bile salt micelles in the bile canaliculus, and that this interaction inhibited the capacity of bile salts to induce the secretion of phospholipids and cholesterol.
Project description:On the canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, several ABC transporters are responsible for the secretion of bile lipids. Among them, ABCB4, also called MDR3, is essential for the secretion of phospholipids from hepatocytes into bile. The biliary phospholipids are associated with bile salts and cholesterol in mixed micelles, thereby reducing the detergent activity and cytotoxicity of bile salts and preventing cholesterol crystallization. Mutations in the ABCB4 gene result in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, low-phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma. In vivo and cell culture studies have demonstrated that the secretion of biliary phospholipids depends on both ABCB4 expression and bile salts. In the presence of bile salts, ABCB4 located in nonraft membranes mediates the efflux of phospholipids, preferentially phosphatidylcholine. Despite high homology with ABCB1, ABCB4 expression cannot confer multidrug resistance. This review summarizes our current understanding of ABCB4 functions and physiological relevance, and discusses the molecular mechanism for the ABCB4-mediated efflux of phospholipids.
Project description:(1) Background: Cholesterol bioaccessibility is an indicator of cholesterol that is available for absorption and therefore can be a measure of hypocholesterolemic potential. In this work, the effect of commercial espresso coffee and coffee extracts on cholesterol solubility are studied in an in vitro model composed by glycodeoxycholic bile salt, as a measure of its bioaccessibility. (2) Methods: Polysaccharide extracts from coffees obtained with different extraction conditions were purified by selective precipitation with ethanol, and their sugars content were characterized by GC-FID. Hexane extraction allowed us to obtain the coffee lipids. Espresso coffee samples and extracts were tested regarding their concentration dependence on the solubility of labeled <sup>13</sup>C-4 cholesterol by bile salt micelles, using quantitative <sup>13</sup>C NMR. (3) Results and Discussion: Espresso coffee and coffee extracts were rich in polysaccharides, mainly arabinogalactans and galactomannans. These polysaccharides decrease cholesterol solubility and, simultaneously, the bile salts' concentration. Coffee lipid extracts were also found to decrease cholesterol solubility, although not affecting bile salt concentration. (4) Conclusions: Coffee soluble fiber, composed by the arabinogalactans and galactomannans, showed to sequester bile salts from the solution, leading to a decrease in cholesterol bioaccessibility. Coffee lipids also decrease cholesterol bioaccessibility, although the mechanism of action identified is the co-solubilization in the bile salt micelles. The effect of both polysaccharides and lipids showed to be additive, representing the overall effect observed in a typical espresso coffee. The effect of polysaccharides and lipids on cholesterol bioaccessibility should be accounted on the formulation of hypocholesterolemic food ingredients.
Project description:Cholesterol crystallization in bile is affected by phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) hydrophobicity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PtdCho species modulate the metastable-labile limit and equilibrium solubility of cholesterol in the micellar phase of bile, thereby altering the distribution of cholesterol to biliary lipid carriers and thus influencing cholesterol crystallization. Supersaturated model bile (with a cholesterol saturation index of 2.0 and a total lipid concentration of 10 g/dl) was prepared with various PtdCho/(bile salt+PtdCho) ratios (0.1-0.5) using egg yolk or soya bean PtdCho. Subsequently, the following features were determined: metastable-labile limit, equilibrium solubility of cholesterol, metastable zone, and cholesterol crystallization process. Less hydrophobic PtdCho species destabilized bile cholesterol to induce rapid crystallization, because of a broad integrated metastable zone, whereas more hydrophobic species stabilized bile cholesterol with a less integrated metastable zone and thus retarded cholesterol crystallization. Cholesterol crystallization was accelerated by a decrease in the PtdCho/(bile salt+PtdCho) ratio, whereas the final nucleated crystal mass was increased by an increase in this ratio. With decreasing hydrophobicity of the PtdCho species, the intermixed micellar/vesicular concentration of bile salts decreased in association with less formation of vesicles and increased formation of micelles, and a variety of crystal forms were detected. In conclusion, PtdCho species directly influenced the cholesterol crystallization process in model bile by remodelling the bile mesophase, and also had an indirect influence by altering the balance between bile salt micelles and vesicles.
Project description:In order to cast light on the anti-cholestatic and cytoprotective properties of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), intrahepatic transport and secretion of bile salts and biliary phospholipids were investigated by using isolated perfused livers from colchicine-pretreated rats. Administration of taurocholic acid (TCA) after colchicine pretreatment induced marked cholestasis. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) treatment, in contrast, was associated with maintenance of bile flow, with excretion rates of bile acids and phospholipids similar to those in control animals. Furthermore, TCA-induced cholestasis in colchicine-treated rat livers was clearly decreased by co-administration of TUDCA. Although simultaneous addition of UDCA also showed slight improvement, with or without taurine pre-treatment, biliary bile-salt analysis also showed that cholestasis was markedly remitted as the excretion of taurine-conjugated UDCA was increased. The results suggest that the cytoprotective and anti-cholestatic effects of TUDCA may be linked to action at the intrahepatocyte level, represented by mild detergent effects on organelle lipids and preservation of intracellular transport even under microtubule-dysfunctional conditions. In addition, it was indicated that cytoprotective effects of UDCA may also be exerted after its conjugation with taurine inside hepatocytes.
Project description:Isolated rat livers were perfused under 'one-pass' conditions and bile was collected at 1 min intervals. After 1 min pulse, taurocholate appeared in the collected bile within 2 min, peak output occurring 2 min later. In contrast, the increased output of phospholipids and cholesterol was slower, peak output occurring 6-11 min after the original pulse of taurocholate. These results suggest that mixed micelles cannot be formed inside the cell or during passage of bile salts through the membrane, since bile salt and lipids should then parallel each other. The bile salts must therefore be pumped into the lumen and the lipids added subsequently, due to the actions of the bile salts in the canalicular lumen. It is suggested that the biliary lipid is obtained from microdomains of biliary-type lipid in the canaliculus membrane, which are vesiculated and solubilized by the action of bile salts. It is also suggested that this biliary-type lipid is brought continuously to the membrane via vesicle traffic; this traffic is increased during increased bile-salt output, and is a process that can be inhibited by colchicine.