Transcription factors of Schizophyllum commune involved in mushroom formation and modulation of vegetative growth.
ABSTRACT: Mushrooms are the most conspicuous fungal structures. Transcription factors (TFs) Bri1 and Hom1 of the model fungus Schizophyllum commune are involved in late stages of mushroom development, while Wc-2, Hom2, and Fst4 function early in development. Here, it is shown that Bri1 and Hom1 also stimulate vegetative growth, while biomass formation is repressed by Wc-2, Hom2, and Fst4. The ?bri1?bri1 and the ?hom1?hom1 strains formed up to 0.6 fold less biomass when compared to wild-type, while ?wc-2?wc-2, ?hom2?hom2, and ?fst4?fst4 strains formed up to 2.8 fold more biomass. Inactivation of TF gene tea1, which was downregulated in the ?wc-2?wc-2, ?hom2?hom2, and ?fst4?fst4 strains, resulted in a strain that was severely affected in mushroom development and that produced 1.3 fold more biomass than the wild-type. In contrast, introducing a constitutive active version of hom2 that had 4 predicted phosphorylation motifs eliminated resulted in radial growth inhibition and prompt fructification in both ?hom2 and wild-type strains, even in sterile monokaryons. Together, it is concluded that TFs involved in mushroom formation also modulate vegetative growth. Among these TFs is the homeodomain protein Hom2, being the first time that this class of regulatory proteins is implicated in repression of vegetative growth in a eukaryote.
Project description:Flammulina velutipes is one of the major edible mushrooms in the world. Recently, abnormalities that have a negative impact on crop production have been reported in this mushroom. These symptoms include slow vegetative growth, a compact mycelial mat, and few or even no fruiting bodies. The morphologies and fruiting capabilities of monokaryons of wild-type and degenerate strains that arose through arthrospore formation were investigated through test crossing. Only one monokaryotic group of the degenerate strains and its hybrid strains showed abnormal phenotypes. Because the monokaryotic arthrospore has the same nucleus as the parent strain, these results indicated that only one aberrant nucleus of the two nuclei in the degenerate strain was responsible for the degeneracy. A sequence-characterized amplified region marker that is linked to the degenerate monokaryon was identified based on a polymorphic sequence that was generated using random primers. Comparative analyses revealed the presence of a degenerate-specific genomic region in a telomere, which arose via the transfer of a genomic fragment harboring a putative helicase gene. Our findings have narrowed down the potential molecular targets responsible for this phenotype for future studies and have provided a marker for the detection of degenerate strains.
Project description:A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus was detected in malformed fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus strain ASI2792, one of bottle cultivated commercial strains of the edible oyster mushroom. The partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of the P. ostreatus ASI2792 mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) was cloned, and a cDNA sequences alignment revealed that the sequence was identical to the RdRp gene of a known PoSV found in the P. ostreatus strain. To investigate the symptoms of PoV-ASI2792 infection by comparing the isogenic virus-free P. ostreatus strains with a virus-infected strain, isogenic virus-cured P. ostreatus strains were obtained by the mycelial fragmentation method for virus curing. The absence of virus was verified with gel electrophoresis after dsRNA-specific virus purification and Northern blot analysis using a partial RdRp cDNA of PoV-ASI2792. The growth rate and mycelial dry weight of virus-infected P. ostreatus strain with PoV-ASI2792 mycovirus were compared to those of three virus-free isogenic strains on 10 different media. The virus-cured strains showed distinctly higher mycelial growth rates and dry weights on all kinds of experimental culture media, with at least a 2.2-fold higher mycelial growth rate on mushroom complete media (MCM) and Hamada media, and a 2.7-fold higher mycelial dry weight on MCM and yeastmalt-glucose agar media than those of the virus-infected strain. These results suggest that the infection of PoV mycovirus has a deleterious effect on the vegetative growth of P. ostreatus.
Project description:The uracil auxotrophic monokaryotic strain 423-9 of Lentinula edodes was crossed with nine monokaryons (cro2-2-9, W66-1, xd2-3-2, QingKe 20A, 241-1-1, 9015-1, L66-2, 241-1-2, and Qing 23A) derived from wild type strains of L. edodes. Nine dikaryotic hybrids were established from these crosses. These hybrids were fruited and 496 single spore isolates were obtained. Among these single spore isolates, 166 were identified as monokaryons under a microscope. We screened these monokaryons on selective medium and obtained 19 uracil auxotrophic monokaryons. By using the Monkaryon-monkaryon crossing method among the uracil auxotrophic monokaryons, 56 uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains were established on selective medium. These dikaryotic strains were unable to grow on minimal medium without uracil and exhibited slow growth rates on PDA plates compared to the wild type strain. The uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strains also showed more vigorous growth on sawdust cultivation medium containing uracil than that without uracil. The fruiting tests showed that they formed normal fruiting bodies on the sawdust medium containing uracil. The results show that the uracil auxotrophic dikaryotic strain of L. edodes could be produced by mating, and will provide a valuable resource for future genetic studies and for spawn protection and identification.
Project description:In basidiomycete fungi, the number of nuclei and their ploidy level per nucleus can vary tremendously among species; however, within species, nuclear number and ploidy levels are traditionally considered fixed in their vegetative hyphae. In the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, the hyphae are classified as either monokaryotic or dikaryotic, with each monokaryotic hyphal cell containing one haploid nucleus, and each dikaryotic hyphal cell containing two haploid nuclei. The dikaryotic hyphae are the results of mating between two genetically distinct monokaryons with different mating types. In this study, we examined the nuclear number and size (a potential correlate to ploidy) of L. edodes mycelia throughout its vegetative growth. We found that the number of nuclei within individual hyphal cells varied widely from non-nucleated to uninucleated, dinucleated, and multinucleated. Additionally, different nuclei within the same cell appeared very different in size, with a maximum nucleus cross-sectional area of 4.94 ?m2 and the minimum nucleus cross-sectional area at only 0.37 ?m2. Moreover, as culture time increased, more cells appeared to be devoid of any nuclei, with transmission electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays of late-stage cultures showing autophagosomes fusing and dissolving the nuclei and resulting in a large number of TUNEL-positive DNA fragments in non-nucleated cells. These results indicated that non-nucleated cells were likely caused by autophagy and apoptosis-like activities within aging L. edodes hyphae.
Project description:The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and nutrients for the mushroom production. As a large portion of compost carbohydrates are left unused in the current mushroom cultivation process, the aim of this work was to study wild-type A. bisporus strains for their potential to convert the components that are poorly utilized by the commercial strain A15. Growth profiling suggested different abilities for several A. bisporus strains to use plant biomass derived polysaccharides, as well as to transport and metabolize the corresponding monomeric sugars. Six wild-type isolates with diverse growth profiles were compared for mushroom production to A15 strain in semi-commercial cultivation conditions. Transcriptome and proteome analyses of the three most interesting wild-type strains and A15 indicated that the unrelated A. bisporus strains degrade and convert plant biomass polymers in a highly similar manner. This was also supported by the chemical content of the compost during the mushroom production process. Our study therefore reveals a highly conserved physiology for unrelated strains of this species during growth in compost. Overall design: The aim of the study was to compare the gene expression of different strains of A. bisporus (A. bisporus strain A15, 065 BP-8, 219 30P and 245 AMA-7) at different stages of its life cycle to select for better abilities towards components that are poorly utilized by the commercially cultivated strain A15. The samples were taken at primordial stage and first flush respectively.
Project description:The present study conducted a genetic characterization and determined growth rate and biomass production in solid and liquid media, using strains obtained from wild edible sporomes of Lyophyllum that grow in high mountains. Vegetative isolation was used to obtain a total of four strains, which were divided into two clades within the section Difformia: Lyophyllum sp. and Lyophyllum aff. shimeji. Growth rate and biomass production were influenced by both the culture media and the strains. In a potato dextrose agar medium, the strains presented a higher growth rate, while in a malt extract-peptone and yeast agar medium, the growth rate was lower, but with a higher biomass production that was equal to that in the malt extract-peptone and yeast liquid medium.
Project description:Dichomitussqualens is a white-rot fungus that colonizes and grows mainly on softwood and is commonly found in the northern parts of Europe, North America, and Asia. We analyzed the genetic and physiological diversity of eight D. squalens monokaryons derived from a single dikaryon. In addition, an unrelated dikaryon and a newly established dikaryon from two of the studied monokaryons were included. Both growth and lignocellulose acting enzyme profiles were highly variable between the studied monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains, demonstrating a high level of diversity within the species.
Project description:Lentinula edodes, commonly known as shiitake, is an edible mushroom that is cultivated and consumed around the globe, especially in Asia. Monitoring mycelial growth inside a woody substrate is difficult, but it is essential for effective management of mushroom cultivation. Mycelial biomass also affects the rate of wood decomposition under natural conditions and must be known to determine the metabolic quotient, an important ecophysiological parameter of fungal growth. Therefore, developing a method to measure it inside a substrate would be very useful. In this study, as the first step in understanding species-specific rates of fungal decomposition of wood, we developed species-specific primers and qPCR procedures for L. edodes. We tested primer specificity using strains of L. edodes from Japan and Southeast Asia, as well as related species of fungi and plant species for cultivation of L. edodes, and generated a calibration curve for quantification of mycelial biomass in wood dust inoculated with L. edodes. The qPCR procedure we developed can specifically detect L. edodes and allowed us to quantify the increase in L. edodes biomass in wood dust substrate and calculate the metabolic quotient based on the mycelial biomass and respiration rate. Development of a species-specific method for biomass quantification will be useful for both estimation of mycelial biomass and determining the kinetics of fungal growth in decomposition processes.
Project description:The white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune is used for the analysis of mating and sexual development in homobasidiomycete fungi. In this study, we isolated the gene gap1 encoding a GTPase-activating protein for Ras. Disruption of gap1 should therefore lead to strains accumulating Ras in its activated, GTP-bound state and to constitutive Ras signaling. Haploid Deltagap1 monokaryons of different mating types did not show alterations in mating behavior in the four different mating interactions possible in fungi expressing a tetrapolar mating type system. Instead, the growth rate in Deltagap1 monokaryons was reduced by ca. 25% and ca. 50% in homozygous Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons. Monokaryons, as well as homozygous dikaryons, carrying the disrupted gap1 alleles exhibited a disorientated growth pattern. Dikaryons showed a strong phenotype during clamp formation since hook cells failed to fuse with the peg beside them. Instead, the dikaryotic character of the hyphae was rescued by fusion of the hooks with nearby developing branches. Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons formed increased numbers of fruitbody primordia, whereas the amount of fruitbodies was not raised. Mature fruitbodies formed no or abnormal gills. No production of spores could be observed. The results suggest Ras involvement in growth, clamp formation, and fruitbody development.
Project description:Second generation (2G) ethanol is produced by breaking down lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In Brazil, sugarcane bagasse has been proposed as the lignocellulosic residue for this biofuel production. The enzymatic cocktails for the degradation of biomass-derived polysaccharides are mostly produced by fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. However, it is not yet fully understood how these microorganisms degrade plant biomass. In order to identify transcriptomic changes during steam-exploded bagasse (SEB) breakdown, we conducted a RNA-seq comparative transcriptome profiling of both fungi growing on SEB as carbon source.Particular attention was focused on CAZymes, sugar transporters, transcription factors (TFs) and other proteins related to lignocellulose degradation. Although genes coding for the main enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction were expressed by both fungal strains since the beginning of the growth in SEB, significant differences were found in their expression profiles. The expression of these enzymes is mainly regulated at the transcription level, and A. niger and T. reesei also showed differences in TFs content and in their expression. Several sugar transporters that were induced in both fungal strains could be new players on biomass degradation besides their role in sugar uptake. Interestingly, our findings revealed that in both strains several genes that code for proteins of unknown function and pro-oxidant, antioxidant, and detoxification enzymes were induced during growth in SEB as carbon source, but their specific roles on lignocellulose degradation remain to be elucidated.This is the first report of a time-course experiment monitoring the degradation of pretreated bagasse by two important fungi using the RNA-seq technology. It was possible to identify a set of genes that might be applied in several biotechnology fields. The data suggest that these two microorganisms employ different strategies for biomass breakdown. This knowledge can be exploited for the rational design of enzymatic cocktails and 2G ethanol production improvement.