Influences of surface treatments with abrasive paper and sand-blasting on surface morphology, hydrophilicity, mineralization and osteoblasts behaviors of n-CS/PK composite.
ABSTRACT: The surfaces of nano-calcium silicate (n-CS)/polyetheretherketone (PK) composites were treated with abrasive paper and sand-blasting, and the surfaces performances of the as-treated composites were studied. The results showed that the surface roughness, hydrophilicity and mineralization of the simulated body fluid (SBF) of the composites surfaces were significantly improved, and the properties of the composites treated by with sand-blasting were better than those treated with abrasive paper. Moreover, the treated composites significantly promoted osteoblasts responses, such as cell attachment, spreading, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, compared to un-treated composites, and the cellular responses to the composites treated with sand-blasting were better than those treated with abrasive paper. The results suggested that surface treatment with sand-blasting was an effective method to greatly improve the surface bioperformances of the n-CS/PK composite, and this treated composite with improved bioactivity and cytocompatibility might be a promising implant material for orthopedic applications.
Project description:Regular dry dock maintenance work on ship hulls is essential for maintaining the efficiency and sustainability of the shipping industry. Hydro blasting is one of the major processes of dry dock maintenance work, where human labor is extensively used. The conventional methods of maintenance work suffer from many shortcomings, and hence robotized solutions have been developed. This paper proposes a novel robotic system that can synthesize a benchmarking map for a previously blasted ship hull. A Self-Organizing Fuzzy logic (SOF) classifier has been developed to benchmark the blasting quality of a ship hull similar to blasting quality categorization done by human experts. Hornbill, a multipurpose inspection and maintenance robot intended for hydro blasting, benchmarking, and painting, has been developed by integrating the proposed SOF classifier. Moreover, an integrated system solution has been developed to improve dry dock maintenance of ship hulls. The proposed SOF classifier can achieve a mean accuracy of 0.9942 with an execution time of 8.42 μ s. Realtime experimenting with the proposed robotic system has been conducted on a ship hull. This experiment confirms the ability of the proposed robotic system in synthesizing a benchmarking map that reveals the benchmarking quality of different areas of a previously blasted ship hull. This sort of a benchmarking map would be useful for ensuring the blasting quality as well as performing efficient spot wise reblasting before the painting. Therefore, the proposed robotic system could be utilized for improving the efficiency and quality of hydro blasting work on the ship hull maintenance industry.
Project description:A plastic bearing calculation method for a blasting-roof is proposed to solve the problem of determining the blasting-roof thickness in deep hole mining. A mechanical analysis model for the plastic bearing was built for the typical boundary conditions of blasting-roofs. The external and internal work of the blasting-roof are equal under the plastic limit state through calculation. The limit bearing formulae of blasting-roofs under various boundary conditions were derived based on the principle of virtual work. A Vertical Crater Retreat stope was taken as the object, and the safe blasting-roof thickness was determined to be 6 m using the derived formula (considering the safety coefficient). A numerical model of stope was constructed using the Surpac-Flac3D technique, while the blasting-roof stability was simulated under different thicknesses. Variations in the simulated indexes (stress and plastic zone volume) prove that the theoretical calculations are reliable. The plastic bearing calculation method can provide a new method to determine the blasting-roof thickness in deep hole mining.
Project description:The present study examined wear characteristics of A356/melon shell ash particulate composites. Dry-sliding the stainless steel ball against specimen disc revealed the abrasive wear behavior of the composites under loads of 2 and 5N. The composite showed lower wear rate of 2.182 × 10-4 mm3/Nm at 20 wt% reinforced material under load of 5N. Results showed that wear rate decreased significantly with increasing weight percentage of melon shell ash particles. Microstructural analyses of worn surfaces of the composites reveal evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. The wear resistance of A356 increased considerably with percentage reinforcement. In other words, the abrasive mass loss decreased with increasing percentage of reinforcement addition at the both applied loads. The control sample suffered a highest mass loss at 5 N applied load.
Project description:It is generally believed that stress wave superposition does occur and plays an important role in cutting blasting with a single free surface, in which explosive columns of several blast holes with short spacing are simultaneously initiated. However, considering the large scatter of pyrotechnic delay detonators that are used in most underground metal mines in China, the existence of stress wave superposition and the influence of this effect on rock fragmentation are questionable. In the present study, the stress wave interaction in short-delay blasting with a single free surface was studied through the use of the LS-DYNA code. Stress waves induced by two blast holes blasting with different delays were compared with the single blast hole case, and the effects of delay time, detonating location and spacing on stress wave superposition were investigated. The numerical results showed that for blast holes with a 1 m spacing, stress wave interaction only occurs when the delay time is 0 ms and does not occur for blasting with delays of more than 1 ms. An increase in the duration of a stress wave via optimizing the detonation location does not improve the stress wave interaction. For a 1 ms delay, stress wave superposition only occurs when the spacing is more than 4 m, which is a rare case in practice. The results indicated that the occurrence of stress wave superposition for blasting with a single free surface is strictly limited to conditions that would be difficult to achieve under the existing delay accuracy of detonators. Therefore, it is unrealistic to improve fragmentation via the stress wave interaction in field blasting. Furthermore, the numerical results of the stress wave interaction also show that there would be a great potential to reduce the hazardous vibrations induced by short-delay blasting by using electronic detonators with better control of delays in an order of several milliseconds.
Project description:To solve the hidden danger of high methane and low permeability gas in the coal mining process, potentially affecting the safety production in an orderly way, we propose the use of deep hole blasting technology to improve the permeability of the coal seam gas drainage, increase the quantity and rate of extraction, and reduce methane output. Taking the geological conditions of the 201 working surface of Tingnan Coal Mine as an example, it is calculated that the single drilled fracture crack extension range is 3.11~5.24 m according to the coal seam deep-hole pre-splitting blasting joint mechanism and fracture propagation mechanics model, providing a theoretical basis for choosing the appropriate hole spacing. Using COMSOL simulation software to simulate the effective gas drainage radius of a coal seam from a two-dimensional perspective on a single borehole radial, the least squares fitting method was used to analyze the simulated data, and obtained the effective drilling extraction radius after pre-split blasting in a deep hole that is 3.6 m, which is in accordance with the theoretical calculations. In order to obtain accurate and scientific calculations, Fast lagrangian analysis of continua (FLAC3D) numerical simulation software was used. After simulating the distribution of plastic zone between two blast holes at different intervals from a three-dimensional angle, and evaluating the development of cracks in the blasting hole, the white zone of the blasting space was completely eliminated when the interval between blasting holes was 7 m, and the cracks could be propagated throughout the surroundings. Therefore, a blasting hole spacing of 7 m is optimal. On-site monitoring in the Nanting coal mine showed that the quantity and rate of extraction of the single hole after pre-splitting blasting were 2.36 times and 1.62 times as much as before. By integrating the borehole drainage amount and the optimized calculation equation, it could be concluded that the permeability coefficient of the coal seam after blasting was 7.78 times as much as before. The function of time-variated drilling methane emission was obtained using multivariate statistical regressions based on the on-site monitored borehole methane emission (qt), and the drilling limit after pre-splitting blasting revealed that the limitation of methane extraction volume was 5.27 times as much as before.
Project description:To investigate the role of different distribution forms of Fe-Cr-C cladding layer in the impact abrasive wear performance of Hadfield steel, the over-lapped Fe-Cr-C cladding layer and dot-shaped Fe-Cr-C cladding layer were deposited, respectively, by plasma transferred arc (PTA) cladding on Hadfield steel. The microstructure, microhardness and impact abrasive wear performance of the two cladding layers under the impact of glass sand, granite and quartz sand were investigated. The results showed that both microstructures of the cladding layers were hypoeutectic Fe-Cr-C microstructures. The average microhardness of the over-lapped cladding layer and dot-shaped cladding layer was around 560 HV0.2 and 750 HV0.2, respectively. The over-lapped Fe-Cr-C cladding layer could only improve the impact abrasive wear resistance of the Hadfield steel under the wear condition of the glass sand. Meanwhile, the dot-shaped Fe-Cr-C cladding layer could improve the impact abrasive wear resistance of the Hadfield steel under all the three kinds of the abrasives because of the overall strengthening effect of its convex shape and the hypoeutectic FeCrC microstructure.
Project description:Rotavator blades are prone to significant wear because of the abrasive nature of sand particles. The aim of this research work is to investigate the effect of cryogenic treatment and post tempering on abrasive wear behavior, in the presence of angular quartz sand (grain size of 212-425 ?m), of rotavator blade material of boron steel (30MnCrB4). Cryogenic treatment has caused an improvement in the abrasive wear resistance and microhardness of 30MnCrB4 by 60% and 260.73%, respectively, compared to untreated material due to enhancement in hardness, the conversion of retained austenite into martensite, and the precipitation of secondary carbides in boron steel after exposure to cryogenic temperature. Economic analysis justifies the additional cost of cryogenic treatment.
Project description:Metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles have become the most attractive material in the research and development of new materials for thermal management applications. In this work, 40-60 vol. % TiCx-TiB₂/Al composites were successfully fabricated by the method of combustion synthesis and hot press consolidation in an Al-Ti-B₄C system. The effect of the TiCx-TiB₂ content on the microstructure and compression properties of the composites was investigated. Moreover, the abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB₂/Al composite were studied and compared with the TiCx/Al composite. The compression properties, abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB₂/Al composite are all better than those of the TiCx/Al composite, which confirms that the TiCx-TiB₂/Al composite is more appropriate for application as a heat sink.
Project description:Implantable medical devices (IMDs) are susceptible to microbial adhesion and biofilm formation, which lead to several clinical complications, including the occurrence of implant-associated infections. Polylactic acid (PLA) and its composites are currently used for the construction of IMDs. In addition, chitosan (CS) is a natural polymer that has been widely used in the medical field due to its antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties, which can be dependent on molecular weight (Mw). The present study aims to evaluate the performance of CS-based surfaces of different Mw to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. For this purpose, CS-based surfaces were produced by dip-coating and the presence of CS and its derivatives onto PLA films, as well surface homogeneity were confirmed by contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial activity of the functionalized surfaces was evaluated against single- and dual-species biofilms of <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. Chitosan-based surfaces were able to inhibit the development of single- and dual-species biofilms by reducing the number of total, viable, culturable, and viable but nonculturable cells up to 79%, 90%, 81%, and 96%, respectively, being their activity dependent on chitosan Mw. The effect of CS-based surfaces on the inhibition of biofilm formation was corroborated by biofilm structure analysis using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed a decrease in the biovolume and thickness of the biofilm formed on CS-based surfaces compared to PLA. Overall, these results support the potential of low Mw CS for coating polymeric devices such as IMDs where the two bacteria tested are common colonizers and reduce their biofilm formation.
Project description:The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ), especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results of the new approach to the construction of stress-strain diagrams are presented. The calculated values agreed very well with those obtained by a certified laboratory VÚHŽ.