Discrimination of candidate subgenome-specific loci by linkage map construction with an S1 population of octoploid strawberry (Fragaria?×?ananassa).
ABSTRACT: The strawberry, Fragaria?×?ananassa, is an allo-octoploid (2n?=?8x?=?56) and outcrossing species. Although it is the most widely consumed berry crop in the world, its complex genome structure has hindered its genetic and genomic analysis, and thus discrimination of subgenome-specific loci among the homoeologous chromosomes is needed. In the present study, we identified candidate subgenome-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, and constructed a linkage map using an S1 mapping population of the cultivar 'Reikou' with an IStraw90 Axiom® SNP array and previously published SSR markers.The 'Reikou' linkage map consisted of 11,574 loci (11,002 SNPs and 572 SSR loci) spanning 2816.5 cM of 31 linkage groups. The 11,574 loci were located on 4738 unique positions (bin) on the linkage map. Of the mapped loci, 8999 (8588 SNPs and 411 SSR loci) showed a 1:2:1 segregation ratio of AA:AB:BB allele, which suggested the possibility of deriving loci from candidate subgenome-specific sequences. In addition, 2575 loci (2414 SNPs and 161 SSR loci) showed a 3:1 segregation of AB:BB allele, indicating they were derived from homoeologous genomic sequences. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous linkage groups revealed differences in genome structure among the subgenomes.Our results suggest that candidate subgenome-specific loci are randomly located across the genomes, and that there are small- to large-scale structural variations among the subgenomes. The mapped SNPs and SSR loci on the linkage map are expected to be seed points for the construction of pseudomolecules in the octoploid strawberry.
Project description:Macrosynteny and colinearity between Fragaria (strawberry) species showing extreme levels of ploidy have been studied through comparative genetic mapping between the octoploid cultivated strawberry (F. xananassa) and its diploid relatives. A comprehensive map of the octoploid strawberry, in which almost all linkage groups are ranged into the seven expected homoeologous groups was obtained, thus providing the first reference map for the octoploid Fragaria. High levels of conserved macrosynteny and colinearity were observed between homo(eo)logous linkage groups and between the octoploid homoeologous groups and their corresponding diploid linkage groups. These results reveal that the polyploidization events that took place along the evolution of the Fragaria genus and the more recent juxtaposition of two octoploid strawberry genomes in the cultivated strawberry did not trigger any major chromosomal rearrangements in genomes involved in F. xananassa. They further suggest the existence of a close relationship between the diploid Fragaria genomes. In addition, despite the possible existence of residual levels of polysomic segregation suggested by the observation of large linkage groups in coupling phase only, the prevalence of linkage groups in coupling/repulsion phase clearly demonstrates that the meiotic behavior is mainly disomic in the cultivated strawberry.
Project description:Allo-octoploid cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) originated through a combination of polyploid and homoploid hybridization, domestication of an interspecific hybrid lineage, and continued admixture of wild species over the last 300 years. While genes appear to flow freely between the octoploid progenitors, the genome structures and diversity of the octoploid species remain poorly understood. The complexity and absence of an octoploid genome frustrated early efforts to study chromosome evolution, resolve subgenomic structure, and develop a single coherent linkage group nomenclature. Here, we show that octoploid Fragaria species harbor millions of subgenome-specific DNA variants. Their diversity was sufficient to distinguish duplicated (homoeologous and paralogous) DNA sequences and develop 50K and 850K SNP genotyping arrays populated with co-dominant, disomic SNP markers distributed throughout the octoploid genome. Whole-genome shotgun genotyping of an interspecific segregating population yielded 1.9M genetically mapped subgenome variants in 5,521 haploblocks spanning 3,394 cM in F. chiloensis subsp. lucida, and 1.6M genetically mapped subgenome variants in 3,179 haploblocks spanning 2,017 cM in F. × ananassa. These studies provide a dense genomic framework of subgenome-specific DNA markers for seamlessly cross-referencing genetic and physical mapping information and unifying existing chromosome nomenclatures. Using comparative genomics, we show that geographically diverse wild octoploids are effectively diploidized, nearly completely collinear, and retain strong macro-synteny with diploid progenitor species. The preservation of genome structure among allo-octoploid taxa is a critical factor in the unique history of garden strawberry, where unimpeded gene flow supported its origin and domestication through repeated cycles of interspecific hybridization.
Project description:Cultivated strawberry emerged from the hybridization of two wild octoploid species, both descendants from the merger of four diploid progenitor species into a single nucleus more than 1 million years ago. Here we report a near-complete chromosome-scale assembly for cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria?×?ananassa) and uncovered the origin and evolutionary processes that shaped this complex allopolyploid. We identified the extant relatives of each diploid progenitor species and provide support for the North American origin of octoploid strawberry. We examined the dynamics among the four subgenomes in octoploid strawberry and uncovered the presence of a single dominant subgenome with significantly greater gene content, gene expression abundance, and biased exchanges between homoeologous chromosomes, as compared with the other subgenomes. Pathway analysis showed that certain metabolomic and disease-resistance traits are largely controlled by the dominant subgenome. These findings and the reference genome should serve as a powerful platform for future evolutionary studies and enable molecular breeding in strawberry.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Breeders in the allo-octoploid strawberry currently make little use of molecular marker tools. As a first step of a QTL discovery project on fruit quality traits and resistance to soil-borne pathogens such as Phytophthora cactorum and Verticillium we built a genome-wide SSR linkage map for the cross Holiday x Korona. We used the previously published MADCE method to obtain full haplotype information for both of the parental cultivars, facilitating in-depth studies on their genomic organisation. RESULTS: The linkage map incorporates 508 segregating loci and represents each of the 28 chromosome pairs of octoploid strawberry, spanning an estimated length of 2050 cM. The sub-genomes are denoted according to their sequence divergence from F. vesca as revealed by marker performance. The map revealed high overall synteny between the sub-genomes, but also revealed two large inversions on LG2C and LG2D, of which the latter was confirmed using a separate mapping population. We discovered interesting breeding features within the parental cultivars by in-depth analysis of our haplotype data. The linkage map-derived homozygosity level of Holiday was similar to the pedigree-derived inbreeding level (33% and 29%, respectively). For Korona we found that the observed homozygosity level was over three times higher than expected from the pedigree (13% versus 3.6%). This could indicate selection pressure on genes that have favourable effects in homozygous states. The level of kinship between Holiday and Korona derived from our linkage map was 2.5 times higher than the pedigree-derived value. This large difference could be evidence of selection pressure enacted by strawberry breeders towards specific haplotypes. CONCLUSION: The obtained SSR linkage map provides a good base for QTL discovery. It also provides the first biologically relevant basis for the discernment and notation of sub-genomes. For the first time, we revealed genomic rearrangements that were verified in a separate mapping population. We believe that haplotype information will become increasingly important in identifying marker-trait relationships and regions that are under selection pressure within breeding material. Our attempt at providing a biological basis for the discernment of sub-genomes warrants follow-up studies to streamline the naming of the sub-genomes among different octoploid strawberry maps.
Project description:The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) of the Rosaceae family whose genomic architecture is still controversial. Several recent studies support the AAA'A'BBB'B' model, but its complexity has hindered genetic and genomic analysis of this important crop. To overcome this difficulty and to assist genome-wide analysis of F. × ananassa, we constructed an integrated linkage map by organizing a total of 4474 of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers collected from published Fragaria sequences, including 3746 SSR markers [Fragaria vesca expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived SSR markers] derived from F. vesca ESTs, 603 markers (F. × ananassa EST-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa ESTs, and 125 markers (F. × ananassa transcriptome-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa transcripts. Along with the previously published SSR markers, these markers were mapped onto five parent-specific linkage maps derived from three mapping populations, which were then assembled into an integrated linkage map. The constructed map consists of 1856 loci in 28 linkage groups (LGs) that total 2364.1 cM in length. Macrosynteny at the chromosome level was observed between the LGs of F. × ananassa and the genome of F. vesca. Variety distinction on 129 F. × ananassa lines was demonstrated using 45 selected SSR markers.
Project description:Extending the period of fruit production is a way to substantially increase crop yield in many fruit or ornamental species. In the cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), the most consumed small fruit worldwide, fruit production season can be extended by selecting the perpetual flowering (PF) cultivars. This trait is of considerable interest to growers and to the food industry. Four homoeologous loci controlling a single trait can be expected in such a complex octoploid species. However, we recently showed that the PF trait is under the control of the single dominant FaPFRU locus (J. Exp. Bot., 2013, 64, 1837), making it potentially amenable to marker-assisted selection (MAS). Here, we report the successful use of a strategy, based on a selective mapping using a reduced sample of individuals, to identify nine markers in close linkage to the FaPFRU allelic variant. Thus, this strategy can be used to fine map the target homoeologous loci in other complex polyploid crop species. Recombinant analysis further enabled us to reduce the locus to a region flanked by two markers, Bx083_206 and Bx215_131, corresponding to a 1.1 Mb region in the diploid F. vesca reference genome. This region comprises 234 genes, including 15 flowering associated genes. Among these, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is known to be a key activator of flowering. The close association between the PF trait and the FaPFRU flanking markers was validated using an additional segregating population and genetic resources. This study lays the foundation for effective and rapid breeding of PF strawberry cultivars by MAS.
Project description:The first high-resolution genetic linkage map of the ancestral octoploid (2n?=?8x?=?56) strawberry species, Fragaria virginiana, was constructed using segregation data obtained from a pentaploid progeny population. This novel mapping population of size 178 was generated by crossing highly heterozygous F. virginiana hybrid "LB48" as a paternal parent with diploid (2n?=?2x?=?14) Fragaria vesca "Hawaii 4". The LB48 linkage map comprises 6055 markers genotyped on the Axiom® IStraw90 strawberry SNP array. The map consists of 28 linkage groups (LGs) organized into seven homoeology groups of four LGs each, and excludes a small 29th LG of undefined homoeology. One member of each homoeology group was assignable to an "A" subgenome associated with ancestral diploid Fragaria vesca, while no other subgenomes were defined. Despite an intriguing discrepancy within homoeology group VI, synteny comparisons with the previously published Fragaria?×ananassa DA?×?MO linkage map revealed substantial agreement. Following initial map construction, examination of crossover distributions revealed that six of the total 5162 (=29 chromosomes/individual?×?178 individuals) chromosomes making up the data set exhibited abnormally high crossover counts, ranging from 15 to 48 crossovers per chromosome, as compared with the overall mean of 0.66 crossovers per chromosome. Each of these six hyper-recombinant (HypR) chromosomes occurred in a different LG and in a different individual. When calculated upon exclusion of the six HypR chromosomes, the canonical (i.e., broadly representative) LB48 map had 1851 loci distributed over a total map length of 1873?cM, while their inclusion increased the number of loci by 130, and the overall map length by 91?cM. Discovery of these hyper-recombinant chromosomes points to the existence of a sporadically acting mechanism that, if identified and manipulable, could be usefully harnessed for multiple purposes by geneticists and breeders.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A high-throughput genotyping platform is needed to enable marker-assisted breeding in the allo-octoploid cultivated strawberry Fragaria?×?ananassa. Short-read sequences from one diploid and 19 octoploid accessions were aligned to the diploid Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4' reference genome to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels for incorporation into a 90 K Affymetrix® Axiom® array. We report the development and preliminary evaluation of this array. RESULTS: About 36 million sequence variants were identified in a 19 member, octoploid germplasm panel. Strategies and filtering pipelines were developed to identify and incorporate markers of several types: di-allelic SNPs (66.6%), multi-allelic SNPs (1.8%), indels (10.1%), and ploidy-reducing "haploSNPs" (11.7%). The remaining SNPs included those discovered in the diploid progenitor F. iinumae (3.9%), and speculative "codon-based" SNPs (5.9%). In genotyping 306 octoploid accessions, SNPs were assigned to six classes with Affymetrix's "SNPolisher" R package. The highest quality classes, PolyHigh Resolution (PHR), No Minor Homozygote (NMH), and Off-Target Variant (OTV) comprised 25%, 38%, and 1% of array markers, respectively. These markers were suitable for genetic studies as demonstrated in the full-sib family 'Holiday'?×?'Korona' with the generation of a genetic linkage map consisting of 6,594 PHR SNPs evenly distributed across 28 chromosomes with an average density of approximately one marker per 0.5 cM, thus exceeding our goal of one marker per cM. CONCLUSIONS: The Affymetrix IStraw90 Axiom array is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for cultivated strawberry and is commercially available to the worldwide scientific community. The array's high success rate is likely driven by the presence of naturally occurring variation in ploidy level within the nominally octoploid genome, and by effectiveness of the employed array design and ploidy-reducing strategies. This array enables genetic analyses including generation of high-density linkage maps, identification of quantitative trait loci for economically important traits, and genome-wide association studies, thus providing a basis for marker-assisted breeding in this high value crop.
Project description:The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (?) and Babette (?). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry.
Project description:Allotetraploid white clover (Trifolium repens L.), a cool-season perennial legume used extensively as forage for livestock, is an important target for marker-assisted breeding. A genetic linkage map of white clover was constructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers based on sequences from several Trifolieae species, including white clover, red clover (T. pratense L.), Medicago truncatula (Gaertn.) and soybean (Glycine max L.). An F(1) population consisting of 179 individuals, from a cross between two highly heterozygous genotypes, GA43 and Southern Regional Virus Resistant, was used for genetic mapping. A total of 1,571 SSR markers were screened for amplification and polymorphism using DNA from two parents and 14 F(1)s of the mapping population. The map consists of 415 loci amplified from 343 SSR primer pairs, including 83 from white clover, 181 from red clover, 77 from M. truncatula, and two from soybean. Linkage groups for all eight homoeologous chromosome pairs of allotetraploid white clover were detected. Map length was estimated at 1,877 cM with 87% genome coverage. Map density was approximately 5 cM per locus. Segregation distortion was detected in six segments of the genome (homoeologous groups A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and D1). A comparison of map locations of markers originating from white clover, red clover, and alfalfa (M. sativa L.) revealed putative macro-colinearity between the three Trifolieae species. This map can be used to link quantitative trait loci with SSR markers, and accelerate the improvement of white clover by marker-assisted selection and breeding.