Laser thermal ablation for mesiotemporal epilepsy: Analysis of ablation volumes and trajectories.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To identify features of ablations and trajectories that correlate with optimal seizure control and minimize the risk of neurocognitive deficits in patients undergoing laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) for mesiotemporal epilepsy (mTLE). METHODS:Clinical and radiographic data were reviewed from a prospectively maintained database of all patients undergoing LiTT for the treatment of mTLE at the University of Miami Hospital. Standard preoperative and postoperative evaluations, including contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing, were performed in all patients. Laser trajectory and ablation volumes were computed both by manual tracing of mesiotemporal structures and by nonrigid registration of ablation cavities to a common reference system based on 7T MRI data. RESULTS:Among 23 patients with at least 1-year follow-up, 15 (65%) were free of disabling seizures since the time of their surgery. Sparing of the mesial hippocampal head was significantly correlated with persistent disabling seizures (p = 0.01). A lateral trajectory through the hippocampus showed a trend for poor seizure outcome (p = 0.08). A comparison of baseline and postoperative neurocognitive testing revealed areas of both improvement and worsening, which were not associated with ablation volume or trajectory. SIGNIFICANCE:At 1-year follow-up, LiTT appears to be a safe and effective tool for the treatment of mTLE, although a longer follow-up period is necessary to confirm these observations. Better understanding of the impact of ablation volume and location could potentially fine-tune this technique to improve seizure-freedom rates and associated neurologic and cognitive changes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) has reported seizure freedom rates between 36% and 78% with at least 1 year of follow-up. Unfortunately, the lack of robust methods capable of incorporating the inherent variability of patient anatomy, the variability of the ablated volumes, and clinical outcomes have limited three-dimensional quantitative analysis of surgical targeting and its impact on seizure outcomes. We therefore aimed to leverage a novel image-based methodology for normalizing surgical therapies across a large multicenter cohort to quantify the effects of surgical targeting on seizure outcomes in LITT for mTLE. METHODS:This multicenter, retrospective cohort study included 234 patients from 11 centers who underwent LITT for mTLE. To investigate therapy location, all ablation cavities were manually traced on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which were subsequently nonlinearly normalized to a common atlas space. The association of clinical variables and ablation location to seizure outcome was calculated using multivariate regression and Bayesian models, respectively. RESULTS:Ablations including more anterior, medial, and inferior temporal lobe structures, which involved greater amygdalar volume, were more likely to be associated with Engel class I outcomes. At both 1 and 2 years after LITT, 58.0% achieved Engel I outcomes. A history of bilateral tonic-clonic seizures decreased chances of Engel I outcome. Radiographic hippocampal sclerosis was not associated with seizure outcome. SIGNIFICANCE:LITT is a viable treatment for mTLE in patients who have been properly evaluated at a comprehensive epilepsy center. Consideration of surgical factors is imperative to the complete assessment of LITT. Based on our model, ablations must prioritize the amygdala and also include the hippocampal head, parahippocampal gyrus, and rhinal cortices to maximize chances of seizure freedom. Extending the ablation posteriorly has diminishing returns. Further work is necessary to refine this analysis and define the minimal zone of ablation necessary for seizure control.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The recent emergence of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) as a frontline surgical tool in the management of brain tumors and epilepsy is a result of advances in MRI thermal imaging. A limitation to further improving LITT is the diversity of brain tissue thermoablative properties, which hinders our ability to predict LITT treatment-related effects. Utilizing the mesiotemporal lobe as a consistent anatomic model system, the goal of this study was to use intraoperative thermal damage estimate (TDE) maps to study short- and long-term effects of LITT and to identify preoperative variables that could be helpful in predicting tissue responses to thermal energy. METHODS:For 30 patients with mesiotemporal epilepsy treated with LITT at a single institution, intraoperative TDE maps and pre-, intra- and post-operative MRIs were co-registered in a common reference space using a deformable atlas. The spatial overlap of TDE maps with manually-traced immediate (post-ablation) and delayed (6-month) ablation zones was measured using the dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Then, motivated by simple heat-transfer models, ablation dynamics were quantified at amygdala and hippocampal head from TDE pixel time series fit by first order linear dynamics, permitting analysis of the thermal time constant (?). The relationships of these measures to 16 independent variables derived from patient demographics, mesiotemporal anatomy, preoperative imaging characteristics and the surgical procedure were examined. RESULTS:TDE maps closely overlapped immediate ablation borders but were significantly larger than the ablation cavities seen on delayed imaging, particularly at the amygdala and hippocampal head. The TDEs more accurately predicted delayed LITT effects in patients with smaller perihippocampal CSF spaces. Analyses of ablation dynamics from intraoperative TDE videos showed variable patterns of lesion progression after laser activation. Ablations tended to be slower for targets with increased preoperative T2 MRI signal and in close proximity to large, surrounding CSF spaces. In addition, greater laser energy was required to ablate mesial versus lateral mesiotemporal structures, an effect associated with laser trajectory and target contrast-enhanced T1 MRI signal. CONCLUSIONS:Patient-specific variations in mesiotemporal anatomy and pathology may influence the thermal coagulation of these tissues. We speculate that by incorporating demographic and imaging data into predictive models we may eventually enhance the accuracy and precision with which LITT is delivered, improving outcomes and accelerating adoption of this novel tool.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a novel minimally invasive alternative to open mesial temporal resection in drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The safety and efficacy of the procedure are dependent on the preplanned trajectory and the extent of the planned ablation achieved. Ablation of the mesial hippocampal head has been suggested to be an independent predictor of seizure freedom, whereas sparing of collateral structures is thought to result in improved neuropsychological outcomes. We aim to validate an automated trajectory planning platform against manually planned trajectories to objectively standardize the process. METHODS:Using the EpiNav platform, we compare automated trajectory planning parameters derived from expert opinion and machine learning to undertake a multicenter validation against manually planned and implemented trajectories in 95 patients with MTLE. We estimate ablation volumes of regions of interest and quantify the size of the avascular corridor through the use of a risk score as a marker of safety. We also undertake blinded external expert feasibility and preference ratings. RESULTS:Automated trajectory planning employs complex algorithms to maximize ablation of the mesial hippocampal head and amygdala, while sparing the parahippocampal gyrus. Automated trajectories resulted in significantly lower calculated risk scores and greater amygdala ablation percentage, whereas overall hippocampal ablation percentage did not differ significantly. In addition, estimated damage to collateral structures was reduced. Blinded external expert raters were significantly more likely to prefer automated to manually planned trajectories. SIGNIFICANCE:Retrospective studies of automated trajectory planning show much promise in improving safety parameters and ablation volumes during LITT for MTLE. Multicenter validation provides evidence that the algorithm is robust, and blinded external expert ratings indicate that the trajectories are clinically feasible. Prospective validation studies are now required to determine if automated trajectories translate into improved seizure freedom rates and reduced neuropsychological deficits.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is quickly emerging as an effective surgical therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). One of the most frequent complications of the procedure is postoperative visual field cuts, but the physiopathology of these deficits is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate potential causes of visual deficits after LITT for TLE in an attempt to minimize this complication. METHODS:This retrospective chart review compares the case of a 24-year-old male who developed homonymous hemianopsia following LITT for TLE to 17 prior patients who underwent the procedure and suffered no visual deficit. We examined both features of the surgical approach (trajectory, laser energy, ablation size) and of preoperative surgical anatomy, derived from volumetric tracings of mesiotemporal structures. RESULTS:For the patient with postoperative homonymous hemianopsia imaging suggested inadvertent ablation of the lateral geniculate nucleus, although the laser was positioned entirely within the hippocampus. This patient's laser trajectory, ablation number, energy delivered, and ablation size were not significantly different from the prior patients. However, the subject with the visual deficit did have significantly smaller choroidal fissure cerebrospinal fluid volume. CONCLUSION:Visual deficits are the most common complication of LITT for mesiotemporal epilepsy and patients at most risk may have small cerebrospinal fluid volume in the choroidal fissure, allowing heat to spread from the hippocampal body to the lateral geniculate nucleus. When such anatomy is identified on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, we recommend lowering laser trajectory, decreasing ablation power through the hippocampal body, and using temperature safety markers at the lower thalamic border.
Project description:Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is an alternative to open surgery for drug-resistant focal mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Studies suggest maximal ablation of the mesial hippocampal head and amygdalohippocampal complex (AHC) improves seizure freedom rates while better neuropsychological outcomes are associated with sparing of the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). Optimal trajectories avoid sulci and CSF cavities and maximize distance from vasculature. Computer-assisted planning (CAP) improves these metrics, but the combination of entry and target zones has yet to be determined to maximize ablation of the AHC while sparing the PHG. We apply a machine learning approach to predict entry and target parameters and utilize these for CAP. Ten patients with hippocampal sclerosis were identified from a prospectively managed database. CAP LITT trajectories were generated using entry regions that include the inferior occipital, middle occipital, inferior temporal, and middle temporal gyri. Target points were varied by sequential AHC erosions and transformations of the centroid of the amygdala. A total of 7600 trajectories were generated, and ablation volumes of the AHC and PHG were calculated. Two machine learning approaches (random forest and linear regression) were investigated to predict composite ablation scores and determine entry and target point combinations that maximize ablation of the AHC while sparing the PHG. Random forest and linear regression predictions had a high correlation with the calculated values in the test set (ρ = 0.7) for both methods. Maximal composite ablation scores were associated with entry points around the junction of the inferior occipital, middle occipital, and middle temporal gyri. The optimal target point was the anteromesial amygdala. These parameters were then used with CAP to generate clinically feasible trajectories that optimize safety metrics. Machine learning techniques accurately predict composite ablation score. Prospective studies are required to determine if this improves seizure-free outcome while reducing neuropsychological morbidity following LITT for MTLE.
Project description:Open surgery effectively treats mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, but carries the risk of neurocognitive deficits, which may be reduced with minimally invasive alternatives.To describe technical and clinical outcomes of stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy with real-time magnetic resonance thermal imaging guidance.With patients under general anesthesia and using standard stereotactic methods, 13 adult patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (with and without mesial temporal sclerosis [MTS]) prospectively underwent insertion of a saline-cooled fiberoptic laser applicator in amygdalohippocampal structures from an occipital trajectory. Computer-controlled laser ablation was performed during continuous magnetic resonance thermal imaging followed by confirmatory contrast-enhanced anatomic imaging and volumetric reconstruction. Clinical outcomes were determined from seizure diaries.A mean 60% volume of the amygdalohippocampal complex was ablated in 13 patients (9 with MTS) undergoing 15 procedures. Median hospitalization was 1 day. With follow-up ranging from 5 to 26 months (median, 14 months), 77% (10/13) of patients achieved meaningful seizure reduction, of whom 54% (7/13) were free of disabling seizures. Of patients with preoperative MTS, 67% (6/9) achieved seizure freedom. All recurrences were observed before 6 months. Variances in ablation volume and length did not account for individual clinical outcomes. Although no complications of laser therapy itself were observed, 1 significant complication, a visual field defect, resulted from deviated insertion of a stereotactic aligning rod, which was corrected before ablation.Real-time magnetic resonance-guided stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy is a technically novel, safe, and effective alternative to open surgery. Further evaluation with larger cohorts over time is warranted.
Project description:Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (mTLE) characterized by progressive development of complex partial seizures originating from the hippocampus is the most prevalent and refractory type of epilepsy. One of the remarkable features of mTLE is the rhythmic pattern of occurrence of spontaneous seizures, implying a dependence on the endogenous clock system for seizure threshold. Conversely, circadian rhythms are affected by epilepsy too. Comprehending how the circadian system and seizures interact with each other is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of epilepsy as well as for developing innovative therapies that are efficacious for better seizure control. In this review, we confer how the temporal dysregulation of the circadian clock in the hippocampus combined with multiple uncoupled oscillators could lead to periodic seizure occurrences and comorbidities. Unraveling these associations with additional research would help in developing chronotherapy for mTLE, based on the chronobiology of spontaneous seizures. Notably, differential dosing of antiepileptic drugs over the circadian period and/or strategies that resynchronize biological rhythms may substantially improve the management of seizures in mTLE patients.
Project description:Early onset seizures are a hallmark of Dravet syndrome. Previous studies in rodent models have shown that the epileptic phenotype is caused by loss-of-function of voltage-gated NaV 1.1 sodium channels, which are chiefly expressed in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. Recently, a possibly critical role has been attributed to the hippocampus in the seizure phenotype, as local hippocampal ablation of NaV 1.1 channels decreased the threshold for hyperthermia-induced seizures. However, the effect of ablation of NaV 1.1 channels restricted to cortical sites has not been tested. Here we studied local field potential (LFP) and behavior in mice following local hippocampal and cortical ablation of Scn1a, a gene encoding the ?1 subunit of NaV 1.1 channels, and we compared seizure characteristics with those of heterozygous global knockout Scn1-/+ mice. We found a high incidence of spontaneous seizures following either local hippocampal or cortical ablation, notably during a transient time window, similar to Scn1a-/+ mice. Nonconvulsive seizure activity in the injected area was common and preceded generalized seizures. Moreover, mice were susceptible to hyperthermia-induced seizures. In conclusion, local ablation of NaV 1.1 channels in the hippocampus and cortex results in focal seizure activity that can generalize. These data indicate that spontaneous epileptic activity may initiate in multiple brain regions in Dravet syndrome.
Project description:This study aims to evaluate the overall prognosis, prognostic factors, and efficacy of treatment in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) who have access to third generation anti-epileptic drugs but not to epilepsy surgery. Eighty-five MTLE-HS patients were retrospectively placed into a seizure-free (seizure-free for >1year) or drug-resistant group, and the two groups were compared on the basis of age, sex, age at onset of seizures, duration of epilepsy, side of lesion, handedness, EEG findings, history of CNS infection, history of febrile convulsions, history of head trauma, history of cognitive impairment, family history of seizures, number of current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), total number of AED trials, and presence of individual AEDs. Only 24.7% of MTLE-HS patients had achieved seizure freedom for >1 year. Poor prognosis and drug-resistance were associated with younger age at onset of seizures (p=0.002), longer duration of epilepsy (p=0.018), greater number of current AEDs (p<0.001), and greater total number of AED trials (p<0.001). In addition, regimens with newer AEDs had no greater efficacy than regimens with older AEDs. Most medically managed MTLE-HS patients do not achieve seizure freedom despite multiple AED trials, and treatment with third generation AEDs should not preclude evaluation for epilepsy surgery.
Project description:There are competing explanations for persistent postoperative seizures after temporal lobe surgery. One is that 1 or more particular subtypes of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) exist that are particularly resistant to surgery. We sought to identify a common brain structural and connectivity alteration in patients with persistent postoperative seizures using preoperative quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).We performed a series of studies in 87 patients with mTLE (47 subsequently rendered seizure free, 40 who continued to experience postoperative seizures) and 80 healthy controls. We investigated the relationship between imaging variables and postoperative seizure outcome. All patients had unilateral temporal lobe seizure onset, had ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis as the only brain lesion, and underwent amygdalohippocampectomy.Quantitative imaging factors found not to be significantly associated with persistent seizures were volumes of ipsilateral and contralateral mesial temporal lobe structures, generalized brain atrophy, and extent of resection. There were nonsignificant trends for larger amygdala and entorhinal resections to be associated with improved outcome. However, patients with persistent seizures had significant atrophy of bilateral dorsomedial and pulvinar thalamic regions, and significant alterations of DTI-derived thalamotemporal probabilistic paths bilaterally relative to those patients rendered seizure free and controls, even when corrected for extent of mesial temporal lobe resection.Patients with bihemispheric alterations of thalamotemporal structural networks may represent a subtype of mTLE that is resistant to temporal lobe surgery. Increasingly sensitive multimodal imaging techniques should endeavor to transform these group-based findings to individualize prediction of patient outcomes.