The prognostic significance of Cdc6 and Cdt1 in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: DNA replication is a critical step in cell proliferation. Overexpression of MCM2-7 genes correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, the roles of Cdc6 and Cdt1, which work with MCMs to regulate DNA replication, in breast cancers are largely unknown. In the present study, we have shown that the expression levels of Cdc6 and Cdt1 were both significantly correlated with an increasing number of MCM2-7 genes overexpression. Both Cdc6 and Cdt1, when expressed in a high level, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with poorer survival in the breast cancer patient cohort (n?=?1441). In line with this finding, the expression of Cdc6 and Cdt1 was upregulated in breast cancer cells compared to normal breast epithelial cells. Expression of Cdc6 and Cdt1 was significantly higher in ER negative breast cancer, and was suppressed when ER signalling was inhibited either by tamoxifen in vitro or letrozole in human subjects. Importantly, breast cancer patients who responded to letrozole expressed significantly lower Cdc6 than those patients who did not respond. Our results suggest that Cdc6 is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in breast cancer patients.
Project description:To initiate DNA replication, the origin recognition complex (ORC) and Cdc6 load an Mcm2-7 double hexamer onto DNA. Without ATP hydrolysis, ORC-Cdc6 recruits one Cdt1-bound Mcm2-7 hexamer, thus forming an ORC-Cdc6-Cdt1-Mcm2-7 (OCCM) helicase-loading intermediate. Here we report a 3.9-Å structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae OCCM on DNA. Flexible Mcm2-7 winged-helix domains (WHDs) engage ORC-Cdc6. A three-domain Cdt1 configuration embraces Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6, thus comprising nearly half of the hexamer. The Cdt1 C-terminal domain extends to the Mcm6 WHD, which binds the Orc4 WHD. DNA passes through the ORC-Cdc6 and Mcm2-7 rings. Origin DNA interaction is mediated by an α-helix within Orc4 and positively charged loops within Orc2 and Cdc6. The Mcm2-7 C-tier AAA+ ring is topologically closed by an Mcm5 loop that embraces Mcm2, but the N-tier-ring Mcm2-Mcm5 interface remains open. This structure suggests a loading mechanism of the first Cdt1-bound Mcm2-7 hexamer by ORC-Cdc6.
Project description:Replication origins are licensed for a single initiation event by the loading of Mcm2-7 proteins during late mitosis and G1. Sequential associations of origin recognition complex, Cdc6 and Mcm2-7 are essential for completion of the licensing. Although Cdt1 also binds to the chromatin when the licensing reaction takes place, whether the binding is a requirement for Cdt1 to function is unclear. To analyze the relevance of the chromatin association of Cdt1, we carried out chromatin transfer experiments using either immunodepleted Xenopus egg extracts or purified proteins. Licensing assay and immunoblotting analyses indicated that Cdt1 could only license DNA replication and load Mcm2-7 onto DNA when it binds to chromatin that has already associated with Cdc6. These results provide evidence supporting that Cdc6 and Cdt1 must bind to chromatin in a strict order for DNA licensing to occur.
Project description:In eukaryotes, the Cdt1-bound replicative helicase core MCM2-7 is loaded onto DNA by the ORC-Cdc6 ATPase to form a prereplicative complex (pre-RC) with an MCM2-7 double hexamer encircling DNA. Using purified components in the presence of ATP-?S, we have captured in vitro an intermediate in pre-RC assembly that contains a complex between the ORC-Cdc6 and Cdt1-MCM2-7 heteroheptamers called the OCCM. Cryo-EM studies of this 14-subunit complex reveal that the two separate heptameric complexes are engaged extensively, with the ORC-Cdc6 N-terminal AAA+ domains latching onto the C-terminal AAA+ motor domains of the MCM2-7 hexamer. The conformation of ORC-Cdc6 undergoes a concerted change into a right-handed spiral with helical symmetry that is identical to that of the DNA double helix. The resulting ORC-Cdc6 helicase loader shows a notable structural similarity to the replication factor C clamp loader, suggesting a conserved mechanism of action.
Project description:The replicative mini-chromosome-maintenance 2-7 (MCM2-7) helicase is loaded in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes as a head-to-head double-hexamer around origin DNA. At first, ORC/Cdc6 recruits with the help of Cdt1 a single MCM2-7 hexamer to form an 'initial' ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1/MCM2-7 complex. Then, on ATP hydrolysis and Cdt1 release, the 'initial' complex is transformed into an ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 (OCM) complex. However, it remains unclear how the OCM is subsequently converted into a MCM2-7 double-hexamer. Through analysis of MCM2-7 hexamer-interface mutants we discovered a complex competent for MCM2-7 dimerization. We demonstrate that these MCM2-7 mutants arrest during prereplicative complex (pre-RC) assembly after OCM formation, but before MCM2-7 double-hexamer assembly. Remarkably, only the OCM complex, but not the 'initial' ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1/MCM2-7 complex, is competent for MCM2-7 dimerization. The MCM2-7 dimer, in contrast to the MCM2-7 double-hexamer, interacts with ORC/Cdc6 and is salt-sensitive, classifying the arrested complex as a helicase-loading intermediate. Accordingly, we found that overexpression of the mutants cause cell-cycle arrest and dominant lethality. Our work identifies the OCM complex as competent for MCM2-7 dimerization, reveals MCM2-7 dimerization as a limiting step during pre-RC formation and defines critical mechanisms that explain how origins are licensed.
Project description:The replication factors Cdt1 and Cdc6 are essential for origin licensing, a prerequisite for DNA replication initiation. Mechanisms to ensure that metazoan origins initiate once per cell cycle include degradation of Cdt1 during S phase and inhibition of Cdt1 by the geminin protein. Geminin depletion or overexpression of Cdt1 or Cdc6 in human cells causes rereplication, a form of endogenous DNA damage. Rereplication induced by these manipulations is however uneven and incomplete, suggesting that one or more mechanisms restrain rereplication once it begins. We find that both Cdt1 and Cdc6 are degraded in geminin-depleted cells. We further show that Cdt1 degradation in cells that have rereplicated requires the PCNA binding site of Cdt1 and the Cul4(DDB1) ubiquitin ligase, and Cdt1 can induce its own degradation when overproduced. Cdc6 degradation in geminin-depleted cells requires Huwe1, the ubiquitin ligase that regulates Cdc6 after DNA damage. Moreover, perturbations that specifically disrupt Cdt1 and Cdc6 degradation in response to DNA damage exacerbate rereplication when combined with geminin depletion, and this enhanced rereplication occurs in both human cells and in Drosophila melanogaster cells. We conclude that rereplication-associated DNA damage triggers Cdt1 and Cdc6 ubiquitination and destruction, and propose that this pathway represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that minimizes the extent of rereplication.
Project description:ORC, Cdc6 and Cdt1 act together to load hexameric MCM, the motor of the eukaryotic replicative helicase, into double hexamers at replication origins. Here we show that Cdt1 interacts with MCM subunits Mcm2, 4 and 6, which both destabilizes the Mcm2-5 interface and inhibits MCM ATPase activity. Using X-ray crystallography, we show that Cdt1 contains two winged-helix domains in the C-terminal half of the protein and a catalytically inactive dioxygenase-related N-terminal domain, which is important for MCM loading, but not for subsequent replication. We used these structures together with single-particle electron microscopy to generate three-dimensional models of MCM complexes. These show that Cdt1 stabilizes MCM in a left-handed spiral open at the Mcm2-5 gate. We propose that Cdt1 acts as a brace, holding MCM open for DNA entry and bound to ATP until ORC-Cdc6 triggers ATP hydrolysis by MCM, promoting both Cdt1 ejection and MCM ring closure.
Project description:Eukaryotic origins of replication are selected by loading a head-to-head double hexamer of the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase around origin DNA. Cdt1 plays an essential but transient role during this event; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Through analysis of Cdt1 mutations, we demonstrate that Cdt1 performs multiple functions during helicase loading. The C-terminus of Cdt1 binds Mcm2-7, and this interaction is required for efficient origin recruitment of both proteins. We show that origin recognition complex (ORC) and Cdc6 recruit multiple Cdt1 molecules to the origin during helicase loading, and disruption of this multi-Cdt1 intermediate prevents helicase loading. Although dispensable for loading Mcm2-7 double hexamers that are topologically linked to DNA, the essential N-terminal domain of Cdt1 is required to load Mcm2-7 complexes that are competent for association with the Cdc45 and GINS helicase-activating proteins and replication initiation. Our data support a model in which origin-bound ORC and Cdc6 recruit two Cdt1 molecules to initiate double-hexamer formation prior to helicase loading and demonstrate that Cdt1 influences the replication competence of loaded Mcm2-7 helicases.
Project description:DNA replication origins serve as sites of replicative helicase loading. In all eukaryotes, the six-subunit origin recognition complex (Orc1-6; ORC) recognizes the replication origin. During late M-phase of the cell-cycle, Cdc6 binds to ORC and the ORC-Cdc6 complex loads in a multistep reaction and, with the help of Cdt1, the core Mcm2-7 helicase onto DNA. A key intermediate is the ORC-Cdc6-Cdt1-Mcm2-7 (OCCM) complex in which DNA has been already inserted into the central channel of Mcm2-7. Until now, it has been unclear how the origin DNA is guided by ORC-Cdc6 and inserted into the Mcm2-7 hexamer. Here, we truncated the C-terminal winged-helix-domain (WHD) of Mcm6 to slow down the loading reaction, thereby capturing two loading intermediates prior to DNA insertion in budding yeast. In "semi-attached OCCM," the Mcm3 and Mcm7 WHDs latch onto ORC-Cdc6 while the main body of the Mcm2-7 hexamer is not connected. In "pre-insertion OCCM," the main body of Mcm2-7 docks onto ORC-Cdc6, and the origin DNA is bent and positioned adjacent to the open DNA entry gate, poised for insertion, at the Mcm2-Mcm5 interface. We used molecular simulations to reveal the dynamic transition from preloading conformers to the loaded conformers in which the loading of Mcm2-7 on DNA is complete and the DNA entry gate is fully closed. Our work provides multiple molecular insights into a key event of eukaryotic DNA replication.
Project description:Mcm2-7 is recruited to eukaryotic origins of DNA replication by origin recognition complex, Cdc6 and Cdt1 thereby licensing the origins. Cdc6 is essential for origin licensing during DNA replication and is readily destabilized from chromatin after Mcm2-7 loading. Here, we show that after origin licensing, deregulation of Cdc6 suppresses DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts without the involvement of ATM/ATR-dependent checkpoint pathways. DNA replication is arrested specifically after chromatin binding of Cdc7, but before Cdk2-dependent pathways and deregulating Cdc6 after this step does not impair activation of origin firing or elongation. Detailed analyses revealed that Cdc6 deregulation leads to strong suppression of Cdc7-mediated hyperphosphorylation of Mcm4 and subsequent chromatin loading of Cdc45, Sld5 and DNA polymerase ?. Mcm2 phosphorylation is also repressed although to a lesser extent. Remarkably, Cdc6 itself does not directly inhibit Cdc7 kinase activity towards Mcm2-4-6-7 in purified systems, rather modulates Mcm2-7 phosphorylation on chromatin context. Taken together, we propose that Cdc6 on chromatin acts as a modulator of Cdc7-mediated phosphorylation of Mcm2-7, and thus destabilization of Cdc6 from chromatin after licensing is a key event ensuring proper transition to the initiation of DNA replication.
Project description:Origin licensing ensures precise once per cell cycle replication in eukaryotic cells. The Origin Recognition Complex, Cdc6 and Cdt1 load Mcm2-7 helicase (MCM) into a double hexamer, bound around duplex DNA. The complex formed by ORC-Cdc6 bound to duplex DNA (OC) recruits the MCM-Cdt1 complex into the replication origins. Through the stacking of both complexes, the duplex DNA is inserted inside the helicase by an unknown mechanism. In this paper we show that the DNA insertion comes with a topological problem in the stacking of OC with MCM-Cdt1. Unless an essential, conserved C terminal winged helix domain (C-WHD) of Cdt1 is present, the MCM splits into two halves. The binding of this domain with the essential C-WHD of Mcm6, allows the latching between the MCM-Cdt1 and OC, through a conserved Orc5 AAA-lid interaction. Our work provides new insights into how DNA is inserted into the eukaryotic replicative helicase, through a series of synchronized events.