Tangluoning, a traditional Chinese medicine, attenuates in vivo and in vitro diabetic peripheral neuropathy through modulation of PERK/Nrf2 pathway.
ABSTRACT: Prolonged hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress have been demonstrated to play a key role in progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). PERK/ Nrf2 pathway plays a predominant role in oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which is associated with cell survival. This study examined the modulation of the PERK/Nrf2 pathway and apoptosis by a traditional Chinese medicine Tangluoning (TLN) in streptozotocin-induced DPN rat models and the effects of serum TLN on the PERK/Nrf2 pathway, apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential in Schwann cells cultured in 150?mM glucose. It is found that TLN attenuated oxidative and ER stress and apoptosis through the PERK/Nrf2 pathway by upregulating p-PERK, Nrf2/ARE pathways and downregulating the CHOP-related apoptosis pathways in the experimental DPN models both in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Tang-Luo-Ning (TLN) has a definite effect in the clinical treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Schwann cells (SCs) apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) is one of the main pathogeneses of DPN. This study investigates whether TLN can inhibit SCs apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis. Our previous researches have demonstrated that TLN could increase the expression of ER stress marker protein GRP78 and inhibited the expression of apoptosis marker protein CHOP in ER stress. In this study, the results showed that TLN attenuated apoptosis by decreasing Ca2+ level in SCs and maintaining ER morphology. TLN could decrease downstream proteins of CHOP including GADD34 and Ero1?, while it increased P-eIF2? and decreased the upstream proteins of CHOP including P-IRE1?/IRE1? and XBP-1, thereby reducing ER stress-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce apoptosis if left unabated. To limit oxidative insults, the ER stress PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum Kinase (PERK) has been reported to phosphorylate and activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). Here, we uncover an alternative mechanism for PERK-mediated NRF2 regulation in human cells that does not require direct phosphorylation. We show that the activation of the PERK pathway rapidly stimulates the expression of NRF2 through activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). In addition, NRF2 activation is late and largely driven by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during late protein synthesis recovery, contributing to protecting against cell death. Thus, PERK-mediated NRF2 activation encompasses a PERK-ATF4-dependent control of NRF2 expression that contributes to the NRF2 protective response engaged during ER stress-induced ROS production.
Project description:Accumulated evidence demonstrates that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and neuron apoptosis. ER stress sensor protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) has been reported to induce apoptosis under acute or prolonged ER stress. However, the precise role of PERK in JEV-induced apoptosis and encephalitis remains unknown. Here, we report that JEV infection activates the PERK-ATF4-CHOP apoptosis pathway both in vitro and in vivo PERK activation also promotes the formation of stress granule, which in turn represses JEV-induced apoptosis. However, PERK inhibitor reduces apoptosis, indicating that JEV-activated PERK predominantly induces apoptosis via the PERK-ATF4-CHOP apoptosis pathway. Among JEV proteins that have been reported to induce ER stress, only JEV NS4B can induce PERK activation. PERK has been reported to form an active molecule by dimerization. The coimmunoprecipitation assay shows that NS4B interacts with PERK. Moreover, glycerol gradient centrifugation shows that NS4B induces PERK dimerization. Both the LIG-FHA and the LIG-WD40 domains within NS4B are required to induce PERK dimerization, suggesting that JEV NS4B pulls two PERK molecules together by simultaneously interacting with them via different motifs. PERK deactivation reduces brain cell damage and encephalitis during JEV infection. Furthermore, expression of JEV NS4B is sufficient to induce encephalitis via PERK in mice, indicating that JEV activates PERK primarily via its NS4B to cause encephalitis. Taken together, our findings provide a novel insight into JEV-caused encephalitis.IMPORTANCE Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and neuron apoptosis. ER stress sensor protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) has been reported to induce apoptosis under acute or prolonged ER stress. However, whether the PERK pathway of ER stress response plays important roles in JEV-induced apoptosis and encephalitis remains unknown. Here, we found that JEV infection activates ER stress sensor PERK in neuronal cells and mouse brains. PERK activation induces apoptosis via the PERK-ATF4-CHOP apoptosis pathway upon JEV infection. Among the JEV proteins prM, E, NS1, NS2A, NS2B, and NS4B, only NS4B activates PERK. Moreover, activated PERK participates in apoptosis and encephalitis induced by JEV and NS4B. These findings provide a novel therapeutic approach for JEV-caused encephalitis.
Project description:Activation of the unfolded protein response sensor PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Perk) attenuates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress levels. Conversantly, if the damage is too severe and ER function cannot be restored, this signaling branch triggers apoptosis. Bcl-2 homology 3-only family member Bim is essential for ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling Bim activation under ER stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that downregulation of the miR-106b-25 cluster contributes to ER stress-induced apoptosis and the upregulation of Bim. Hypericin-mediated photo-oxidative ER damage induced Perk-dependent cell death and led to a significant decrease in the levels of miRNAs belonging to miR-106b-25 cluster in wild-type (WT) but not in Perk?/? MEFs. Further, we show that expression of miR-106b-25 and Mcm-7 (host gene of miR-106b-25) is co-regulated through the transcription factors Atf4 (activating transcription factor 4) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2). ER stress increased the activity of WT Bim 3'UTR (untranslated region) construct but not the miR-106b-25 recognition site-mutated Bim 3'UTR construct. Overexpression of miR-106b-25 cluster inhibits ER stress-induced cell death in WT but did not confer any further protection in Bim-knockdown cells. Further, we show downregulation in the levels of miR-106b-25 cluster in the symptomatic SOD1(G86R) transgenic mice. Our results suggest a molecular mechanism whereby repression of miR-106b-25 cluster has an important role in ER stress-mediated increase in Bim and apoptosis.
Project description:Oxidative/nitrosative stress is a major trigger of cardiac dysfunction, involving the unfolded protein response and mitochondrial dysfunction. Activation of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate-protein kinase G signaling by sildenafil improves cardiac mal-remodeling during pressure-overload-induced heart failure. Transcriptome analysis was conducted in failing hearts with or without sildenafil treatment. Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) downstream signaling pathways, EIF2 and NRF2, were significantly altered. Although EIF2 signaling was suppressed, NRF2 signaling was upregulated, inhibiting the maturation of miR 24-3p through EGFR-mediated Ago2 phosphorylation. To study the effect of sildenafil on these pathways, we generated cardiac-specific PERK knockout mice. In these mice, sildenafil could not inhibit the maturations, the nuclear translocation of NRF2 was suppressed, and mitochondrial dysfunction advanced. Altogether, these results show that PERK-mediated suppression of miRNAs by sildenafil is vital for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis through NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response.
Project description:An important event in the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase PERK. The PERK signalling branch initially mediates a prosurvival response, which progresses to a proapoptotic response upon prolonged ER stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of PERK-mediated cell death are not well understood. Here we show that expression of the primary miR-17-92 transcript and mature miRNAs belonging to the miR-17-92 cluster are decreased during UPR. We found that miR-17-92 promoter reporter activity was reduced during UPR in a PERK-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that activity of the miR-17-92 promoter is repressed by ectopic expression of ATF4 and NRF2. Promoter deletion analysis mapped the region responding to UPR-mediated repression to a site in the proximal region of the miR-17-92 promoter. Hypericin-mediated photo-oxidative ER damage reduced the expression of miRNAs belonging to the miR-17-92 cluster in wild-type but not in PERK-deficient cells. Importantly, ER stress-induced apoptosis was inhibited upon miR-17-92 overexpression in SH-SY5Y and H9c2 cells. Our results reveal a novel function for ATF4 and NRF2, where repression of the miR-17-92 cluster plays an important role in ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Mechanistic details are provided for the potentiation of cell death via sustained PERK signalling mediated repression of the miR-17-92 cluster.
Project description:Anlotinib (AL3818), a novel multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has recently been proven to be an antitumour drug. This study aimed to explore the antitumour effect of anlotinib and its underlying molecular mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. The anti-proliferative effect of anlotinib for three PC cell lines was validated using CCK-8, colony formation and EdU detection assays. Cell cycle, cell apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection assays, a PC xenograft model and immunohistochemistry were performed to elucidate the mechanisms by which anlotinib induced tumour lethality in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that anlotinib inhibited proliferation, induced G2/M phase arrest and triggered apoptosis in PC cell lines. Anlotinib induced PC's apoptosis through the accumulation of ROS which activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via PERK/p-eIF2?/ATF4 pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression level of Nrf2, an antioxidant protein, increased with anlotinib treatment. Nrf2 knockdown enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of anlotinib and the expression of the PERK/p-eIF2?/ATF4 pathway. The in vivo results suggested that suppressing Nrf2 improved the antitumour effect of anlotinib on PC cells. These data indicated that the apoptotic effect of anlotinib on PC cells was induced by ER stress via the accumulation of ROS. In the future, anlotinib combined with an Nrf2 inhibitor may provide a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human PC.
Project description:Nrf2 plays critical roles in animals' defense against electrophiles and oxidative stress by orchestrating the induction of cytoprotective genes. We previously isolated the zebrafish mutant it768, which displays up-regulated expression of Nrf2 target genes in an uninduced state. In this paper, we determine that the gene responsible for it768 was the zebrafish homolog of phosphomannomutase 2 (Pmm2), which is a key enzyme in the initial steps of N-glycosylation, and its mutation in humans leads to PMM2-CDG (congenital disorders of glycosylation), the most frequent type of CDG. The pmm2it768 larvae exhibited mild defects in N-glycosylation, indicating that the pmm2it768 mutation is a hypomorph, as in human PMM2-CDG patients. A gene expression analysis showed that pmm2it768 larvae display up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, suggesting that the activation of Nrf2 was induced by the ER stress. Indeed, the treatment with the ER stress-inducing compounds up-regulated the gstp1 expression in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Furthermore, the up-regulation of gstp1 by the pmm2 inactivation was diminished by knocking down or out double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), one of the main ER stress sensors, suggesting that Nrf2 was activated in response to the ER stress via the PERK pathway. ER stress-induced activation of Nrf2 was reported previously, but the results have been controversial. Our present study clearly demonstrated that ER stress can indeed activate Nrf2 and this regulation is evolutionarily conserved among vertebrates. Moreover, ER stress induced in pmm2it768 mutants was ameliorated by the treatment of the Nrf2-activator sulforaphane, indicating that Nrf2 plays significant roles in the reduction of ER stress.
Project description:Aging is an important risk factor in the occurrence of many chronic diseases. Senescence and exhaustion of adult stem cells are considered as a hallmark of aging in organisms. In this study, a senescent human amniotic mesenchymal stem cell (hAMSC) model subjected to oxidative stress was established in vitro using hydrogen peroxide. We investigated the effects of ganoderic acid D (GA-D), a natural triterpenoid compound produced from Ganoderma lucidum, on hAMSC senescence. GA-D significantly inhibited ?-galactosidase (a senescence-associated marker) formation, in a dose-dependent manner, with doses ranging from 0.1??M to 10??M, without inducing cytotoxic side-effects. Furthermore, GA-D markedly inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of p21 and p16 proteins, relieved the cell cycle arrest, and enhanced telomerase activity in senescent hAMSCs. Furthermore, GA-D upregulated the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase R- (PKR-) like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), peroxidase III (PRDX3), and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2) and promoted intranuclear transfer of NRF2 in senescent cells. The PERK inhibitor GSK2656157 and/or the NRF2 inhibitor ML385 suppressed the PERK/NRF2 signaling, which was activated by GA-D. They induced a rebound for the generation of ROS and ?-galactosidase-positive cells and attenuated the differentiation capacity. These findings suggest that GA-D retards hAMSC senescence through activation of the PERK/NRF2 signaling pathway and may be a promising candidate for the discovery of antiaging agents.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum stress is emerging as an important modulator of different pathologies and as a mechanism contributing to cancer cell death in response to therapeutic agents. In several instances, oxidative stress and the onset of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occur together; yet, the molecular events linking reactive oxygen species (ROS) to ER stress-mediated apoptosis are currently unknown. Here, we show that PERK (RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase), a key ER stress sensor of the unfolded protein response, is uniquely enriched at the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). PERK(-/-) cells display disturbed ER morphology and Ca(2+) signaling as well as significantly weaker ER-mitochondria contact sites. Re-expression of a kinase-dead PERK mutant but not the cytoplasmic deletion mutant of PERK in PERK(-/-) cells re-establishes ER-mitochondria juxtapositions and mitochondrial sensitization to ROS-mediated stress. In contrast to the canonical ER stressor thapsigargin, during ROS-mediated ER stress, PERK contributes to apoptosis twofold by sustaining the levels of pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and by facilitating the propagation of ROS signals between the ER and mitochondria through its tethering function. Hence, this study reveals an unprecedented role of PERK as a MAMs component required to maintain the ER-mitochondria juxtapositions and propel ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. Furthermore, it suggests that loss of PERK may cause defects in cell death sensitivity in pathological conditions linked to ROS-mediated ER stress.