Microstructure and nanoindentation behavior of Cu composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets by electroless co-deposition technique.
ABSTRACT: A reduced graphene oxide/copper (RGO/Cu) composite was fabricated by a surfactant free, electroless co-deposition technique. The graphene oxide (GO) sheets were reduced and RGO homogeneous distributed into the copper matrix. On the basis of nanoindentation, the presence of RGO and the increase of its content in matrix significantly raised the hardness of RGO/Cu composites. Here, the relevant strengthening effect and mechanisms involved in RGO-reinforced Cu composites were systematically evaluated. Especially, the addition of RGO in Cu matrix led to the compressive micro-strain, and the resulted distortion of the lattice parameter was calculated based on Cohen's method. However, excessive addition of GO in the electrolyte could decrease the mechanical performance due to agglomeration of RGO. Apparently, the optimal concentration for GO dispersion in co-deposition solution was deserved to discuss. After a serious of relative experiments, we could get a conclusion that this method provided a new pathway for embedded graphene into the metal matrix to improve the mechanical properties of RGO-reinforced materials.
Project description:Lithium (Li) metal is regarded as the ideal anode for rechargeable Li-metal batteries such as Li-S and Li-air batteries. A series of problems caused by Li dendrites, such as low Coulombic efficiency (CE) and a short circuit, have limited the application of Li-metal batteries. In this study, a graphene-modified three-dimensional (3D) Copper (Cu) current collector is addressed to enable dendrite-free Li deposition. After Cu foam is immersed into graphene oxide (GO) suspension, a spontaneous reduction of GO, induced by Cu, generates reduced graphene oxide on a 3D Cu (rGO@Cu) substrate. The rGO@Cu foam not only provides large surface area to accommodate Li deposition for lowering the local effective current density, but also forms a rGO protective layer to effectively control the growth of Li dendrites. As current collector, the rGO@Cu foam shows superior properties than commercial Cu foam and planar Cu foil in terms of cycling stability and CE. The rGO@Cu foam delivers a CE as high as 98.5% for over 350 cycles at the current density of 1 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the full cell using LiFePO4 as cathode and Li metal as anode with rGO@Cu foam as current collector (LiFePO4/rGO@Cu-Li) is assembled to prove the admirable capacities and indicates commercialization of Li-metal batteries.
Project description:Cu has recently received great interest as a potential candidate for glucose sensing to overcome the problems with noble metals. In this work, reduced graphene oxide-encapsulated Cu nanoparticles (Cu@RGO) have been prepared via an electrostatic self-assembly method. This core/shell composites were found to be more stable than conventional Cu-decorated graphene composites and bare copper nanoparticles in an air atmosphere because the graphene shell can effectively protect the Cu nanoparticles from oxidation. In addition, the obtained Cu@RGO composites also showed an outstanding electrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation with a wide linear detection range of 1 ?M to 2 mM, low detection limit of 0.34 ?M (S/N = 3), and a sensitivity of 150 ?A mM-1 cm-2. Moreover, Cu@RGO composites exhibited a satisfactory reproducibility, selectivity, and long effective performance. These excellent properties indicated that Cu@RGO nanoparticles have great potential application in glucose detection.
Project description:Graphene oxide (GO) was rarely used as microwave absorption (MA) material due to its lower dielectric loss compared with reduced GO (RGO). However, the characteristics of low conductivity, light weight, and large surface area were beneficial to the impedance matching for absorbers already containing highly conductive metal materials. Cu@Ni nanowires are promising MA materials due to the desired dielectric loss from copper and excellent magnetic loss from nickel. However, the high density was an impediment to its further application. Combining Cu@Ni nanowires with GO should be an effective solution to decrease the absorber's density and improve its MA properties. Herein, we demonstrated that Cu@Ni nanowires/GO composites exhibited enhanced MA capacities compared with Cu@Ni nanowires or GO alone, and the minimum reflection loss reached -42.8?dB at 16.9?GHz with a thickness of 2.1?mm. The enhanced MA performance mainly originated from good impedance matching, as a result of the addition of low conductivity of GO. To confirm this point, the MA performance of Cu@Ni nanowires/RGO was studied, and unsurprisingly, weak MA performance was obtained. Our work provides a new strategy to decrease the density, broaden the frequency band and tune MA performance of composites.
Project description:By using CuO/graphene-oxide/CuO sandwich-like nanosheets as the building blocks, bulk nacre-inspired copper matrix nano-laminated composite reinforced by molecular-level dispersed and ordered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with content as high as ?45 vol% was fabricated via a combined process of assembly, reduction and consolidation. Thanks to nanoconfinement effect, reinforcing effect, as well as architecture effect, the nanocomposite shows increased specific strength and at least one order of magnitude greater recoverable deformation ability as compared with monolithic Cu matrix.
Project description:This work describes the formation of reduced graphene oxide-coated copper oxide and copper nanoparticles (rGO-Cu2ONPs, rGO-CuNPs) on the surface of a copper foil supporting graphene oxide (GO) at annealing temperatures of 200-1000 °C, under an Ar atmosphere. These hybrid nanostructures were developed from bare copper oxide nanoparticles which grew at an annealing temperature of 80 °C under nitrogen flux. The predominant phase as well as the particle size and shape strongly depend on the process temperature. Characterization with transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicates that Cu or Cu2O nanoparticles take rGO sheets from the rGO network to form core-shell Cu-rGO or Cu2O-rGO nanostructures. It is noted that such ones increase in size from 5 to 800 nm as the annealing temperature increases in the 200-1000 °C range. At 1000 °C, Cu nanoparticles develop a highly faceted morphology, displaying arm-like carbon nanorods that originate from different facets of the copper crystal structure.
Project description:The incorporation of graphene into a polymer matrix can endow composites with extended functions. However, it is difficult to well disperse pristine graphene into a polymer matrix in order to obtain polymer nanocomposites due to the lack of functional groups on the surface for bonding with a polymer matrix. Herein, we investigated the role of fluorinated ionic liquid (IL) as a new interfacial agent in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-CTFE))/graphene composite films. First, a task-specific IL, perfluorooctyltriphenylphosphonium iodide (IL-C8F13), was synthesized and adsorbed on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for making functional nanofillers which were capable of being incorporated into the P(VDF-CTFE) matrix. The cation structure of IL combined three phenyls (potential π-π interactions with graphene) and a short fluorinated chain (enhanced miscibility with fluorinated matrix via dipolar interactions) to make a compatible graphene filler and P(VDF-CTFE) matrix at the interface among them. Second, two series of P(VDF-CTFE)/GO-IL and P(VDF-CTFE)/rGO-IL composites with different loading contents were prepared with the goal of providing an understanding of the mechanism of interfacial interactions. This paper investigated the difference in the interaction model between GO with IL and rGO with IL. Subsequently, the interfacial effect of IL on the properties of P(VDF-CTFE)/graphene composites, such as crystallization, chain segmental relaxation behavior, dispersion, and the final dielectric properties will be further studied.
Project description:In this article, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) composites (RGO/CMC) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method through in-situ reduction and modification of graphene oxide (GO) in the presence of CMC. An electrochemical sensor for the determination of Cu(II) by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was constructed by an electrode modified with RGO/CMC. The fabricated electrochemical sensor shows a linear range of 0.02⁻1.2 μmol·L-1, a detection limit of 3.25 nmol·L-1 (S/N = 3) and a sensitivity of 130.75 μA·μmol·L-1·cm-2, indicating the sensor has an excellent detection performance for Cu(II).
Project description:Polymer-based composites reinforced with nanocarbonaceous materials can be tailored for functional applications. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) or graphene with different filler contents have been developed as potential piezoresistive materials. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites depend on the PVDF matrix, filler type, and filler content. PVDF 6010 is a relatively more ductile material, whereas PVDF-HFP (hexafluropropylene) shows larger maximum strain near 300% strain for composites with CNT, 10 times higher than the pristine polymer. This behavior is similar for all composites reinforced with CNT. On the other hand, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/PVDF composites decrease the maximum strain compared to neat PVDF. It is shown that the use of different PVDF copolymers does not influence the electrical properties of the composites. On the other hand, CNT as filler leads to composites with percolation threshold around 0.5 wt.%, whereas rGO nanocomposites show percolation threshold at ? 2 wt.%. Both nanocomposites present excellent linearity between applied pressure and resistance variation, with pressure sensibility (PS) decreasing with applied pressure, from PS ? 1.1 to 0.2 MPa-1. A proof of concept demonstration is presented, showing the suitability of the materials for industrial pressure sensing applications.
Project description:Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in graphene growth via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is critical for precise control of the characteristics of graphene. Despite much effort, the actual processes behind graphene synthesis still remain to be elucidated in a large number of aspects. Herein, we report the evolution of graphene properties during in-plane growth of graphene from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on copper (Cu) via methane CVD. While graphene is laterally grown from RGO flakes on Cu foils up to a few hundred nanometres during CVD process, it shows appreciable improvement in structural quality. The monotonous enhancement of the structural quality of the graphene with increasing length of the graphene growth from RGO suggests that seeded CVD growth of graphene from RGO on Cu surface is accompanied by the restoration of graphitic structure. The finding provides insight into graphene growth and defect reconstruction useful for the production of tailored carbon nanostructures with required properties.
Project description:Polystyrene-reduced graphene oxide (PSTY/RGO) composites were prepared via the in situ bulk polymerization method using two different preparation techniques. The general approach is to use microwave irradiation (MWI) to enhance the exfoliation and the dispersion of RGO nanosheets within the PSTY matrix. In the first approach, a mixture of GO and styrene monomers (STY) were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method facilitated by microwave irradiation (MWI) to obtain R-(GO-PSTY) composites. In the second approach, a mixture of RGO and STY monomers were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method to obtain RGO-(PSTY) composites. The two composites were characterized by FTIR, ¹H-NMR, XRD, SEM, HRTEM, TGA and DSC. The results indicate that the composite obtained using the first approach, which involved MWI, had a better morphology and dispersion with enhanced thermal stability, compared with the composites prepared without MWI. Moreover, DSC results showed that the Tg value of the composites after loading the RGO significantly increased by 24.6 °C compared to the neat polystyrene.