3D culture increases pluripotent gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells through relaxation of cytoskeleton tension.
ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) culture has been shown to improve pluripotent gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but the underlining mechanisms were poorly understood. Here, we found that the relaxation of cytoskeleton tension of MSCs in 3D culture was critically associated with the expressional up-regulation of Nanog. Cultured in spheroids, MSCs showed decreased integrin-based cell-matrix adhesion but increased cadherin-based cell-cell interaction. Different from that in 2D culture, where MSCs exhibited branched and multiple-directed F-actin stress bundles at the cell edge and strengthened stress fibres transversing the cell body, MSCs cultured in spheroids showed compact cell body, relaxed cytoskeleton tension with very thin cortical actin filament outlining the cell, and increased expression of Nanog along with reduced levels of Suv39h1 (H3K9 methyltransferase) and H3K9me3. Notably, pharmaceutical inhibition of actin polymerization with cytochalasin D or silencing Suv39h1 expression with siRNA in 2D-cultured MSCs elevated the expression of Nanog via H3K9 demethylation. Thus, our data suggest that 3D culture increases the expression of Nanog through the relaxation of actin cytoskeleton, which mediates reduced Suv39h1 and H3K9me3 levels.
Project description:Global histone modification patterns correlate with tumor phenotypes and prognostic factors in multiple tumor types. Recent studies suggest that aberrant histone modifications play an important role in cancer. However, the effects of global epigenetic rearrangements on cell functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase SUV39H1 is clearly involved in regulating cell migration in vitro. Overexpression of wild-type SUV39H1, but not enzymatically inactive SUV39H1, activated migration in breast and colorectal cancer cells. Inversely, migration was reduced by knockdown of SUV39H1 or chemical inhibition by chaetocin. In addition, H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) was specifically increased in invasive regions of colorectal cancer tissues. Moreover, the presence of H3K9me3 positively correlated with lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Furthermore, overexpression of SUV39H1 drove tumorigenesis in mouse, resulting in a considerable decrease in survival rate. These data indicate that H3K9 trimethylation plays an important role in human colorectal cancer progression, possibly by promoting collective cell invasion.
Project description:Dynamic changes in histone modification are critical for regulating DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Activation of the Tip60 acetyltransferase by DSBs requires interaction of Tip60 with histone H3 methylated on lysine 9 (H3K9me3). However, how H3K9 methylation is regulated during DSB repair is not known. Here, we demonstrate that a complex containing kap-1, HP1, and the H3K9 methyltransferase suv39h1 is rapidly loaded onto the chromatin at DSBs. Suv39h1 methylates H3K9, facilitating loading of additional kap-1/HP1/suv39h1 through binding of HP1's chromodomain to the nascent H3K9me3. This process initiates cycles of kap-1/HP1/suv39h1 loading and H3K9 methylation that facilitate spreading of H3K9me3 and kap-1/HP1/suv39h1 complexes for tens of kilobases away from the DSB. These domains of H3K9me3 function to activate the Tip60 acetyltransferase, allowing Tip60 to acetylate both ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase and histone H4. Consequently, cells lacking suv39h1 display defective activation of Tip60 and ATM, decreased DSB repair, and increased radiosensitivity. Importantly, activated ATM rapidly phosphorylates kap-1, leading to release of the repressive kap-1/HP1/suv39h1 complex from the chromatin. ATM activation therefore functions as a negative feedback loop to remove repressive suv39h1 complexes at DSBs, which may limit DSB repair. Recruitment of kap-1/HP1/suv39h1 to DSBs therefore provides a mechanism for transiently increasing the levels of H3K9me3 in open chromatin domains that lack H3K9me3 and thereby promoting efficient activation of Tip60 and ATM in these regions. Further, transient formation of repressive chromatin may be critical for stabilizing the damaged chromatin and for remodeling the chromatin to create an efficient template for the DNA repair machinery.
Project description:We discovered a unique expression pattern of two histone methyltransferases Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, both of which preferentially catalyse the formation of H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and further H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3), a transcriptional repressive mark. The expression of Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 displayed a sharp increase at the early stage of 3T3-L1 differentiation, which peaked after differentiation induction, and then declined towards later stage of differentiation, suggesting a key role for these two histone methyltransferases in adipogenesis. Indeed, inactivating Suv39h1 or Suv39h2 via lentiviral shRNA knockdown inhibited adipogenesis, while overexpressing Suv39h1 promoted adipogenesis. Notably, overexpressing or knocking down Suv39h1 in 3T3-L1 cells was associated with reciprocal changes in the expression of Wnt10a, an anti-adipogenic regulator. Further, Wnt10a knockdown largely prevented the inhibitory effect of Suv39h1 on adipogenesis, indicating Wnt10a as a downstream target mediating Suv39h1's action in adipogenesis. Mechanistically, our comprehensive approaches involving ChIP, co-immunoprecipitation and pyrosequencing analysis demonstrated that Suv39h1 may regulate Wnt10a expression via H3K9 methylation and interaction with DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) at the Wnt10a promoter, resulting in altered DNA methylation at the promoter. We conclude that Suv39h promotes adipogenesis by epigenetically down-regulating Wnt10a expression via H3K9me3 and DNA methylation at the Wnt10a promoter.Abbreviated title: Suv39h and 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis.
Project description:The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 H3K9 histone methyltransferases (HMTs) have a conserved role in the formation of constitutive heterochromatin and gene silencing. Using a transgenic mouse model system we demonstrate that elevated expression of Suv39h1 increases global H3K9me3 levels in vivo. More specifically, Suv39h1 overexpression enhances the imposition of H3K9me3 levels at constitutive heterochromatin at telomeric and major satellite repeats in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Chromatin compaction is paralleled by telomere shortening, indicating that telomere length is controlled by H3K9me3 density at telomeres. We further show that increased Suv39h1 levels result in an impaired clonogenic potential of transgenic epidermal stem cells and Ras/E1A transduced transgenic primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Importantly, Suv39h1 overexpression in mice confers resistance to a DMBA/TPA induced skin carcinogenesis protocol that is characterized by the accumulation of activating H-ras mutations. Our results provide genetic evidence that Suv39h1 controls telomere homeostasis and mediates resistance to oncogenic stress in vivo. This identifies Suv39h1 as an interesting target to improve oncogene induced senescence in premalignant lesions.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) plays a very important role during adipocyte terminal differentiation and that AP-2? (activator protein 2?) acts as a repressor to delay the expression of C/EBP?. However, the mechanisms by which AP-2? prevents the expression of C/EBP? are not fully understood. Here, we present evidence that Suv39h1, a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9)-specific trimethyltransferase, and G9a, a euchromatic methyltransferase, both interact with AP-2? and enhance AP-2?-mediated transcriptional repression of C/EBP?. Interestingly, we discovered that G9a mediates dimethylation of H3K9, thus providing the substrate, which is methylated by Suv39h1, to H3K9me3 on the C/EBP? promoter. The expression level of AP-2? was consistent with enrichment of H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 on the C/EBP? promoter in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Knockdown of Suv39h markedly increased C/EBP? expression and promoted adipogenesis. Conversely, ectopic expression of Suv39h1 delayed C/EBP? expression and impaired the accumulation of triglyceride, while simultaneous knockdown of AP-2? or G9a partially rescued this process. These findings indicate that Suv39h1 enhances AP-2?-mediated transcriptional repression of C/EBP? in an epigenetic manner and further inhibits adipocyte differentiation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Three-dimensional (3D) floating culture clumps of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)/extracellular matrix (ECM) complexes (C-MSCs) consist of cells and self-produced ECM. Previous studies have demonstrated that C-MSCs can be transplanted into bony lesions without an artificial scaffold to induce bone regeneration. Moreover, osteoinductive medium (OIM)-treated C-MSCs (OIM-C-MSCs) have shown rapid and increased new bone formation in vivo. To apply OIM-C-MSCs for novel bone regenerative cell therapy, their cellular properties at the molecular level must be elucidated. The transcriptional co-activators yes-associated protein/transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (YAP/TAZ) have been recognized as key players in the mechanotransduction cascade, controlling cell lineage commitment in MSCs. It is plausible that 3D C-MSCs/OIM-C-MSCs cultured in floating conditions could provide distinct microenvironments compared to conventional 2D culture systems and thereby induce unique mechanotransduction cascades. Therefore, this study investigated the YAP/TAZ activity in 3D-cultured C-MSCs/OIM-C-MSCs in floating conditions.<h4>Methods</h4>Human bone marrow-derived MSCs were cultured in growth medium supplemented with ascorbic acid. To obtain C-MSCs, confluent cells that had formed on the cellular sheet were scratched using a micropipette tip and were then torn off. The sheet was rolled to make round clumps of cells. Then, YAP/TAZ activity, filamentous actin (F-actin) integrity, collagen type I (COL1) production, and the differentiation potency in 3D floating culture C-MSCs/OIM-C-MSCs were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>C-MSCs cultured in floating conditions lost their actin cytoskeleton to downregulate YAP/TAZ activity, which directed cells to undergo adipogenesis/chondrogenesis. OIM treatment induced abundant COL1 deposition, which facilitated Int?1-dependent actin fiber formation and YAP/TAZ activity to elevate the expression levels of osteogenic master transcriptional factor runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) mRNA in C-MSCs. Importantly, elevation of YAP/TAZ activity via OIM was associated with COL1 deposition and F-actin integrity, suggesting a positive feedback loop in OIM-C-MSCs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings suggest that OIM-C-MSCs, which form a unique microenvironment that maintains high YAP/TAZ activity, can serve as better candidates for bone regenerative cell therapy than C-MSCs.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively used in the field of tissue engineering as a source of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, recent studies showed deficits in the contractile function of SMCs derived from senescent MSCs and there are no available strategies to restore the contractile function that is impaired due to cellular or organismal senescence. In this study, we developed a tetracycline-regulatable system and employed micropost tissue arrays to evaluate the effects of the embryonic transcription factor, NANOG, on the contractility of senescent MSCs. Using this system, we show that expression of NANOG fortified the actin cytoskeleton and restored contractile function that was impaired in senescent MSCs. NANOG increased the expression of smooth muscle ?-actin (ACTA2) as well as the contractile force generated by cells in three-dimensional microtissues. Interestingly, NANOG worked together with transforming growth factor-beta1 to further enhance the contractility of senescent microtissues. The effect of NANOG on contractile function was sustained for about 10 days after termination of its expression. Our results show that NANOG could reverse the effects of stem cell senescence and restore the myogenic differentiation potential of senescent MSCs. These findings may enable development of novel strategies to restore the function of senescent cardiovascular and other SMC-containing tissues.
Project description:Epigenetic regulations play crucial roles in leukemogenesis and leukemia progression. SUV39H1 is the dominant H3K9 methyltransferase in the hematopoietic system, and its expression declines with aging. However, the role of SUV39H1 via its-mediated repressive modification H3K9me3 in leukemogenesis/leukemia progression remains to be explored. We found that SUV39H1 was down-regulated in a variety of leukemias, including MLL-r AML, as compared with normal individuals. Decreased levels of Suv39h1 expression and genomic H3K9me3 occupancy were observed in LSCs from MLL-r-induced AML mouse models in comparison with that of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Suv39h1 overexpression increased leukemia latency and decreased the frequency of LSCs in MLL-r AML mouse models, while Suv39h1 knockdown accelerated disease progression with increased number of LSCs. Increased Suv39h1 expression led to the inactivation of Hoxb13 and Six1, as well as reversion of Hoxa9/Meis1 downstream target genes, which in turn decelerated leukemia progression. Interestingly, Hoxb13 expression is up-regulated in MLL-AF9-induced AML cells, while knockdown of Hoxb13 in MLL-AF9 leukemic cells significantly prolonged the survival of leukemic mice with reduced LSC frequencies. Our data revealed that SUV39H1 functions as a tumor suppressor in MLL-AF9-induced AML progression. These findings provide the direct link of SUV39H1 to AML development and progression.
Project description:Dynamic spatiotemporal modification of chromatin around DNA damage is vital for efficient DNA repair. Normal stem cells exhibit an attenuated DNA damage response (DDR), inefficient DNA repair, and high radiosensitivity. The impact of unique chromatin characteristics of stem cells in DDR regulation is not yet recognized. We demonstrate that murine embryonic stem cells (ES) display constitutively elevated acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) and low H3K9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3). DNA damage-induced local deacetylation of H3K9 was abrogated in ES along with the subsequent H3K9me3. Depletion of H3K9ac in ES by suppression of monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (MOZ) acetyltransferase improved ATM activation, DNA repair, diminished irradiation-induced apoptosis, and enhanced clonogenic survival. Simultaneous suppression of the H3K9 methyltransferase Suv39h1 abrogated the radioprotective effect of MOZ inhibition, suggesting that high H3K9ac promoted by MOZ in ES cells obstructs local upregulation of H3K9me3 and contributes to muted DDR and increased radiosensitivity.
Project description:Cellular senescence has been associated with the age-dependent decline in tissue repair and regeneration, the increasing deterioration of the immune system, and the age-dependent increase in the incidence of cancer. Here, we show that senescence of human lung fibroblast WI-38 cells is associated with extensive changes to the gene expression profile, including the differential expression of transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. Among those,SUV39H1 was downregulated in senescent cells, correlated with a decrease in global H3K9 trimethylation, reduced H3K9me3 levels in repetitive DNA sequence regions such as satellites and transposable elements, and increased transcription of these repetitive DNA sequences. This indicates that SUV39H1 plays a role in limiting genomic instability in dividing cells and suggests that SUV39H1 downregulation may contribute to the establishment of senescence by increasing genomic instability. Additionally, the manipulation of SUV39H1 expression levels resulted in altered cell cycle distribution, suggesting a causal role of SUV39H1 in the establishment of cellular senescence. Thus, based on our findings and the results from previous reports, we propose a model in which SUV39H1 downregulation promotes the establishment of cellular senescence.