Optimisation of a Novel Spiral-Inducing Bypass Graft Using Computational Fluid Dynamics.
ABSTRACT: Graft failure is currently a major concern for medical practitioners in treating Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). It is now widely accepted that unfavourable haemodynamic conditions play an essential role in the formation and development of intimal hyperplasia, which is the main cause of graft failure. This paper uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to conduct a parametric study to enhance the design and performance of a novel prosthetic graft, which utilises internal ridge(s) to induce spiral flow. This design is primarily based on the identification of the blood flow as spiral in the whole arterial system and is believed to improve the graft longevity and patency rates at distal graft anastomoses. Four different design parameters were assessed in this work and the trailing edge orientation of the ridge was identified as the most important parameter to induce physiological swirling flow, while the height of the ridge also significantly contributed to the enhanced performance of this type of graft. Building on these conclusions, an enhanced configuration of spiral graft is proposed and compared against conventional and spiral grafts to reaffirm its potential benefits.
Project description:In the present work, numerical simulations were conducted for a typical end-to-side distal graft anastomosis to assess the effects of inducing secondary flow, which is believed to remove unfavourable flow environment. Simulations were carried out for four models, generated based on two main features of 'out-of-plane helicity' and 'spiral ridge' in the grafts as well as their combination. Following a qualitative comparison against in vitro data, various mean flow and hemodynamic parameters were compared and the results showed that helicity is significantly more effective in inducing swirling flow in comparison to a spiral ridge, while their combination could be even more effective. In addition, the induced swirling flow was generally found to be increasing the wall shear stress and reducing the flow stagnation and particle residence time within the anastomotic region and the host artery, which may be beneficial to the graft longevity and patency rates. Finally, a parametric study on the spiral ridge geometrical features was conducted, which showed that the ridge height and the number of spiral ridges have significant effects on inducing swirling flow, and revealed the potential of improving the efficiency of such designs.
Project description:Although a helical configuration of a prosthetic vascular graft appears to be clinically beneficial in suppressing thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia, an optimization of a helical design has yet to be achieved because of the lack of a detailed understanding on hemodynamic features in helical grafts and their fluid dynamic influences. In the present study, the swirling flow in a helical graft was hypothesized to have beneficial influences on a disturbed flow structure such as stenotic flow. The characteristics of swirling flows generated by helical tubes with various helical pitches and curvatures were investigated to prove the hypothesis. The fluid dynamic influences of these helical tubes on stenotic flow were quantitatively analysed by using a particle image velocimetry technique. Results showed that the swirling intensity and helicity of the swirling flow have a linear relation with a modified Germano number (Gn*) of the helical pipe. In addition, the swirling flow generated a beneficial flow structure at the stenosis by reducing the size of the recirculation flow under steady and pulsatile flow conditions. Therefore, the beneficial effects of a helical graft on the flow field can be estimated by using the magnitude of Gn*. Finally, an optimized helical design with a maximum Gn* was suggested for the future design of a vascular graft.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Widespread use of intraoperative epicardial ultrasonography (ECUS) for quality assessment of coronary artery bypass graft anastomoses during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has not occurred - presumably due to technological and practical challenges including the need to maintain stable and optimal acoustic contact between the ultrasound probe and the target without the risk of distorting the anastomosis. We investigated the feasibility of using a stabilizing device during ultrasound imaging of distal coronary bypass graft anastomoses in patients undergoing on-pump CABG. Imaging was performed in both the longitudinal and transverse planes. METHODS:Single-centre, observational prospective feasibility study among 51 patients undergoing elective, isolated on-pump CABG. Ultrasonography of peripheral coronary bypass anastomoses was performed using a stabilizing device upon which the ultrasound transducer was connected. Transit-time flow measurement (TTFM) was also performed. Descriptive statistical tests were used. RESULTS:Longitudinal and transverse images from the heel, middle and toe were obtained from 134 of 155 coronary anastomoses (86.5%). After the learning curve (15 patients), all six projections were obtained from 100 of 108 anastomoses scanned (93%). Failure to obtain images were typical due to a sequential curved graft with anastomoses that could not be contained in the straight cavity of the stabilizing device, echo artefacts from a Titanium clip located in the roof of the anastomoses, and challenges in interpreting the images during the learning curve. No complications were associated with the ECUS procedure. The combined ECUS and TTFM resulted in immediate revision of five peripheral anastomoses. CONCLUSIONS:Peroperative use of a stabilizing device during ultrasonography of coronary artery bypass anastomoses in on-pump surgery facilitates imaging and provides surgeons with non-deformed longitudinal and transverse images of all parts of the anastomoses in all coronary territories. Peroperative ECUS in addition to flow measurements has the potential to increase the likelihood of detecting technical errors in constructed anastomoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study was registered on September 29, 2016, ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02919124.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Uterine artery (UtA) Doppler indices are one of the most commonly employed screening tests for pre-eclampsia worldwide. Abnormal indices appear to result from increased uterine vascular resistance, but anatomical complexity and lack of appropriate animal models mean that little is known about the relative contribution of each of the components of the uterine vasculature to the overall UtA Doppler waveform. Previous computational models suggested that trophoblast-mediated spiral artery remodeling has a dominant effect on the UtA Doppler waveform. However, these models did not incorporate the myometrial arterio-venous anastomoses, which have significant potential to affect utero-placental haemodynamics. METHODS:We present a more anatomically complete computational model, explicitly incorporating a structural description of each component of the uterine vasculature, and crucially including myometrial arterio-venous anastomoses as parallel pathways for blood-flow away from the placental bed. Wave transmission theory was applied to the network to predict UtA waveforms. RESULTS:Our model shows that high UtA resistance indices, combined with notching, reflect an abnormal remodeling of the entire uterine vasculature. Incomplete spiral artery remodeling alone is unlikely to cause abnormal UtA Doppler waveforms as increased resistance in these arteries can be 'buffered' by upstream anastomoses. Critically, our results indicate that the radial arteries, may have a more important effect on utero-placental flow dynamics, and the UtA Doppler waveform than previously thought. CONCLUSIONS:This model suggests that to appropriately interpret UtA Doppler waveforms they must be considered to be reflecting changes in the entire system, rather than just the spiral arteries.
Project description:Coronary bypass grafting using conduits with multiple distal anastomoses continues to demand scrutiny. While on one hand these techniques allow the surgeon to avoid or minimise aortic manipulation, the unique flow and pressure characteristics lead to complex forms of graft failure if the anatomy of the target vascular bed is not carefully taken into consideration. We report three cases of graft failure in patients with coronary bypass grafting performed using multiple distal anastomoses, and percutaneous revascularisation in one patient.
Project description:The method for increasing the separation efficiency of particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers by combined ultrasonic agglomeration and swirling flow technique is proposed in the article. The swirling flow creates areas with an increased concentration of particles on the outer radius of the vortex. The ultrasonic exposure on these areas leads to more efficient agglomeration and the formation of agglomerates of many times larger than the original particles. The resulting agglomerates are easily separated from the gas flow. The design of the agglomerator was developed. The vortex velocity is determined, at which ultrasonic exposure on the swirling flow increases the average particle size d32 = 2.5 micrometer to 4.5 times. The ultrasonic exposure on a rectilinear flow can increase the particle size no more than 1.6 times for comparison. The proposed method is compared with inertial gas clearing in a cyclone. It was found that the proposed combined method allows increasing the cleaning efficiency from 46% to 85% at ultrasonic exposure on the swirling flow in the agglomerator and cyclone.
Project description:To compare the Lecompte technique and the spiral anastomosis (complete anatomic correction) two decades after arterial switch operation (ASO).Nine patients after primary ASO with Lecompte and 6 selected patients after spiral anastomosis were evaluated 20.8 ± 2.1 years after ASO versus matched controls. Blood flow dynamics and flow profiles (e.g. vorticity, helicity) in the great arteries were quantified from time-resolved 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phase contrast flow measurements (4D flow MR) in addition to a comprehensive anatomical and functional cardiovascular MRI analysis.Compared with spiral reconstruction, patients with Lecompte showed more vortex formation, supranatural helical blood flow (relative helicity in aorta: 0.036 vs 0.089; P < 0.01), a reduced indexed cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery (155 vs 85 mm²/m²; P < 0.001) and more semilunar valve dysfunctions (n = 5 vs 1). There was no difference in elastic aortic wall properties, ventricular function, myocardial perfusion and myocardial fibrosis between the two groups. Cross-sectional area of the aortic sinus was larger in patients than in controls (669 vs 411 mm²/m²; P < 0.01). In the spiral group, the pulmonary root was rotated after ASO more towards the normal left position (P < 0.01).In this study, selected patients with spiral anastomoses showed, two decades after ASO, better physiologically adapted blood flow dynamics, and attained a closer to normal anatomical position of their great arteries, as well as less valve dysfunction. Considering the limitations related to the small number of patients and the novel MRI imaging techniques, these data may provoke reconsidering the optimal surgical approaches to transposition of the great arteries repair.
Project description:The spleen is a large lymphoid organ located in the abdomen that filters blood and regulates the immune system. The extent of mobilization of splenic immune cells to peripheral tissues in health and disease, however, remains poorly understood. This is due, in large part, to a lack of in vivo, spleen-specific lineage tagging strategies. Here, we describe a detailed practical protocol of spleen transplantation and its evaluation for long-term graft survival. Unlike implantation of splenic morsels in the great omentum, our approach uses arterial and venous anastomoses which rapidly restores blood flow and facilitates long-term survival of the graft. The use of congenic mouse strains permits the use of immunofluorescence and flow cytometry-based methodologies to unambiguously track the migration of spleen-derived cells to peripheral tissues.
Project description:Thyroid hormone is essential for the development of the cochlea and auditory function. Cochlear response tissues, which express thyroid hormone receptor β (encoded by Thrb), include the greater epithelial ridge and sensory epithelium residing inside the bony labyrinth. However, these response tissues lack direct blood flow, implying that mechanisms exist to shuttle hormone from the circulation to target tissues. Therefore, we investigated expression of candidate thyroid hormone transporters L-type amino acid transporter 1 (Lat1), monocarboxylate transporter (Mct)8, Mct10, and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1 (Oatp1c1) in mouse cochlear development by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence analysis. L-type amino acid transporter 1 localized to cochlear blood vessels and transiently to sensory hair cells. Mct8 localized to the greater epithelial ridge, tympanic border cells underlying the sensory epithelium, spiral ligament fibrocytes, and spiral ganglion neurons, partly overlapping with the Thrb expression pattern. Mct10 was detected in a highly restricted pattern in the outer sulcus epithelium and weakly in tympanic border cells and hair cells. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1 localized primarily to fibrocytes in vascularized tissues of the spiral limbus and spiral ligament and to tympanic border cells. Investigation of hypothyroid Tshr(-/-) mice showed that transporter expression was delayed consistent with retardation of cochlear tissue maturation but not with compensatory responses to hypothyroidism. The results demonstrate specific expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the cochlea and suggest that a network of thyroid hormone transport underlies cochlear development.
Project description:Colostomy is conventionally the only treatment for anal dysfunction. Recently, a few trials of anorectal transplantation in animals have been published; however, further development of this technique is required. Moreover, it is crucial to perform this research in dogs, which resemble humans in anorectal anatomy and biology. We designed a canine anorectal transplantation model, wherein anorectal autotransplantation was performed by anastomoses of the rectum, inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and vein, and pudendal nerves. Resting pressure in the anal canal and anal canal pressure fluctuation were measured before and after surgery. Graft pathology was examined three days after surgery. The anal blood supply was compared with that in three beagles using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography. The anorectal graft had sufficient arterial blood supply from the IMA; however, the graft's distal end was congested and necrotized. Functional examination demonstrated reduced resting pressure and the appearance of an irregular anal canal pressure wave after surgery. ICG angiography showed that the pudendal arteries provided more blood flow than the IMA to the anal segment. This is the first canine model of preliminary anorectal autotransplantation, and it demonstrates the possibility of establishing a transplantation model in dogs using appropriate vascular anastomoses, thus contributing to the progress of anorectal transplantation.