Parent-Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books.
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17-26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children's animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children's learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) electronic book (e-book) study was to assess use, and factors affecting use, of e-books by all patron groups of an academic health sciences library serving both university and health system-affiliated patrons. METHODS: A web-based survey was distributed to a random sample (n=5,292) of holders of library remote access passwords. A total of 871 completed and 108 partially completed surveys were received, for an approximate response rate of 16.5%-18.5%, with all user groups represented. Descriptive and chi-square analysis was done using SPSS 17. RESULTS: Library e-books were used by 55.4% of respondents. Use by role varied: 21.3% of faculty reported having assigned all or part of an e-book for class readings, while 86% of interns, residents, and fellows reported using an e-book to support clinical care. Respondents preferred print for textbooks and manuals and electronic format for research protocols, pharmaceutical, and reference books, but indicated high flexibility about format choice. They rated printing and saving e-book content as more important than annotation, highlighting, and bookmarking features. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents' willingness to use alternate formats, if convenient, suggests that libraries can selectively reduce title duplication between print and e-books and still support library user information needs, especially if publishers provide features that users want. Marketing and user education may increase use of e-book collections.
Project description:Digital reading devices such as Kindle differ from paper books with respect to the kinesthetic and tactile feedback provided to the reader, but the role of these features in reading is rarely studied empirically. This experiment compares reading of a long text on Kindle DX and in print. Fifty participants (24 years old) read a 28 page (∼1 h reading time) long mystery story on Kindle or in a print pocket book and completed several tests measuring various levels of reading comprehension: engagement, recall, capacities to locate events in the text and reconstructing the plot of the story. Results showed that on most tests subjects performed identically whatever the reading medium. However, on measures related to chronology and temporality, those who had read in the print pocket book, performed better than those who had read on a Kindle. It is concluded that, basically comprehension was similar with both media, but, because kinesthetic feedback is less informative with a Kindle, readers were not as efficient to locate events in the space of the text and hence in the temporality of the story. We suggest that, to get a correct spatial representation of the text and consequently a coherent temporal organization of the story, readers would be reliant on the sensorimotor cues which are afforded by the manipulation of the book.
Project description:Repeatedly looking at picture books about fruits and vegetables with parents enhances young children's visual preferences toward the foods in the book (Houston-Price et al., 2009a) and influences their willingness to taste these foods (Houston-Price et al., 2009b). This article explores whether the effects of picture book exposure are affected by infants' initial familiarity with and liking for the foods presented. In two experiments parents of 19- to 26-month-old toddlers were asked to read a picture book about a liked, disliked or unfamiliar fruit or vegetable with their child every day for 2 weeks. The impact of the intervention on both infants' visual preferences and their eating behavior was determined by the initial status of the target food, with the strongest effects for foods that were initially unfamiliar. Most strikingly, toddlers consumed more of the unfamiliar vegetable they had seen in their picture book than of a matched control vegetable. Results confirm the potential for picture books to play a positive role in encouraging healthy eating in young children.
Project description:Fostering early literacy depends in part on engaging and inspiring children's early interest in reading. Enriching the causal content of children's books may be one way to do so, as causal information has been empirically shown to capture children's attention. To more directly test whether children's book preferences might be driven by causal content, we created pairs of expository books closely matched for content and complexity, but with differing amounts of causal information embedded therein. Three and 4 years old participants (<i>n</i> = 48) were read both books and their interests and preferences were evaluated. When asked to choose, children preferred the highly causal over the minimally causal books. Results are discussed in terms of broader implications for creating books that optimally engage young children, as well as guiding book selections parents and educators make in their endeavors to promote interest in reading and early literacy.
Project description:Background & Aims:Anecdotal evidence suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prefer non-fiction books over fiction books. The current study was the first to investigate parent-reports of children with ASD's fiction and non-fiction book preferences and whether these relate to individual differences in social communication, oral language, and/or reading abilities. Method:Children (ages 8-14 years, M = 10.89, SD = 1.17) with ASD diagnoses (n = 19) and typically developing (TD) peers (n = 21) participated. Children completed standardized measures of social communication, oral language, and reading abilities. Parents reported children's current favorite book, and from these responses, we coded children's fiction versus non-fiction book preferences. Main Contribution:Contrary to anecdotal evidence, children with ASD preferred fiction similar to their TD peers. Fiction versus non-fiction book preference was significantly related to social communication abilities across both groups. Children's oral language and reading abilities were related, as expected, but the evidence for a relationship between social communication and reading comprehension was mixed. Conclusions:This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the association of social communication in fiction versus non-fiction book preference, which may be related to children's comprehension and support the theoretical role of social communication knowledge in narrative/fiction. Implications:It should not be assumed that all children with ASD prefer expository/non-fiction or do not read narrative/fiction. Children who prefer non-fiction may need additional social communication knowledge support to improve their understanding of narrative fiction.
Project description:This research study sought to determine the formats (print or electronic) of articles and book chapters most-preferred by first-year medical students, third-year medical students entering clinical clerkships, and incoming residents and to determine if these preferences change during the course of the medical curriculum. These trends will enable academic health sciences libraries to make appropriate collection development decisions to best cater to their user populations.First-year medical students, third-year medical students, and incoming medical residents were asked to complete a paper survey from September 2014 to June 2015. The survey consisted of five multiple-choice questions, with two questions given space for optional short answers. Quantitative and qualitative responses were collected and calculated using Microsoft Excel.First-year students, third-year students, and incoming residents all preferred to read journal articles and book chapters in print, except in cases where the article or book chapter is under ten pages in length. Although print is preferred, demand for electronic articles and book chapters increases as students progress from undergraduate medical education into residency. The only category where a majority of incoming residents chose an electronic resource was which format they would give to a colleague, if the article or book chapter was critical to the care of an individual patient.The preference for print resources is strong across the medical curriculum, although residents show an increased preference for electronic materials when compared to first- and third-year students. Academic health sciences libraries should take these preferences into account when making decisions regarding collection development.
Project description:This study reports the descriptive and inferential statistical findings of a survey of academic reading format preferences and behaviors of 10,293 tertiary students worldwide. The study hypothesized that country-based differences in schooling systems, socioeconomic development, culture or other factors might have an influence on preferred formats, print or electronic, for academic reading, as well as the learning engagement behaviors of students. The main findings are that country of origin has little to no relationship with or effect on reading format preferences of university students, and that the broad majority of students worldwide prefer to read academic course materials in print. The majority of participants report better focus and retention of information presented in print formats, and more frequently prefer print for longer texts. Additional demographic and post-hoc analysis suggests that format preference has a small relationship with academic rank. The relationship between task demands, format preferences and reading comprehension are discussed. Additional outcomes and implications for the fields of education, psychology, computer science, information science and human-computer interaction are considered.
Project description:In the rapidly changing circumstances of our increasingly digital world, reading is also becoming an increasingly digital experience: electronic books (e-books) are now outselling print books in the United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, many readers still view e-books as less readable than print books. The present study thus used combined EEG and eyetracking measures in order to test whether reading from digital media requires higher cognitive effort than reading conventional books. Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded. The results of a debriefing questionnaire replicated previous findings in that participants overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the two electronic devices as their preferred reading medium. Online measures, by contrast, showed shorter mean fixation durations and lower EEG theta band voltage density--known to covary with memory encoding and retrieval--for the older adults when reading from a tablet computer in comparison to the other two devices. Young adults showed comparable fixation durations and theta activity for all three devices. Comprehension accuracy did not differ across the three media for either group. We argue that these results can be explained in terms of the better text discriminability (higher contrast) produced by the backlit display of the tablet computer. Contrast sensitivity decreases with age and degraded contrast conditions lead to longer reading times, thus supporting the conclusion that older readers may benefit particularly from the enhanced contrast of the tablet. Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices.
Project description:Background: Development is a process that continues from childhood to death, and most developmental changes occur during childhood. UNICEF introduced early storybook-reading (ESR) and storytelling as part of child care indicators. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of book-reading to children and its relationship with early childhood development in Iran. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study conducted in Tehran April-May 2017. In total, 272 mothers of children aged 3-30 months, who were referred to health centers, were selected using a convenience sampling method. Exclusion criteria was scoring below the cutoff point of any developmental domains of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). ESR was assessed by checklist and child development was assessed by the ASQ. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: The mean number of children's books owned was 10.23±8.642, and 84.75% had at least 3 books. The average book reading, storytelling and singing duration for children was 10±9.65, 11.48±11.756, and 23.88 ±17.880 min per day, respectively. Average book reading, storytelling, and singing duration was significantly greater in children 18-30 months than <17 months. There was a significant relationship between the number of books and a child's age, mother's age, family income, income satisfaction, father's employment, and parents' education. The score of communication domain in the ASQ questionnaire was significantly related to the number of books, duration of reading and storytelling, while problem-solving had a significant relationship only with the number of books (p?0.05). Based on linear regression, child's age, income, and mother's and father's educational level were models for predicting the number of children's books (p=0.0001 for all). Conclusions: ESR was associated with some developmental domains of communication and problem-solving in the present study. Therefore, creation of ESR culture in Iranian families as an integral part of the life of children is necessary from birth.
Project description:It is widely believed that reading to preschool children promotes their language and literacy skills. Yet, whether early parent-child book reading is an index of generally rich linguistic input or a unique predictor of later outcomes remains unclear. To address this question, we asked whether naturally occurring parent-child book reading interactions between 1 and 2.5 years-of-age predict elementary school language and literacy outcomes, controlling for the quantity of other talk parents provide their children, family socioeconomic status, and children's own early language skill. We find that the quantity of parent-child book reading interactions predicts children's later receptive vocabulary, reading comprehension, and internal motivation to read (but not decoding, external motivation to read, or math skill), controlling for these other factors. Importantly, we also find that parent language that occurs during book reading interactions is more sophisticated than parent language outside book reading interactions in terms of vocabulary diversity and syntactic complexity.