Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation.
ABSTRACT: Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. We validated the role of a set of vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes during infection, VPS51 to VPS54 (VPS51-54), which comprise the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. The GARP complex is a tethering complex involved in retrograde transport of endosomes to the trans-Golgi apparatus. Our data demonstrate that VPS52 and VPS54 were dispensable for mature virion (MV) production but were required for extracellular virus (EV) formation. For comparison, a known antiviral compound, ST-246, was used in our experiments, demonstrating that EV titers in VPS52 and VPS54 knockout (KO) cells were comparable to levels exhibited by ST-246-treated wild-type cells. Confocal microscopy was used to examine actin tail formation, one of the viral egress mechanisms for cell-to-cell dissemination, and revealed an absence of actin tails in VPS52KO- or VPS54KO-infected cells. Further evaluation of these cells by electron microscopy demonstrated a decrease in levels of wrapped viruses (WVs) compared to those seen with the wild-type control. Collectively, our data demonstrate the role of GARP complex genes in double-membrane wrapping of MVs necessary for EV formation, implicating the host endosomal trafficking pathway in orthopoxvirus infection.IMPORTANCE Human monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV). Of the two MPXV clades, the Congo Basin strain is associated with severe disease, increased mortality, and increased human-to-human transmission relative to the West African strain. Monkeypox is endemic in regions of western and central Africa but was introduced into the United States in 2003 from the importation of infected animals. The threat of MPXV and other orthopoxviruses is increasing due to the absence of routine smallpox vaccination leading to a higher proportion of naive populations. In this study, we have identified and validated candidate genes that are required for MPXV infection, specifically, those associated with the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. Identifying host targets required for infection that prevents extracellular virus formation such as the GARP complex or the retrograde pathway can provide a potential target for antiviral therapy.
Project description:Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) are related heterotetrameric complexes that associate with the cytosolic face of the trans-Golgi network and recycling endosomes, respectively. At these locations, GARP and EARP function to promote the fusion of endosome-derived transport carriers with their corresponding compartments. GARP and EARP share three subunits, VPS51, VPS52 and VPS53, and each has an additional complex-specific subunit, VPS54 or VPS50, respectively. The role of these complexes in human physiology, however, remains poorly understood. By exome sequencing, we have identified compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the shared GARP/EARP subunit VPS51 in a 6-year-old patient with severe global developmental delay, microcephaly, hypotonia, epilepsy, cortical vision impairment, pontocerebellar abnormalities, failure to thrive, liver dysfunction, lower extremity edema and dysmorphic features. The mutation in one allele causes a frameshift that produces a longer but highly unstable protein that is degraded by the proteasome. In contrast, the other mutant allele produces a protein with a single amino acid substitution that is stable but assembles less efficiently with the other GARP/EARP subunits. Consequently, skin fibroblasts from the patient have reduced levels of fully assembled GARP and EARP complexes. Likely because of this deficiency, the patient's fibroblasts display altered distribution of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, which normally sorts acid hydrolases to lysosomes. Furthermore, a fraction of the patient's fibroblasts exhibits swelling of lysosomes. These findings thus identify a novel genetic locus for a neurodevelopmental disorder and highlight the critical importance of GARP/EARP function in cellular and organismal physiology.
Project description:The importance of endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51-VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport.
Project description:The Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex mediates tethering and fusion of endosome-derived transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GARP comprises four subunits named Vps51p, Vps52p, Vps53p, and Vps54p. Orthologues of the GARP subunits, except for Vps51p, have been identified in all other eukaryotes. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a human cDNA library yielded a phylogenetically conserved protein, Ang2/Fat-free, which interacts with human Vps52, Vps53 and Vps54. Human Ang2 is larger than yeast Vps51p, but exhibits significant homology in an N-terminal coiled-coil region that mediates assembly with other GARP subunits. Biochemical analyses show that human Ang2, Vps52, Vps53 and Vps54 form an obligatory 1:1:1:1 complex that strongly interacts with the regulatory Habc domain of the TGN SNARE, Syntaxin 6. Depletion of Ang2 or the GARP subunits similarly impairs protein retrieval to the TGN, lysosomal enzyme sorting, endosomal cholesterol traffic¤ and autophagy. These findings indicate that Ang2 is the missing component of the GARP complex in most eukaryotes.
Project description:The biosynthetic sorting of acid hydrolases to lysosomes relies on transmembrane, mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) that cycle between the TGN and endosomes. Herein we report that maintenance of this cycling requires the function of the mammalian Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. Depletion of any of the three GARP subunits, Vps52, Vps53, or Vps54, by RNAi impairs sorting of the precursor of the acid hydrolase, cathepsin D, to lysosomes and leads to its secretion into the culture medium. As a consequence, lysosomes become swollen, likely due to a buildup of undegraded materials. Missorting of cathepsin D in GARP-depleted cells results from accumulation of recycling MPRs in a population of light, small vesicles downstream of endosomes. These vesicles might correspond to intermediates in retrograde transport from endosomes to the TGN. Depletion of GARP subunits also blocks the retrograde transport of the TGN protein, TGN46, and the B subunit of Shiga toxin. These observations indicate that the mammalian GARP complex plays a general role in the delivery of retrograde cargo into the TGN. We also report that a Vps54 mutant protein in the Wobbler mouse strain is active in retrograde transport, thus explaining the viability of these mutant mice.
Project description:Recycling of endocytic receptors to the cell surface involves passage through a series of membrane-bound compartments by mechanisms that are poorly understood. In particular, it is unknown if endocytic recycling requires the function of multisubunit tethering complexes, as is the case for other intracellular trafficking pathways. Herein we describe a tethering complex named endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) that is structurally related to the previously described Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. The two complexes share the Ang2, Vps52 and Vps53 subunits, but EARP contains an uncharacterized protein, syndetin, in place of the Vps54 subunit of GARP. This change determines differential localization of EARP to recycling endosomes and GARP to the Golgi complex. EARP interacts with the target SNARE syntaxin 6 and various cognate SNAREs. Depletion of syndetin or syntaxin 6 delays recycling of internalized transferrin to the cell surface. These findings implicate EARP in canonical membrane-fusion events in the process of endocytic recycling.
Project description:Endosomes function as a hub for multiple protein-sorting events, including retrograde transport to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling to the plasma membrane. These processes are mediated by tubular-vesicular carriers that bud from early endosomes and fuse with a corresponding acceptor compartment. Two tethering complexes named GARP (composed of ANG2, VPS52, VPS53, and VPS54 subunits) and EARP (composed of ANG2, VPS52, VPS53, and Syndetin subunits) were previously shown to participate in SNARE-dependent fusion of endosome-derived carriers with the TGN and recycling endosomes, respectively. Little is known, however, about other proteins that function with GARP and EARP in these processes. Here we identify a protein named TSSC1 as a specific interactor of both GARP and EARP and as a novel component of the endosomal retrieval machinery. TSSC1 is a predicted WD40/?-propeller protein that coisolates with both GARP and EARP in affinity purification, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration analyses. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows colocalization of TSSC1 with both GARP and EARP. Silencing of TSSC1 impairs transport of internalized Shiga toxin B subunit to the TGN, as well as recycling of internalized transferrin to the plasma membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching shows that TSSC1 is required for efficient recruitment of GARP to the TGN. These studies thus demonstrate that TSSC1 plays a critical role in endosomal retrieval pathways as a regulator of both GARP and EARP function.
Project description:The factors and mechanisms involved in vacuolar transport in plants, and in particular those directing vesicles to their target endomembrane compartment, remain largely unknown. To identify components of the vacuolar trafficking machinery, we searched for Arabidopsis modified transport to the vacuole (mtv) mutants that abnormally secrete the synthetic vacuolar cargo VAC2. We report here on the identification of 17 mtv mutations, corresponding to mutant alleles of MTV2/VSR4, MTV3/PTEN2A MTV7/EREL1, MTV8/ARFC1, MTV9/PUF2, MTV10/VPS3, MTV11/VPS15, MTV12/GRV2, MTV14/GFS10, MTV15/BET11, MTV16/VPS51, MTV17/VPS54, and MTV18/VSR1 Eight of the MTV proteins localize at the interface between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), supporting that the trafficking step between these compartments is essential for segregating vacuolar proteins from those destined for secretion. Importantly, the GARP tethering complex subunits MTV16/VPS51 and MTV17/VPS54 were found at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- and microtubule-associated compartments (EMACs). Moreover, MTV16/VPS51 interacts with the motor domain of kinesins, suggesting that, in addition to tethering vesicles, the GARP complex may regulate the motors that transport them. Our findings unveil a previously uncharacterized compartment of the plant vacuolar trafficking pathway and support a role for microtubules and kinesins in GARP-dependent transport of soluble vacuolar cargo in plants.
Project description:The late Golgi of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae receives membrane traffic from the secretory pathway as well as retrograde traffic from post-Golgi compartments, but the machinery that regulates these vesicle-docking and fusion events has not been characterized. We have identified three components of a novel protein complex that is required for protein sorting at the yeast late Golgi compartment. Mutation of VPS52, VPS53, or VPS54 results in the missorting of 70% of the vacuolar hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y as well as the mislocalization of late Golgi membrane proteins to the vacuole, whereas protein traffic through the early part of the Golgi complex is unaffected. A vps52/53/54 triple mutant strain is phenotypically indistinguishable from each of the single mutants, consistent with the model that all three are required for a common step in membrane transport. Native coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that Vps52p, Vps53p, and Vps54p are associated in a 1:1:1 complex that sediments as a single peak on sucrose velocity gradients. This complex, which exists both in a soluble pool and as a peripheral component of a membrane fraction, colocalizes with markers of the yeast late Golgi by immunofluorescence microscopy. Together, the phenotypic and biochemical data suggest that VPS52, VPS53, and VPS54 are required for the retrograde transport of Golgi membrane proteins from an endosomal/prevacuolar compartment. The Vps52/53/54 complex joins a growing list of distinct multisubunit complexes that regulate membrane-trafficking events.
Project description:The multisubunit Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex is required for tethering and fusion of endosome-derived transport vesicles to the trans-Golgi network. Mutation of leucine-967 to glutamine in the Vps54 subunit of GARP is responsible for spinal muscular atrophy in the wobbler mouse, an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The crystal structure at 1.7 A resolution of the mouse Vps54 C-terminal fragment harboring leucine-967, in conjunction with comparative sequence analysis, reveals that Vps54 has a continuous alpha-helical bundle organization similar to that of other multisubunit tethering complexes. The structure shows that leucine-967 is buried within the alpha-helical bundle through predominantly hydrophobic interactions that are critical for domain stability and folding in vitro. Mutation of this residue to glutamine does not prevent integration of Vps54 into the GARP complex but greatly reduces the half-life and levels of the protein in vivo. Severely reduced levels of mutant Vps54 and, consequently, of the whole GARP complex underlie the phenotype of the wobbler mouse.
Project description:In yeast the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex is required for tethering of endosome-derived transport vesicles to the late Golgi. It consists of four subunits--Vps51p, Vps52p, Vps53p, and Vps54p--and shares similarities with other multimeric tethering complexes, such as the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) and the exocyst complex. Here we report the functional characterization of the GARP complex in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, we identified the C. elegans Vps51 subunit, which is conserved in all eukaryotes. GARP mutants are viable but show lysosomal defects. We show that GARP subunits bind specific sets of Golgi SNAREs within the yeast two-hybrid system. This suggests that the C. elegans GARP complex also facilitates tethering as well as SNARE complex assembly at the Golgi. The GARP and COG tethering complexes may have overlapping functions for retrograde endosome-to-Golgi retrieval, since loss of both complexes leads to a synthetic lethal phenotype.