MicroRNAs for Detection of Pancreatic Neoplasia: Biomarker Discovery by Next-generation Sequencing and Validation in 2 Independent Cohorts.
ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to analyze the miRNome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its preneoplastic lesion intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), to find new microRNA (miRNA)-based biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic neoplasia.Effective early detection methods for PDAC are needed. miRNAs are good biomarker candidates.Pancreatic tissues (n = 165) were obtained from patients with PDAC, IPMN, or from control individuals (C), from Hospital Clínic of Barcelona. Biomarker discovery was done using next-generation sequencing in a discovery set of 18 surgical samples (11 PDAC, 4 IPMN, 3 C). MiRNA validation was carried out by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in 2 different set of samples. Set 1-52 surgical samples (24 PDAC, 7 IPMN, 6 chronic pancreatitis, 15 C), and set 2-95 endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirations (60 PDAC, 9 IPMN, 26 C).In all, 607 and 396 miRNAs were significantly deregulated in PDAC and IPMN versus C. Of them, 40 miRNAs commonly overexpressed in both PDAC and IPMN were selected for further validation. Among them, significant up-regulation of 31 and 30 miRNAs was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in samples from set 1 and set 2, respectively.miRNome analysis shows that PDAC and IPMN have differential miRNA profiles with respect to C, with a large number of deregulated miRNAs shared by both neoplastic lesions. Indeed, we have identified and validated 30 miRNAs whose expression is significantly increased in PDAC and IPMN lesions. The feasibility of detecting these miRNAs in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration samples makes them good biomarker candidates for early detection of pancreatic cancer.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) presents the lowest survival rate of all cancers because only 6% of patients reach five-year survival. Alterations in the expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs) occur in the tumor of PDAC and in preneoplastic lesions as the called intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Here, we aimed at identifying which miRNAs are significantly altered in liquid biopsies from patients with PDAC and IPMN to find new noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of PDAC. METHODS:We analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) the expression of 17 circulating miRNAs, previously found to be significantly overexpressed in tissue pancreatic neoplasms, in a set of 182 plasma samples (94 PDAC, 19 IPMN, 18 chronic pancreatitis, and 51 disease-free controls). Then, we analyzed CA19.9 levels in the same plasma set, and we assessed the diagnostic values of differentially expressed miRNAs, CA19.9, and all possible combinations. RESULTS:Of note, 16, 14, and 9 miRNAs were significantly increased in PDAC, IPMN, and chronic pancreatitis, respectively, compared with control plasmas. miR-21-5p, miR-33a-3p, miR-320a, and miR-93-5p showed the highest discriminating capacity for pancreatic neoplasia (PDAC or IPMN) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.86, 0.85, 0.85, and 0.80, respectively. 2-miRNA combinations improved these performances reaching AUC = 0.90 for "miR-33a-3p+miR-320a." Addition of CA19.9 increased the diagnostic potential of miRNA signatures even further achieving an AUC of 0.95 (93% sensitivity and 85% specificity) for the combination of "miR-33a-3p+miR-320a+CA19.9." CONCLUSIONS:Novel signatures combining miRNAs and CA19.9 could be used as noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of PDAC.
Project description:Current diagnostic tools for pancreatic cysts fail to reliably differentiate mucinous from nonmucinous cysts. Reliable biomarkers are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNA) may offer insights into pancreatic cysts. Our aims were to (1) identify miRNAs that distinguish benign from both premalignant cysts and malignant pancreatic lesions using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pathology specimens; (2) identify miRNAs that distinguish mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) from branch duct-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN).A total of 69 FFPE pancreatic specimens were identified: (1) benign (20 serous cystadenoma (SCA)), (2) premalignant (10 MCN, 10 BD-IPMN, 10 main duct IPMN (MD-IPMN)), and (3) malignant (19 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)). Total nucleic acid extraction was performed followed by miRNA expression profiling of 378 miRNAs interrogated using TaqMan MicroRNA Arrays Pool A and verification of candidate miRNAs. Bioinformatics was used to generate classifiers.MiRNA profiling of 69 FFPE specimens yielded 35 differentially expressed miRNA candidates. Four different 4-miRNA panels differentiated among the lesions: one panel separated SCA from MCN, BD-IPMN, MD-IPMN, and PDAC with sensitivity 85% (62, 97), specificity 100% (93, 100), a second panel distinguished MCN from SCA, BD-IPMN, MD-IPMN, and PDAC with sensitivity and specificity 100% (100, 100), a third panel differentiated PDAC from IPMN with sensitivity 95% (76, 100) and specificity 85% (72, 96), and the final panel diagnosed MCN from BD-IPMN with sensitivity and specificity approaching 100%.MiRNA profiling of surgical pathology specimens differentiates serous cystadenoma from both premalignant pancreatic cystic neoplasms and PDAC and MCN from BD-IPMN.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pancreatic and peri-pancreatic neoplasms encompass a variety of histotypes characterized by a heterogeneous prognostic impact. miRNAs are considered efficient candidate biomarkers due to their high stability in tissues and body fluids. We applied Nanostring profiling of circulating exosomal miRNAs to distinct pancreatic lesions in order to establish a source for biomarker development. METHODS:A series of 140 plasma samples obtained from patients affected by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC, n?=?58), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET, n?=?42), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN, n?=?20), and ampulla of Vater carcinomas (AVC, n?=?20) were analyzed. Comprehensive miRNA profiling was performed on plasma-derived exosomes. Relevant miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). RESULTS:Lesion specific miRNAs were identified through multiple disease comparisons. Selected miRNAs were validated in the plasma by qRT-PCR and at tissue level by ISH. We leveraged the presence of clinical subtypes with each disease cohort to identify miRNAs that are differentially enriched in aggressive phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that pancreatic lesions are characterized by specific exosomal-miRNA signatures. We also provide the basis for further explorations in order to better understand the relevance of these signatures in pancreatic neoplasms.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most fatal cancers worldwide, partly because methods are lacking to detect disease at an early, operable stage. Noninvasive PDAC precursors called intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) exist, and strategies are needed to aid in their proper diagnosis and management. Data support the importance of miRNAs in the progression of IPMNs to malignancy, and we hypothesized that miRNAs may be shed from IPMN tissues and detected in blood. Our primary goals were to measure the abundance of miRNAs in archived preoperative plasma from individuals with pathologically confirmed IPMNs and healthy controls and discover plasma miRNAs that distinguish between IPMN patients and controls and between "malignant" and "benign" IPMNs. Using novel nCounter technology to evaluate 800 miRNAs, we showed that a 30-miRNA signature distinguished 42 IPMN cases from 24 controls [area underneath the curve (AUC) = 74.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 62.3-86.5, P = 0.002]. The signature contained novel miRNAs and miRNAs previously implicated in pancreatic carcinogenesis that had 2- to 4-fold higher expression in cases than controls. We also generated a 5-miRNA signature that discriminated between 21 malignant (high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma) and 21 benign (low- and moderate-grade dysplasia) IPMNs (AUC = 73.2; 95% CI, 57.6-73.2, P = 0.005), and showed that paired plasma and tissue samples from patients with IPMNs can have distinct miRNA expression profiles. This study suggests feasibility of using new cost-effective technology to develop a miRNA-based blood test to aid in the preoperative identification of malignant IPMNs that warrant resection while sparing individuals with benign IPMNs the morbidity associated with overtreatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered as one of the most aggressive cancers lacking efficient early detection biomarkers. Circulating miRNAs are now being considered to have potency to be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in different diseases as well as cancers. In case of cancer, a fraction of the circulating miRNAs is actually derived from the tumour tissue. This fraction would function as stable biomarker for the disease and also would contribute to the understanding of the disease development. There are not many studies exploring this aspect in pancreatic cancer and even there is not much overlap of results between existing studies. METHODS:In order to address that gap, we performed a miRNA microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed circulating miRNAs between PDAC patients and normal healthy individuals and also found two more similar datasets to perform a meta-analysis using a total of 182 PDAC patients and 170 normal, identifying a set of miRNAs significantly altered in patient serum. Next, we found five datasets studying miRNA expression profile in tumour tissues of PDAC patients as compared to normal pancreas and performed a second meta-analysis using data from a total of 183 pancreatic tumour and 47 normal pancreas to detect significantly deregulated miRNAs in pancreatic carcinoma. Comparison of these two lists and subsequent search for their target genes which were also deregulated in PDAC in inverse direction to miRNAs was done followed by investigation of their role in disease development. RESULTS:We identified 21 miRNAs altered in both pancreatic tumour tissue and serum. While deciphering the functions of their target genes, we characterized key miR-Gene interactions perturbing the biological pathways. We identified important cancer related pathways, pancreas specific pathways, AGE-RAGE signaling, prolactin signaling and insulin resistance signaling pathways among the most affected ones. We also reported the possible involvement of crucial transcription factors in the process. CONCLUSIONS:Our study identified a unique meta-signature of 21 miRNAs capable of explaining pancreatic carcinogenesis and possibly holding the potential to act as biomarker for the disease detection which could be explored further.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been described in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but these have not been compared with premalignant lesions. We wished to identify miRNA expression profiles in pancreatic cystic tumors with low malignant potential (serous microcystic adenomas) and high malignant potential (mucinous cystadenoma and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)) and compare these to PDAC and carcinoma-ex-IPMN (CEI). n= 20 samples Benign Pancreatic Cystic Tumour (n=7 Microcystic, n= 6 Mucinous, n= 7 IPMN) were compared with n= 9 samples of carcinoma ex IPMN and n= 14 samples of pancreatic cancer (adenocarcinoma) for known homo sapiens miRNAs (mirbase 13).
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy. Diagnosis and management of PDAC are hampered by the absence of sensitive and specific disease biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are noncoding regulatory RNAs involved in initiation and progression of human cancers. In this study, we sought to determine whether miR-10b could serve as a biomarker for PDAC.miRNA expression was characterized by fluorescence-based in situ hybridization using locked nucleic acid-modified DNA probes against miR-10b, miR-21, miR-155, miR-196a, and miR-210, followed by codetection of proteins by immunohistochemistry on the same tissue sections. miRNA expression in surgically resected PDAC tissues and in endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) samples was analyzed in cytokeratin 19 (CK19)-positive epithelial cells using optical intensity analysis.In 10 resected PDAC samples, miR-10b was the most frequently and consistently overexpressed miRNA among characterized miRNAs, exhibiting a four-fold increase in the cancer cells (P = 0.012). Given this preferential overexpression of miR-10b, we sought to determine whether miR-10b expression was clinically relevant. Accordingly, miR-10b expression was examined in 106 EUS-FNA samples obtained from pancreatic lesions. miR-10b expression was increased in cancer cells compared with CK19-positive epithelial cells in benign lesions (P = 0.0001). In patients with PDACs, lower levels of miR-10b were associated with improved response to multimodality neoadjuvant therapy, likelihood of surgical resection, delayed time to metastasis, and increased survival.miR-10b is a novel diagnostic biomarker for PDACs when assessing pancreatic lesions. Expression of miR-10b is predictive of response to neoadjuvant therapy and outcome in this disease.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been described in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but these have not been compared with pre-malignant pancreatic tumors. We wished to compare the miRNA expression signatures in pancreatic benign cystic tumors (BCT) of low and high malignant potential with PDAC, in order to identify miRNAs deregulated during PDAC development. The mechanistic consequences of miRNA dysregulation were further evaluated.Tissue samples were obtained at a tertiary pancreatic unit from individuals with BCT and PDAC. MiRNA profiling was performed using a custom microarray and results were validated using RT-qPCR prior to evaluation of miRNA targets.Widespread miRNA down-regulation was observed in PDAC compared to low malignant potential BCT. We show that amongst those miRNAs down-regulated, miR-16, miR-126 and let-7d regulate known PDAC oncogenes (targeting BCL2, CRK and KRAS respectively). Notably, miR-126 also directly targets the KRAS transcript at a "seedless" binding site within its 3'UTR. In clinical specimens, miR-126 was strongly down-regulated in PDAC tissues, with an associated elevation in KRAS and CRK proteins. Furthermore, miR-21, a known oncogenic miRNA in pancreatic and other cancers, was not elevated in PDAC compared to serous microcystic adenoma (SMCA), but in both groups it was up-regulated compared to normal pancreas, implicating early up-regulation during malignant change.Expression profiling revealed 21 miRNAs down-regulated in PDAC compared to SMCA, the most benign lesion that rarely progresses to invasive carcinoma. It appears that miR-21 up-regulation is an early event in the transformation from normal pancreatic tissue. MiRNA expression has the potential to distinguish PDAC from normal pancreas and BCT. Mechanistically the down-regulation of miR-16, miR-126 and let-7d promotes PDAC transformation by post-transcriptional up-regulation of crucial PDAC oncogenes. We show that miR-126 is able to directly target KRAS; re-expression has the potential as a therapeutic strategy against PDAC and other KRAS-driven cancers.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) alterations are likely to contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer and may serve as markers for the early detection of pancreatic neoplasia.To identify the miRNA alterations that arise during the development of pancreatic cancer, we determined the levels of 735 miRNAs in 34 pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN) and 15 normal pancreatic duct samples isolated by laser capture microdissection using TaqMan miRNA microarrays. Differential expression of selected miRNAs was confirmed by FISH analysis and by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of selected candidate miRNAs in an independent set of PanIN and normal duct samples.We identified 107 aberrantly expressed miRNAs in different PanIN grades compared with normal pancreatic duct samples and 35 aberrantly expressed miRNAs in PanIN-3 lesions compared with normal pancreatic duct samples. These differentially expressed miRNAs included those that have been previously identified as differentially expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC; including miR-21, miR-200a/b/c, miR-216a/b, miR-217, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-182, miR-196b, miR-203, miR-222, miR-338-3p, miR-486-3p, etc.) as well as miRNAs not previously described as differentially expressed in these lesions (miR-125b, miR-296-5p, miR-183*, miR-603, miR-625/*, miR-708, etc.). miR-196b was the most selectively differentially expressed miRNA in PanIN-3 lesions.Many miRNAs undergo aberrant expression in PanIN lesions and are likely to be important in the development of PDAC. The miRNAs, such as miR-196b, whose expression is limited to PanIN-3 lesions or pancreatic cancers could be useful as diagnostic markers.
Project description:Glypican-1 (GPC1) protein in exosomes was recently identified as a biomarker for the early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Immunohistochemical analyses and in vitro assays were conducted to assess the usefulness of GPC1 as a PDAC biomarker, to reveal the biological role of GPC1 in pancreatic carcinogenesis, and to ascertain the regulation mechanism of GPC1. An aberrant overexpression of GPC1 protein which is usually absent in normal pancreatic duct, was a widespread marker across the full spectrum of human PDAC precursors, PDAC, and pancreatic cancerous stroma. In intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), GPC1 tended to be positive in gastric-type IPMN. KRAS mutations were found in all GPC1-positive IPMN cases and in one-third of GPC1-negative IPMN cases. In pancreatic cell lines, GPC1 depletion caused remarkable inhibition of cell growth and migration, suggesting its oncogenic roles. GPC1 depletion upregulated the molecules associated with cell cycle arrest in pancreatic cell lines. Furthermore, KRAS and ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) oncoprotein upregulated GPC1 expression. In a clinical cohort, GPC1 overexpression was not correlated with pancreatic cancer prognosis. Taken together, these findings suggest the necessity of establishing a threshold of GPC1 value for detecting pancreatic malignancy because GPC1 is overexpressed even in low-grade PDAC precursors which do not always become malignant. Our study also reveals a new aspect of pancreatic carcinogenesis: KRAS and EVI1, two important molecules in early phases of pancreatic carcinogenesis, positively regulate GPC1 expression and likely promote pancreatic carcinogenesis.