Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome in Active Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Risk Factors.
ABSTRACT: Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common condition in active individuals and presents as diffuse pain along the posteromedial border of the tibia.To use cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies to identify significant MTSS risk factors.Bibliographic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, PEDRo), grey literature, electronic search of full text of journals, manual review of reference lists, and automatically executed PubMed MTSS searches were utilized. All searches were conducted between 2011 and 2015.Inclusion criteria were determined a priori and included original research with participants' pain diffuse, located in the posterior medial tibial region, and activity related.Systematic review with meta-analysis.Level 4.Titles and abstracts were reviewed to eliminate citations that did not meet the criteria for inclusion. Study characteristics identified a priori were extracted for data analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was examined using the I2 index and Cochran Q test, and a random-effects model was used to calculate the meta-analysis when 2 or more studies examined a risk factor. Two authors independently assessed study quality.Eighty-three articles met the inclusion criteria, and 22 articles included risk factor data. Of the 27 risk factors that were in 2 or more studies, 5 risk factors showed a significant pooled effect and low statistical heterogeneity, including female sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; CI, 1.58-3.50), increased weight (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.24; CI, 0.03-0.45), higher navicular drop (SMD, 0.44; CI, 0.21-0.67), previous running injury (OR, 2.18; CI, 1.00-4.72), and greater hip external rotation with the hip in flexion (SMD, 0.44; CI, 0.23-0.65). The remaining risk factors had a nonsignificant pooled effect or significant pooled effect with high statistical heterogeneity.Female sex, increased weight, higher navicular drop, previous running injury, and greater hip external rotation with the hip in flexion are risk factors for the development of MTSS.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain syndrome is one of the most common chronic knee injuries; however, little research has been done to determine the risk factors for this injury.Altered lower extremity kinematics and kinetics, decreased strength, and altered postural measurements will be risk factors.Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2.A total of 1597 participants were enrolled in this investigation and prospectively followed from the date of their enrollment (July 2005, July 2006, or July 2007) through January 2008, a maximum of 2.5 years of follow-up. Each participant underwent baseline data collection during their pre-freshman summer at the United States Naval Academy. Baseline data collection included 3-dimensional motion analysis during a jump-landing task, 6 lower extremity isometric strength tests, and postural alignment measurements (navicular drop and Q angle).Risk factors for the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome included decreased knee flexion angle, decreased vertical ground-reaction force, and increased hip internal rotation angle during the jump-landing task. Additionally, decreased quadriceps and hamstring strength, increased hip external rotator strength, and increased navicular drop were risk factors for the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome.Multiple modifiable risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome pain have been identified in this investigation. To decrease the incidence of this chronic injury, the risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome need to be targeted in injury prevention programs.Prevention programs should focus on increasing strength of the lower extremity musculature along with instructing proper mechanics during dynamic movements to decrease the incidence of patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Project description:The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the overall effect of resistance training (RT) on measures of muscular strength in people with Parkinson's disease (PD).Controlled trials with parallel-group-design were identified from computerized literature searching and citation tracking performed until August 2014. Two reviewers independently screened for eligibility and assessed the quality of the studies using the Cochrane risk-of-bias-tool. For each study, mean differences (MD) or standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for continuous outcomes based on between-group comparisons using post-intervention data. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on differences in study design.Nine studies met the inclusion criteria; all had a moderate to high risk of bias. Pooled data showed that knee extension, knee flexion and leg press strength were significantly greater in PD patients who undertook RT compared to control groups with or without interventions. Subgroups were: RT vs. control-without-intervention, RT vs. control-with-intervention, RT-with-other-form-of-exercise vs. control-without-intervention, RT-with-other-form-of-exercise vs. control-with-intervention. Pooled subgroup analysis showed that RT combined with aerobic/balance/stretching exercise resulted in significantly greater knee extension, knee flexion and leg press strength compared with no-intervention. Compared to treadmill or balance exercise it resulted in greater knee flexion, but not knee extension or leg press strength. RT alone resulted in greater knee extension and flexion strength compared to stretching, but not in greater leg press strength compared to no-intervention.Overall, the current evidence suggests that exercise interventions that contain RT may be effective in improving muscular strength in people with PD compared with no exercise. However, depending on muscle group and/or training dose, RT may not be superior to other exercise types. Interventions which combine RT with other exercise may be most effective. Findings should be interpreted with caution due to the relatively high risk of bias of most studies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the role of early initiation of rehabilitation on length of stay (LOS) and cost following total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. DATA SOURCES:Electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Pedro, Embase, AMED, and the Cochrane Library were searched in July 2016. Five additional trials were identified through reference list scanning. STUDY SELECTION:Eligible studies were published in English language peer-reviewed journals; included participants that had undergone total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty reported clearly defined timing of rehabilitation onset for at least two groups; and reported at least one measure of LOS or cost. Inclusion criteria were applied by 2 independent authors, with disagreements being determined by a third author. Searching identified 1,029 potential articles, of which 17 studies with 26,614 participants met the inclusion criteria. DATA EXTRACTION:Data was extracted independently by 2 authors, with disagreements being determined by a third author. Methodological quality of each study was evaluated independently by 2 authors using the Downs and Black checklist. Pooled analyses were analyzed using a random-effects model with inverse variance methods to calculate standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals for LOS. DATA SYNTHESIS:When compared with standard care, early initiation of physical therapy demonstrated a decrease in length of stay for the 4 randomized clinical trials (SMD = -1.90; 95% CI -2.76 to -1.05; I2 = 93%) and for the quasi-experimental and 5 prospective studies (SMD = -1.47; 95% CI -1.85 to -1.10; I2 = 88%). CONCLUSION:Early initiation of rehabilitation following total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty is associated with a shorter LOS, a lower overall cost, with no evidence of an increased number of adverse reactions. Additional high quality studies with standardized methodology are needed to further examine the impact of early initiation of physical therapy among patients with joint replacement procedures.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This review provides insights into the potential for aspirin to preserve bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce fracture risk, building knowledge of the risk-benefit profile of aspirin. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies. Electronic searches of MEDLINE and Embase, and a manual search of bibliographies was undertaken for studies published to 28 March 2018. Studies were included if: participants were men or women aged ?18 years; the exposure of interest was aspirin; and relative risks, ORs and 95% CIs for the risk of fracture or difference (percentage or absolute) in BMD (measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) between aspirin users and non-users were presented. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklists for observational studies. Pooled ORs for any fracture and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for BMD outcomes were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS:Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Aspirin use was associated with a 17% lower odds for any fracture (OR 0.83, 95%?CI 0.70 to 0.99; I2=71%; six studies; n=511?390). Aspirin was associated with a higher total hip BMD for women (SMD 0.03, 95%?CI -0.02 to 0.07; I2=0%; three studies; n=9686) and men (SMD 0.06, 95%?CI -0.02 to 0.13, I2=0%; two studies; n=4137) although these associations were not significant. Similar results were observed for lumbar spine BMD in women (SMD 0.03, 95%?CI -0.03 to 0.09; I2=34%; four studies; n=11?330) and men (SMD 0.08; 95%?CI -0.01 to 0.18; one study; n=432). CONCLUSIONS:While the benefits of reduced fracture risk and higher BMD from aspirin use may be modest for individuals, if confirmed in prospective controlled trials, they may confer a large population benefit given the common use of aspirin in older people.
Project description:Studies had investigated the associations between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) and lipid levels, but the results were controversial. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and lipid levels and the susceptibility to CAD.All relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to analyze the strength of the association between PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and the susceptibility to CAD. At the same time, the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95 % CI was used for the meta-analysis of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and lipid levels. The publication bias was examined by using Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test.A total of seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. For CAD association, the pooled effects indicated that the G allele carriers had higher risk of CAD than non-carriers in dominant genetic model (OR:1.601, 95 % CI: 1.314-1.951, P?<?0.001), as well as in allelic genetic model (OR: 1.546, 95 % CI: 1.301-1.838, P?<?0.001). When the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity and HWE was performed, the positive result existed in most of the subgroups. For lipid levels association, the pooled effects indicated that the G allele carriers had higher TC and LDL-C levels than the non-carriers (for TC, SMD: 0.126, 95 % CI: 0.023-0.229, P?=?0.016; for LDL-C, SMD: 0.170, 95 % CI: 0.053-0.287, P?=?0.004, respectively). There was no difference in the levels of TG and HDL-C between the G carriers and the non-carriers in the whole population (SMD: 0.031, 95 % CI: -0.048-0.110, P?=?0.440; SMD: -0.123, 95 % CI: -0.251-0.006, P?=?0.061, respectively). When the studies were stratified by ethnicity and type of study, the G carriers had higher TC levels than the non-carriers (SMD: 0.126, 95 % CI: 0.014-0.238, P?=?0.027) in the non-Asian subgroup. The similar results existed in cohort subgroup. The association between PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and LDL-C levels was significant in all subgroups. Meanwhile, the G carriers had higher TG levels than the non-carriers (SMD: 0.113, 95 % CI: 0.012-0.214, P?=?0.028) in the case-control subgroup. AG?+?GG genotypes had lower HDL-C levels than AA genotype in Asian subgroup (SMD: -0.224, 95 % CI: -0.423- -0.025, P?=?0.027) and in case-control subgroup (SMD: -0.257, 95 % CI: -0.467--0.048, P?=?0.016).The present meta-analysis concluded that PCSK9 E670G polymorphism was associated with CAD risk and lipid levels.
Project description:To review the evidence from RCTs on clinical outcomes and benefit of acute tibial fracture and nonunion treated with and without BMPs.We searched multiple databases (MEDLINE, EMABSE, BIOSIS and Cochrane central) as well as reference lists of articles and contacted authors. Evaluated outcomes included union rate, revision rate, hardware failure and infection. The weighted and standard mean difference (WMD and SMD) or the relative risk (RR) was calculated for continuous or dichotomous data respectively. The quality of the trial was assessed, and meta-analyses were performed with the Cochrane Collaboration's REVMAN 5.0 software.Eight RCTs involving 1113 patients were included. For acute tibial fracture, BMP group was associated with a higher rate of union (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.30) and a lower rate of revision (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.85) compared with control group. No significant differences were found in rate of hardware failure and infection. The pooled RR for achieving union for tibial fracture nonunion was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.86 to 1.13). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the rate of revision (RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.13 to 1.85) and infection (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.02).Study on acute tibial fractures suggests that BMP is more effective that controls, for bone union and for decreasing the rate of surgical revision to achieve union. For the treatment of tibial fracture nonunion, BMP leads to similar results to as autogenous bone grafting. Finally, well-designed RCTs of BMP for tibial fracture treatment are also needed.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of various clinicopathological variables with positive surgical margins (PSMs) in renal cell cancer (RCC) patients after nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). <b>Methods:</b> A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was performed to identify studies that compared PSMs with negative surgical margins (NSMs) and were published up to December 2018. Outcomes of interest included perioperative and postoperative variables, and the data were pooled by odds ratios (ORs)/standard mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the strength of such associations. STATA 12.0 software was used for all statistical analyses. <b>Results:</b> Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 studies including 47,499 patients with RCC were analyzed. The results showed that higher Furhman grade (pooled OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14-1.37; <i>P</i> < 0.001), higher pathological stage (pooled OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 2.05-3.50; <i>P</i> < 0.001), non-clear cell RCC (non-ccRCC) histology (pooled OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.72-0.84; <i>P</i> < 0.001), and non-white race (pooled OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.99; <i>P</i> = 0.026) were significantly associated with high risk of PSMs. However, age (pooled SMD = 0.09; 95% CI: -0.01-0.20; <i>P</i> = 0.078), gender (female vs. male) (pooled OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.96-1.12; <i>P</i> = 0.377), tumor laterality (left vs. right) (pooled OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.84-1.42; <i>P</i> = 0.501), tumor focality (unifocal vs. multifocal) (pooled OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.23-1.90; <i>P</i> = 0.445), tumor size (pooled SMD = 0.03; 95% CI: -0.10-0.15; <i>P</i> = 0.685), and surgical approach (open vs. non-open) (pooled OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.62-1.42; <i>P</i> = 0.763) had no relationship with PSMs. Sensitivity analysis showed that all models were stable, and no publication bias was observed in our study. <b>Conclusions:</b> The present findings demonstrate that the presence of PSMs was associated with higher Furhman grade and higher pathological stage. Additionally, non-white patients with non-ccRCC histology had a high risk of PSMs after NSS. Further multicenter and long-term follow-up studies are required to verify these findings.
Project description:Background:Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a painful, progressive tendinopathy that reportedly predominates in middle-age, overweight women. There is no evidence based guidelines that clinicians can use to guide treatment planning, which leaves clinicians to make decisions on the basis of presenting clinical impairments and self-reported pain and disability. The purpose of this systematic review was to quantify clinical impairments, pain and disability in individuals with PTTD compared with controls. Methods:Five databases were searched for terms referring to the posterior tibial tendon and flatfoot up to and including 11 March 2018. The systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD: 42016046951). Studies were eligible if they were published in the English language and contained data on clinical impairments, pain or disability compared between participants diagnosed with PTTD and pain-free individuals. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) were calculated where possible and meta-analysis was performed when homogeneity of outcomes allowed. Results:Ten eligible studies were identified and pooled in the meta-analyses. Strong effects were revealed for poor heel rise endurance (SMD -1.52, 95% CI -2.05 to -?0.99), less forefoot adduction-inversion strength (SMD -1.19, 95% CI -1.68 to -?0.71) and lower arch height (SMD -1.76, 95% CI -2.29 to -?1.23). Compared to controls, individuals with PTTD also had more self-reported stiffness (SMD 1.45, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.99), difficulties caused by foot problems (SMD 1.42, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.33) and social restrictions (SMD1.26, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.27). Conclusion:There is evidence of impaired tibialis posterior capacity and lowered arch height in individuals with PTTD compared to controls. Further to addressing the expected impairments in local tendon function and foot posture, pain, stiffness, functional limitations and social participation restrictions should be considered when managing PTTD.
Project description:According to the mechanisms of action, combination therapy of anabolic and antiresorptive agents may produce more effect for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the combination therapy of anabolic agents and bisphosphonates reports no benefit and even reduced the anabolic effects of anabolic agents. This study aims to assess the effect of combination therapy of anabolic and nonbisphosphonates antiresorptive agents in adults with osteoporosis.Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched from January 1, 1980 to November 1, 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with osteoporosis treated in combination therapy of anabolic and nonbisphosphonates antiresorptive agents compared with monotherapy of either agent alone. The primary outcome was the incidence of fractures. The secondary outcomes were the bone mineral density (BMD) changes at lumbar spine and total hip. Continuous outcomes were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI), while dichotomous outcomes were expressed as risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. I statistic (I > 50% as a threshold indicates significant heterogeneity) was used to assess the heterogeneity.A total of 10 trials with a total of 1042 patients were included. The pooled results showed that the combination therapy demonstrated a significant advantage over a monotherapy in the BMD improvement at the lumbar spine (SMD 1.18; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.72; I = 93%) and the total hip (SMD 0.89; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.29; I = 88%) and further reduce the fracture risk (RR, 0.45; 95%CI, 0.21 to 0.94; I = 0%).Low-to-moderate-quality evidence shows that the combination therapy of anabolic and nonbisphosphonates antiresorptive agents is superior to monotherapy in improving the BMD and reducing the fracture risk. However, further high methodological quality studies are needed to determine the antifracture efficacy, cost-effectiveness and safety of this strategy of combination therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To assess the effect of fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) on pain control and morphine consumption in patients with hip fracture. METHODS:We searched databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library) for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published prior to September 12, 2018. We only included hip fracture patients who received FICB versus placebo for pain control. Risk ratios (RRs), standard mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Stata 12.0 was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS:Eleven trials involving 937 patients underwent hip fracture were retrieved. FICB significantly decreased the pain intensity at 1-8 h (SMD = -1.03, 95% CI [-1.48, -0.58], P = .000), 12 h (SMD = -1.06, 95% CI [-1.36, -0.75], P = .000), 24 h (SMD = -1.14, 95% CI [-1.66, -0.62], P = .000) and 48 h (SMD = -0.96, 95% CI [-1.33, -0.60], P = .000). Moreover, FICB could reduced the total morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea (P < .05). There was no significant difference between the pain intensity at 72 h (SMD = 0.11, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.34], P = .355). CONCLUSIONS:FICB has a beneficial role in reducing pain intensity and morphine consumption after hip fracture. Moreover, FICB has morphine-sparing effects when compared with a control group. More high-quality RCTs are needed to identify the optimal technique and volume of injectate for FICB.