Comparative accuracy of CT perfusion in diagnosing acute ischemic stroke: A systematic review of 27 trials.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To systematically evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of CT perfusion (CTP), non-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) in detecting acute ischemic stroke. METHODS:We searched seven databases and screened the reference lists of the included studies. The risk of bias in the study quality was assessed using QUADASII. We produced paired forest plots in RevMan to show the variation of the sensitivity and specificity estimates together with their 95% CI. We used a hierarchical summary ROC model to summarize the sensitivity and specificity of CTP in detecting ischemic stroke. RESULTS:We identified 27 studies with a total of 2168 patients. The pooled sensitivity of CTP for acute ischemic stroke was 82% (95% CI 75-88%), and the specificity was 96% (95% CI 89-99%). CTP was more sensitive than NCCT and had a similar accuracy with CTA. There were no statistically significant differences in the sensitivity and specificity between patients who underwent CTP within 6 hours of symptom onset and beyond 6 hours after symptom onset. No adverse events were reported in the included studies. CONCLUSIONS:CTP is more accurate than NCCT and has similar accuracy to CTA in detecting acute ischemic stroke. However, the evidence is not strong. There is potential benefit of using CTP to select stroke patients for treatment, but more high-quality evidence is needed to confirm this result.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Ischemic stroke is a foremost cause for disability and death worldwide. This study is conducted in order to compare the diagnostic values between transcranial Doppler ultrasound (ultrasonography), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients suffering from ischemic stroke by performing a network meta-analysis. METHODS:We made use of Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase in order to obtain literature and papers. The combination analysis of both direct and indirect evidence in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy was conducted so as to assess the odds ratios (ORs) and surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) values of the seven different imaging methods. These imaging techniques include ultrasonography, computed tomography (traditional CT, computed tomography angiography [CTA], computed tomography perfusion [CTP]), and MRI (traditional MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], magnetic resonance angiography), in order to properly diagnose ischemic stroke patients. RESULTS:Thirteen eligible diagnostic trials were enrolled into this network meta-analysis. The results of the traditional meta-analysis showed that among CT methods, CTP showed higher sensitivity, NPV, and accuracy; among MRI methods, DWI had relatively higher sensitivity, NPV, and accuracy. The results of network meta-analysis showed that DWI had relatively higher sensitivity, NPV, and accuracy when compared with traditional CT, CTA, magnetic resonance angiography and traditional MRI. CTP showed higher SUCRA among CT methods while DWI showed higher SUCRA among MRI methods. A cluster analysis revealed that DWI had the highest diagnostic value in terms of sensitivity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy amongst the aforementioned seven imaging techniques. CONCLUSION:This network meta-analysis provides supporting evidence to the idea that DWI has a higher diagnostic value regarding ischemic stroke among MRI methods, and CTP has a poor diagnostic value among CT methods, which provide therapeutic considerations for Ischemic stroke intervention.
Project description:Imaging protocols for acute ischemic stroke varies significantly from center to center leading to challenges in research translation. We aimed to assess the inter-rater reliability of collateral grading systems derived from dynamic computed tomography angiography (CTA) and an optimized multiphase CTA and, to analyze the association of the two CTA modalities with CT perfusion (CTP) compartments by comparing the accuracy of dynamic CTA (dCTA) and optimized multiphase CTA (omCTA) in identifying CT perfusion (CTP) target mismatch patients. Acute ischemic stroke patients with a proximal large vessel occlusion who underwent whole brain CTP were included in the study. Collateral status were assessed using ASPECTS collaterals (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score on Collaterals) and ASITN/SIR collateral system (the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology) on dCTA and omCTA. Eighty-one patients were assessed, with a median ischemic core volume of 29 mL. The collateral assessment with ASPECTS collaterals using dCTA have a similar inter-rater agreement (K-alpha: 0.71) compared to omCTA (K-alpha: 0.69). However, the agreement between dCTA and CTP in classifying patients with target mismatch was higher compared to omCTA (Kappa, dCTA: 0.81; omCTA: 0.64). We found dCTA was more accurate than omCTA in identifying target mismatch patients with proximal large vessel occlusion.
Project description:Background and Purpose- Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is a useful tool in the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke, where it can provide an estimate of the ischemic core and the ischemic penumbra. The optimal CTP parameters to identify the ischemic core remain undetermined. Methods- We used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to optimally predict the ischemic core in acute stroke patients, using diffusion-weighted imaging as the gold standard. We first designed an ANN based on CTP data alone and next designed an ANN based on clinical and CTP data. Results- The ANN based on CTP data predicted the ischemic core with a mean absolute error of 13.8 mL (SD, 13.6 mL) compared with diffusion-weighted imaging. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.85. At the optimal threshold, the sensitivity for predicting the ischemic core was 0.90 and the specificity was 0.62. Combining CTP data with clinical data available at time of presentation resulted in the same mean absolute error (13.8 mL) but lower SD (12.4 mL). The area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.87, 0.91, and 0.65, respectively. The maximal Dice coefficient was 0.48 in the ANN based on CTP data exclusively. Conclusions- An ANN that integrates clinical and CTP data predicts the ischemic core with accuracy.
Project description:We investigated whether baseline CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) in acute ischemic stroke could improve prediction of infarct presence and infarct volume on follow-up imaging.We analyzed 906 patients with suspected anterior circulation stroke from the prospective multicenter Dutch acute stroke study (DUST). All patients underwent baseline non-contrast CT, CTA, and CTP and follow-up non-contrast CT/MRI after 3 days. Multivariable regression models were developed including patient characteristics and non-contrast CT, and subsequently, CTA and CTP measures were added. The increase in area under the curve (AUC) and R (2) was assessed to determine the additional value of CTA and CTP.At follow-up, 612 patients (67.5%) had a detectable infarct on CT/MRI; median infarct volume was 14.8 mL (interquartile range (IQR) 2.8-69.6). Regarding infarct presence, the AUC of 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.85) for patient characteristics and non-contrast CT was improved with addition of CTA measures (AUC 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.87); p?<?0.001) and was even higher after addition of CTP measures (AUC 0.89 (95% CI 0.87-0.91); p?<?0.001) and combined CTA/CTP measures (AUC 0.89 (95% CI 0.87-0.91); p?<?0.001). For infarct volume, adding combined CTA/CTP measures (R (2)?=?0.58) was superior to patient characteristics and non-contrast CT alone (R (2)?=?0.44) and to addition of CTA alone (R (2)?=?0.55) or CTP alone (R (2)?=?0.54; all p?<?0.001).In the acute stage, CTA and CTP have additional value over patient characteristics and non-contrast CT for predicting infarct presence and infarct volume on follow-up imaging. These findings could be applied for patient selection in future trials on ischemic stroke treatment.
Project description:The combination of coronary CT angiography (CTA) and myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) is gaining increasing acceptance, but a standardized approach to be implemented in the clinical setting is necessary.To investigate the accuracy of a combined coronary CTA and myocardial CTP comprehensive protocol compared to coronary CTA alone, using a combination of invasive coronary angiography and single photon emission CT as reference.Three hundred eighty-one patients included in the CORE320 trial were analyzed in this study. Flow-limiting stenosis was defined as the presence of ?50% stenosis by invasive coronary angiography with a related perfusion defect by single photon emission CT. The combined CTA + CTP definition of disease was the presence of a ?50% stenosis with a related perfusion defect. All data sets were analyzed by 2 experienced readers, aligning anatomic findings by CTA with perfusion defects by CTP.Mean patient age was 62 ± 6 years (66% male), 27% with prior history of myocardial infarction. In a per-patient analysis, sensitivity for CTA alone was 93%, specificity was 54%, positive predictive value was 55%, negative predictive value was 93%, and overall accuracy was 69%. After combining CTA and CTP, sensitivity was 78%, specificity was 73%, negative predictive value was 64%, positive predictive value was 0.85%, and overall accuracy was 75%. In a per-vessel analysis, overall accuracy of CTA alone was 73% compared to 79% for the combination of CTA and CTP (P < .0001 for difference).Combining coronary CTA and myocardial CTP findings through a comprehensive protocol is feasible. Although sensitivity is lower, specificity and overall accuracy are higher than assessment by coronary CTA when compared against a reference standard of stenosis with an associated perfusion defect.
Project description:Computed tomography derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) and computed tomography stress myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) are techniques to assess haemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. To compare the diagnostic performance of FFRCT and static rest/stress CTP in detecting fractional flow reserve (FFR) defined haemodynamically-significant stenosis (FFR ≤ 0.8). Fifty-one patients (96 vessels) with suspected coronary artery disease from a single institution planned for elective invasive-angiography prospectively underwent research indicated 320-detector-CT-coronary-angiography (CTA) and adenosine-stress CTP and invasive FFR. Analyses were performed in separate core-laboratories for FFRCT and CTP blinded to FFR results. Myocardial perfusion was assessed visually and semi-quantitatively by transmural perfusion ratio (TPR). Invasive FFR ≤ 0.8 was present in 33% of vessels and 49% of patients. FFRCT, visual CTP and TPR analysis was feasible in 96%, 92% and 92% of patients respectively. Overall per-vessel sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for FFRCT were 81%, 85%, 84%, for visual CTP were 50%, 89%, 75% and for TPR were 69%, 48%, 56% respectively. Receiver-operating-characteristics curve analysis demonstrated larger per vessel area-under-curve (AUC) for FFRCT (0.89) compared with visual CTP (0.70; p < 0.001), TPR (0.58; p < 0.001) and CTA (0.70; p = 0.0007); AUC for CTA + FFRCT (0.91) was higher than CTA + visual CTP (0.77, p = 0.008) and CTA + TPR (0.74, p < 0.001). Per-patient AUC for FFRCT (0.90) was higher than visual CTP (0.69; p = 0.0016), TPR (0.56; p < 0.0001) and CTA (0.68; p = 0.001). Based on this selected cohort of patients FFRCT is superior to visually and semi-quantitatively assessed static rest/stress CTP in detecting haemodynamically-significant coronary stenosis as determined on invasive FFR.
Project description:AIMS:To evaluate the diagnostic power of integrating the results of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as a flow limiting coronary artery stenosis causing a perfusion defect by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). METHODS AND RESULTS:We conducted a multicentre study to evaluate the accuracy of integrated CTA-CTP for the identification of patients with flow-limiting CAD defined by ?50% stenosis by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with a corresponding perfusion deficit on stress single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/MPI). Sixteen centres enroled 381 patients who underwent combined CTA-CTP and SPECT/MPI prior to conventional coronary angiography. All four image modalities were analysed in blinded independent core laboratories. The prevalence of obstructive CAD defined by combined ICA-SPECT/MPI and ICA alone was 38 and 59%, respectively. The patient-based diagnostic accuracy defined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of integrated CTA-CTP for detecting or excluding flow-limiting CAD was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-0.91]. In patients without prior myocardial infarction, the AUC was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94) and in patients without prior CAD the AUC for combined CTA-CTP was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89-0.97). For the combination of a CTA stenosis ?50% stenosis and a CTP perfusion deficit, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predicative values (95% CI) were 80% (72-86), 74% (68-80), 65% (58-72), and 86% (80-90), respectively. For flow-limiting disease defined by ICA-SPECT/MPI, the accuracy of CTA was significantly increased by the addition of CTP at both the patient and vessel levels. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of CTA and perfusion correctly identifies patients with flow limiting CAD defined as ?50 stenosis by ICA causing a perfusion defect by SPECT/MPI.
Project description:We present a novel One-Step-Stroke protocol for wide-detector CT scanners that interleaves cerebral CTP with volumetric neck CTA (vCTA). We evaluate whether the resulting time gap in CTP affects the accuracy of CTP values.Cerebral CTP maps were retrospectively obtained from 20 patients with suspicion of acute ischemic stroke and served as the reference standard. To simulate a 4 s gap for interleaving CTP with vCTA, we eliminated one acquisition at various time points of CTP starting from the bolus-arrival-time(BAT). Optimal timing of the vCTA was evaluated. At the time point with least errors, we evaluated elimination of a second time point (6 s gap).Mean absolute percentage errors of all perfusion values remained below 10 % in all patients when eliminating any one time point in the CTP sequence starting from the BAT. Acquiring the vCTA 2 s after reaching a threshold of 70HU resulted in the lowest errors (mean <3.0 %). Eliminating a second time point still resulted in mean errors <3.5 %. CBF/CBV showed no significant differences in perfusion values except MTT. However, the percentage errors were always below 10 % compared to the original protocol.Interleaving cerebral CTP with neck CTA is feasible with minor effects on the perfusion values.• Removing a single CTP acquisition has minor effects on calculated perfusion values • Calculated perfusion values errors depend on timing of skipping a CTP acquisition • Qualitative evaluation of CTP was not influenced by removing two time points • Neck CTA is optimally timed in the upslope of arterial enhancement.
Project description:To evaluate whether the use of multiphase CT angiography (CTA) improves interrater agreement for intracranial occlusion detection between stroke neurology trainees and an expert neuroradiologist.A neuroradiologist and 2 stroke neurology fellows independently reviewed 100 prospectively collected single-phase and multiphase CTA scans from acute ischemic stroke patients with mild symptoms (NIH Stroke Scale score ?5). The presence and location of a vascular occlusion(s) were documented. Interrater agreement single- and multiphase CTA was quantified using unweighted ? statistics. We assessed for any occlusions, anterior vs posterior occlusions, and pial vessel asymmetry.Using multiphase CTA, the neuroradiologist detected 50 scans with anterior circulation occlusions and 15 scans with posterior circulation occlusions. Median reading time was 2 minutes per scan. Median reading time for the neurologists was 3 minutes per multiphase CTA scan. Interrater agreement was fair between the 2 neurologists and neuroradiologist when using single-phase CTA (? = 0.45 and 0.32). Agreement improved minimally when stratified by anterior vs posterior circulation. When using multiphase CTA, agreement was high for detection of occlusion or asymmetry of pial vessels in the anterior circulation (? = 0.80 and 0.84).Multiphase CTA improves diagnostic accuracy in minor ischemic stroke for detection of anterior circulation intracranial occlusion.This study provides Class II evidence that multiphase CTA, compared to single-phase CTA, improves the interrater agreement between stroke neurology trainees and an expert neuroradiologist for detecting anterior circulation intracranial vascular occlusion in patients with minor acute ischemic strokes.
Project description:Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) is given in acute ischemic stroke patients to achieve reperfusion. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a serious complication of IV-rtPA treatment and related to blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury. It is unclear whether HT occurs secondary to reperfusion in combination with ischemic BBB injury or is caused by the negative effect of IV-rtPA on BBB integrity. The aim of this study was to establish the association between reperfusion and the occurrence of HT.From the DUST study, patients were selected with admission and follow-up non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CT perfusion (CTP) imaging, and a perfusion deficit in the middle cerebral artery territory on admission. Reperfusion was categorized qualitatively as reperfusion or no-reperfusion by visual comparison of admission and follow-up CTP. Occurrence of HT was assessed on follow-up NCCT. The association between reperfusion and occurrence of HT on follow-up was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) with additional stratification for IV-rtPA treatment.Inclusion criteria were met in 299 patients. There was no significant association between reperfusion and HT (OR 1.2 95%CI 0.5-3.1). In patients treated with IV-rtPA (n?=?203), the OR was 1.3 (95%CI 0.4-4.0), and in patients not treated with IV-rtPA (n?=?96), the OR was 0.8 (95%CI 0.1-4.5). HT occurred in 14 % of the IV-rtPA patients and in 7 % of patients without IV-rtPA (95%CI of difference -1 to 14 %).Our results suggest that the increased risk of HT after acute ischemic stroke treatment is not dependent on the reperfusion status.