Regulation of DNA demethylation by the XPC DNA repair complex in somatic and pluripotent stem cells.
ABSTRACT: Faithful resetting of the epigenetic memory of a somatic cell to a pluripotent state during cellular reprogramming requires DNA methylation to silence somatic gene expression and dynamic DNA demethylation to activate pluripotency gene transcription. The removal of methylated cytosines requires the base excision repair enzyme TDG, but the mechanism by which TDG-dependent DNA demethylation occurs in a rapid and site-specific manner remains unclear. Here we show that the XPC DNA repair complex is a potent accelerator of global and locus-specific DNA demethylation in somatic and pluripotent stem cells. XPC cooperates with TDG genome-wide to stimulate the turnover of essential intermediates by overcoming slow TDG-abasic product dissociation during active DNA demethylation. We further establish that DNA demethylation induced by XPC expression in somatic cells overcomes an early epigenetic barrier in cellular reprogramming and facilitates the generation of more robust induced pluripotent stem cells, characterized by enhanced pluripotency-associated gene expression and self-renewal capacity. Taken together with our previous studies establishing the XPC complex as a transcriptional coactivator, our findings underscore two distinct but complementary mechanisms by which XPC influences gene regulation by coordinating efficient TDG-mediated DNA demethylation along with active transcription during somatic cell reprogramming.
Project description:A few central transcription factors inside mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are believed to control the cells' pluripotency. Characterizations of pluripotent state were put forward on both transcription factor and epigenetic levels. Whereas core players have been identified, it is desirable to map out gene regulatory networks which govern the reprogramming of somatic cells as well as the early developmental decisions. Here we propose a multiple level model where the regulatory network of Oct4, Nanog and Tet1 includes positive feedback loops involving DNA-demethylation around the promoters of Oct4 and Tet1. We put forward a mechanistic understanding of the regulatory dynamics which account for i) Oct4 overexpression is sufficient to induce pluripotency in somatic cell types expressing the other Yamanaka reprogramming factors endogenously; ii) Tet1 can replace Oct4 in reprogramming cocktail; iii) Nanog is not necessary for reprogramming however its over-expression leads to enhanced self-renewal; iv) DNA methylation is the key to the regulation of pluripotency genes; v) Lif withdrawal leads to loss of pluripotency. Overall, our paper proposes a novel framework combining transcription regulation with DNA methylation modifications which, takes into account the multi-layer nature of regulatory mechanisms governing pluripotency acquisition through reprogramming.
Project description:Tet-mediated DNA oxidation is a new type of epigenetic modification in mammals and its role in the regulation of cell fate transition remains poorly understood. Here, we derive mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deleted in all three Tet genes and examine their capability to be reprogrammed into iPS cells. We demonstrate that these Tet-deficient MEFs cannot be reprogrammed due to a blockage in the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Reprogramming of MEFs deficient in TDG is similarly blocked. The blockage is caused by impaired activation of crucial microRNAs, which depends on oxidative demethylation promoted by Tet and TDG. Reintroduction of either miR-200c or catalytically active Tet and TDG restores reprogramming to the respective knockout MEFs. Thus, oxidative demethylation is essential for somatic cell reprogramming. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the operation of epigenetic barriers in cell lineage conversion. Reduced Representation Bisulfite (RRBS, MspI,~75-400bp size fraction) and Tet-Assisted RRBS (TARRBS) of MEFs & reprogramming MEFs at Day 5
Project description:Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using the pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (together referred to as OSKM). iPSC reprogramming erases somatic epigenetic signatures—as typified by DNA methylation or histone modification at silent pluripotency loci—and establishes alternative epigenetic marks of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here we describe an early and essential stage of somatic cell reprogramming, preceding the induction of transcription at endogenous pluripotency loci such as Nanog and Esrrb. By day 4 after transduction with OSKM, two epigenetic modification factors necessary for iPSC generation, namely poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp1) and ten-eleven translocation-2 (Tet2), are recruited to the Nanog and Esrrb loci. These epigenetic modification factors seem to have complementary roles in the establishment of early epigenetic marks during somatic cell reprogramming: Parp1 functions in the regulation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) modification, whereas Tet2 is essential for the early generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the oxidation of 5mC (refs 3,4). Although 5hmC has been proposed to serve primarily as an intermediate in 5mC demethylation to cytosine in certain contexts, our data, and also studies of Tet2-mutant human tumour cells, argue in favour of a role for 5hmC as an epigenetic mark distinct from 5mC. Consistent with this, Parp1 and Tet2 are each needed for the early establishment of histone modifications that typify an activated chromatin state at pluripotency loci, whereas Parp1 induction further promotes accessibility to the Oct4 reprogramming factor. These findings suggest that Parp1 and Tet2 contribute to an epigenetic program that directs subsequent transcriptional induction at pluripotency loci during somatic cell reprogramming.
Project description:The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID; also known as AICDA) enzyme is required for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination at the immunoglobulin locus. In germinal-centre B cells, AID is highly expressed, and has an inherent mutator activity that helps generate antibody diversity. However, AID may also regulate gene expression epigenetically by directly deaminating 5-methylcytosine in concert with base-excision repair to exchange cytosine. This pathway promotes gene demethylation, thereby removing epigenetic memory. For example, AID promotes active demethylation of the genome in primordial germ cells. However, different studies have suggested either a requirement or a lack of function for AID in promoting pluripotency in somatic nuclei after fusion with embryonic stem cells. Here we tested directly whether AID regulates epigenetic memory by comparing the relative ability of cells lacking AID to reprogram from a differentiated murine cell type to an induced pluripotent stem cell. We show that Aid-null cells are transiently hyper-responsive to the reprogramming process. Although they initiate expression of pluripotency genes, they fail to stabilize in the pluripotent state. The genome of Aid-null cells remains hypermethylated in reprogramming cells, and hypermethylated genes associated with pluripotency fail to be stably upregulated, including many MYC target genes. Recent studies identified a late step of reprogramming associated with methylation status, and implicated a secondary set of pluripotency network components. AID regulates this late step, removing epigenetic memory to stabilize the pluripotent state.
Project description:A dramatic difference in global DNA methylation between male and female cells characterizes mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), unlike somatic cells. We analyzed DNA methylation changes during reprogramming of male and female somatic cells and in resulting induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). At an intermediate reprogramming stage, somatic and pluripotency enhancers are targeted for partial methylation and demethylation. Demethylation within pluripotency enhancers often occurs at ESC binding sites of pluripotency transcription factors. Late in reprogramming, global hypomethylation is induced in a female-specific manner. Genome-wide hypomethylation in female cells affects many genomic landmarks, including enhancers and imprint control regions, and accompanies the reactivation of the inactive X chromosome. The loss of one of the two X chromosomes in propagating female iPSCs is associated with genome-wide methylation gain. Collectively, our findings highlight the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation at enhancers during reprogramming and reveal that X chromosome dosage dictates global DNA methylation levels in iPSCs.
Project description:Global demethylation is part of a conserved program of epigenetic reprogramming to naive pluripotency. The transition from primed hypermethylated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to naive hypomethylated ones (serum-to-2i) is a valuable model system for epigenetic reprogramming. We present a mathematical model, which accurately predicts global DNA demethylation kinetics. Experimentally, we show that the main drivers of global demethylation are neither active mechanisms (Aicda, Tdg, and Tet1-3) nor the reduction of de novo methylation. UHRF1 protein, the essential targeting factor for DNMT1, is reduced upon transition to 2i, and so is recruitment of the maintenance methylation machinery to replication foci. Concurrently, there is global loss of H3K9me2, which is needed for chromatin binding of UHRF1. These mechanisms synergistically enforce global DNA hypomethylation in a replication-coupled fashion. Our observations establish the molecular mechanism for global demethylation in naive ESCs, which has key parallels with those operating in primordial germ cells and early embryos.
Project description:The study examines the impact of XPC overexpression on DNA demethylation in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and during the early phase of somatic cell reprogramming (pre-iPSCs). We profiled the 5mC status in wild type and XPC gain-of-function HDFs and pre-iPSCs on a genome-wide scale by MeDIP-seq. XPC overexpression results in a loss of DNA methylation in both HDFs and pre-iPSCs. In XPC gain-of-function cells, not only does DNA methylation occur in fewer regions compared to control WT cells, but overall methylation levels are lower than in WT cells. Overall design: MeDIP-seq of wild type and XPC-overexpressing HDFs and pre-iPSCs (7 days into reprogramming). We prepared libraries from each MeDIP input as a control. No sample DNA was recovered for IgG IPs, indicating very little background binding was occurring.
Project description:Reprogramming to pluripotency after overexpression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC is accompanied by global genomic and epigenomic changes. Histone modification and DNA methylation states in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to be highly similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, epigenetic differences still exist between iPSCs and ESCs. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation states found in iPSCs are a major concern when using iPSCs in a clinical setting. Thus, it is critical to find factors that regulate DNA methylation states in reprogramming. Here, we found that the miR-29 family is an important epigenetic regulator during human somatic cell reprogramming. Our global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation analysis shows that DNA demethylation is a major event mediated by miR-29a depletion during early reprogramming, and that iPSCs derived from miR-29a depletion are epigenetically closer to ESCs. Our findings uncover an important miRNA-based approach to generate clinically robust iPSCs.
Project description:Reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei to yield induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells makes possible derivation of patient-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine. However, iPS cell generation is asynchronous and slow (2-3 weeks), the frequency is low (<0.1%), and DNA demethylation constitutes a bottleneck. To determine regulatory mechanisms involved in reprogramming, we generated interspecies heterokaryons (fused mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and human fibroblasts) that induce reprogramming synchronously, frequently and fast. Here we show that reprogramming towards pluripotency in single heterokaryons is initiated without cell division or DNA replication, rapidly (1 day) and efficiently (70%). Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown showed that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, also known as AICDA) is required for promoter demethylation and induction of OCT4 (also known as POU5F1) and NANOG gene expression. AID protein bound silent methylated OCT4 and NANOG promoters in fibroblasts, but not active demethylated promoters in ES cells. These data provide new evidence that mammalian AID is required for active DNA demethylation and initiation of nuclear reprogramming towards pluripotency in human somatic cells.
Project description:Global demethylation is required for early zygote development to establish stem cell pluripotency, yet our findings reiterate this epigenetic reprogramming event in somatic cells through ectopic introduction of mir-302 function. Here, we report that induced mir-302 expression beyond 1.3-fold of the concentration in human embryonic stem (hES) H1 and H9 cells led to reprogramming of human hair follicle cells (hHFCs) to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. This reprogramming mechanism functioned through mir-302-targeted co-suppression of four epigenetic regulators, AOF2 (also known as KDM1 or LSD1), AOF1, MECP1-p66 and MECP2. Silencing AOF2 also caused DNMT1 deficiency and further enhanced global demethylation during somatic cell reprogramming (SCR) of hHFCs. Re-supplementing AOF2 in iPS cells disrupted such global demethylation and induced cell differentiation. Given that both hES and iPS cells highly express mir-302, our findings suggest a novel link between zygotic reprogramming and SCR, providing a regulatory mechanism responsible for global demethylation in both events. As the mechanism of conventional iPS cell induction methods remains largely unknown, understanding this microRNA (miRNA)-mediated SCR mechanism may shed light on the improvements of iPS cell generation.