Short-term changes in the health state of children with group B meningococcal disease: A prospective, national cohort study.
ABSTRACT: The short-term impact of childhood invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) on quality-of-life (QoL) remains largely unquantified. This study aimed to quantify QoL loss at the point when illness was at its worst, and assess health state recovery in the months following illness.Parents of children aged <16 years with laboratory-confirmed meningococcal group B (MenB) disease in England, with onset dates from November 2012 to May 2013 were asked to complete a short questionnaire, which included EQ-5DY, a version of EQ-5D for 8-15 year-olds. The parents, or child if able, were asked to complete the questionnaires while considering the child's health on the worst day of illness and on the date the questionnaires were completed.The overall response rate was 43% (109/254 children), with no significant differences between respondents and non-respondents. The median time from disease onset to questionnaire completion was 134 days (interquartile range (IQR), 92 to 156 days). After imputation, the median health index was -0.056 (IQR, -0.073 to 0.102) on the worst day of illness, and 1 (IQR 0.866 to 1.000) on the date of questionnaire completion. The respective Visual Analogue Scores (VAS) were 6.5/100.0 (IQR, 0.0 to 20.0) and 95.0/100.0 (IQR, 90.0 to 100.0). The health state of cases with long-term sequelae (n = 41) was significantly worse at follow-up than those who recovered uneventfully (n = 64; 90.0 vs. 98.0; p<0.001), although there was no significant difference on the worst day of illness (5.0 vs. 10.0; p = 0.671).This work has provided, for the first time, a quantitative estimate of QoL loss at the peak of illness and in the months after MenB disease in children. The magnitude of QoL loss is staggering, with the reported health state being at, or close to, the worst possible outcome imaginable. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring the impact of illness in young children, who often have the highest burden of potentially preventable infectious diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Value assessment of vaccination programs against serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is on the agenda of public health authorities. Current evidence on the burden due to IMD is unfit for pinning down the nature and magnitude of the full social and economic costs of IMD for two reasons. First, the concepts and components that need to be studied are not agreed, and second, measures of the concepts that have been studied are weak and inconsistent. Thus, the economic evaluation of the available serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines is difficult. The aims of this DELPHI study are to: (1) agree on the concepts and components determining the burden of MenB diseases that need to be studied; and (2) seek consensus on appropriate methods and study designs to measure quality of life (QoL) associated with MenB induced long-term sequelae in future studies. METHODS:We designed a DELPHI questionnaire based on the findings of a recent systematic review on the QoL associated with IMD-induced long-term sequelae, and iteratively interviewed a panel of international experts, including physicians, health economists, and patient representatives. Experts were provided with a controlled feedback based on the results of the previous round. RESULTS:Experts reached consensus on all questions after two DELPHI rounds. Major gaps in the literature relate (i) to the classification of sequelae, which allows differentiation of severity levels, (ii) to the choice of QoL measures, and (iii) to appropriate data sources to examine long-term changes and deficits in patients' QoL. CONCLUSIONS:Better conceptualisation of the structure of IMD-specific sequelae and of how their diverse forms of severity might impact the QoL of survivors of IMD as well as their family network and care-providers is needed to generate relevant, reliable and generalisable data on QoL in the future. The results of this DELPHI panel provide useful guidance on how to choose the study design, target population and appropriate QoL measures for future research and hence, help promote the appropriateness and consistency in study methodology and sample characteristics.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In January 2013 a novel type of multicomponent protein-based vaccine against group B meningococcal disease was licensed by the European Medicines Agency. With the widespread use of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines, serogroup B remains now the major cause of bacterial meningitis and septicaemia in young children in Europe. The aim of this study is to investigate the health and the economic outcomes of MenB vaccine introduction into the Italian routine mass vaccination programme. METHODS:The present work is structured in two main parts. Firstly, we assess the epidemiological burden of group B meningococcal disease using official hospitalisation and notification data from two of the most populated Italian regions (Lombardia and Piemonte) during a 6-year study period (2007-2012). Secondly, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the immunisation programme in Italy from the public health payer perspective under base case parameters assumptions and performing a comprehensive sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness and the uncertainty of our model results. RESULTS:MenB serotype is responsible for 59% of the 341 cases of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Lombardia and Piemonte. Incidence rate for MenB infection is estimated to be 0.21/100,000/y resulting at the highest level in children ?4 years of age. Although the new MenB vaccine can potentially prevent about one third of the disease cases in the Italian population, model results show this strategy is unlikely to be cost-effective (ICER value over €350,000/QALY) with a vaccine that prevents disease only. These results are robust under most of the sensitivity scenarios except when allowing for lower discount rates. DISCUSSION:The introduction of the novel vaccine into the routine immunisation schedule needs to be carefully evaluated. The new MenB vaccine has the potential to reduce the disease burden at the population level. However, from the Italian Health Service perspective, the immunisation programme is unlikely to be cost-effective at the current incidence levels and vaccine price.
Project description:(1) To explore existing knowledge of, and attitudes, to group B meningococcal disease and serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine among parents of young children. (2) To seek views on their information needs.Cross-sectional qualitative study using individual and group interviews conducted in February and March 2015, prior to the introduction of MenB vaccine (Bexsero) into the UK childhood immunisation schedule.Community centres, mother and toddler groups, parents' homes and workplaces in London and Yorkshire.60 parents of children under 2?years of age recruited via mother and baby groups and via an advert posted to a midwife-led Facebook group.Although recognising the severity of meningitis and septicaemia, parents' knowledge of group B meningococcal disease and MenB vaccine was poor. While nervous about fever, most said they would take their child for MenB vaccination despite its link to fever. Most parents had liquid paracetamol at home. Many were willing to administer it after MenB vaccination as a preventive measure, although some had concerns. There were mixed views on the acceptability of four vaccinations at the 12-month booster visit; some preferred one visit, while others favoured spreading the vaccines over two visits. Parents were clear on the information they required before attending the immunisation appointment.The successful implementation of the MenB vaccination programme depends on its acceptance by parents. In view of parents' recognition of the severity of meningitis and septicaemia, and successful introduction of other vaccines to prevent bacterial meningitis and septicaemia, the MenB vaccination programme is likely to be successful. However, the need for additional injections, the likelihood of post-immunisation fever and its management are issues about which parents will need information and reassurance from healthcare professionals. Public Health England has developed written information for parents, informed by these findings.
Project description:Meningococcal disease is rare, easily misdiagnosed, and potentially deadly. Diagnosis in the early stages is difficult and the disease often progresses extremely rapidly. In North America, the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is highest in infants and young children, with a secondary peak in adolescents, a population predominantly responsible for the carriage of disease. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) accounts for a large proportion of meningococcal disease in North America, with documented outbreaks in three universities in the United States (US) during 2008-2013. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against this aggressive disease that has a narrow timeframe for diagnosis and treatment. 4CMenB is a multi-component vaccine against MenB which contains four antigenic components. We describe in detail the immunogenicity and safety profile of 4CMenB based on results from four clinical trials; the use of 4CMenB to control MenB outbreaks involving vaccination at two US colleges during outbreaks in 2013-2014; and the use of 4CMenB in a Canadian mass vaccination campaign to control the spread of MenB disease. We discuss the reasons why adolescents should be vaccinated against MenB, by examining both the peak in disease incidence and carriage. We consider whether herd protection may be attained for MenB, by discussing published models and comparing with meningitis C (MenC) vaccines. In conclusion, MenB vaccines are now available in the US for people aged 10-25 years, representing an important opportunity to reduce the incidence of IMD in the country across the whole population, and more locally to combat MenB outbreaks.
Project description:To study whether the circadian variation of plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, with high morning levels, is associated with poor outcome of children with meningococcal sepsis presenting in the morning hours.Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical and laboratory data.Single center study at Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.184 patients aged 3 weeks to 18 years with meningococcal sepsis. In 36 of these children, PAI-1 levels at admission to the PICU were measured in plasma by ELISA.None.Circadian variation was studied by dividing one day in blocks of 6 hours. Patients admitted between 6:00 am and 12:00 am had increased illness severity scores and higher PAI-1 levels (n = 9, median 6912 ng/mL, IQR 5808-15600) compared to patients admitted at night (P = 0.019, n = 9, median 3546 ng/mL, IQR 1668-6118) or in the afternoon (P = 0.007, n = 7, median 4224 ng/mL, IQR 1804-5790). In 184 patients, analysis of circadian variation in relation to outcome showed more deaths, amputations and need for skin grafts in patients admitted to the PICU between 6:00 am and 12:00 am than patients admitted during the rest of the day (P = 0.009).Circadian variation of PAI-1 levels is present in children with meningococcal sepsis and is associated with illness severity, with a peak level in the morning. Whether circadian variation is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in meningococcal sepsis needs to be explored in future studies.
Project description:We examined the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) between epidemiological year (EY) 1996/1997 and EY2015/2016. Over the 20 EYs, 3707 cases were reported with annual incidence rates per 100 000 peaking at 11.6 in EY1999/2000, decreasing significantly to 1.5 in EY2015/2016. The highest disease burden was in infants and children <5, whereas adults aged ⩾65 years experienced the highest case fatality ratio (CFR) of 15.7% but over the study period the median annual CFR remained low (4.4%). Meningococcal serogroup B (menB) dominated (78%), followed by menC (17%), menW (1%) and menY (1%). The incidence of menC IMD declined significantly in all age groups after menC vaccine introduction in 2000. MenB incidence also declined over the 20 EYs with decreasing trends in all age groups under 65, including an almost 50% decrease in infants over the final four EYs. IMD incidence in the ROI has declined, partly attributable to menC vaccination success, coupled with a spontaneous decline in menB. However, recent gradual increases in non-menB IMD and the introduction of vaccines targeting menB demand continued detailed surveillance to accurately monitor trends and to assess vaccine impact.
Project description:MenB-FHbp is a recombinant meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) vaccine composed of 2 factor H binding proteins (FHbps). Meningococcal vaccines targeting polysaccharide serogroup A, C, Y, and W capsules were licensed upon confirmation of bactericidal antibody induction after initial efficacy studies with serogroup A and C vaccines. Unlike meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines, wherein single strains demonstrated bactericidal antibodies per serogroup for each vaccine, MenB-FHbp required a more robust approach to demonstrate that bactericidal antibody induction could kill strains with diverse FHbp sequences. Serum bactericidal assays using human complement were developed for 14 MenB strains, representing breadth of meningococcal FHbp diversity of ~80% of circulating MenB strains. This work represents an innovative approach to license a non-toxin protein vaccine with 2 antigens representing a single virulence factor by an immune correlate, and uniquely demonstrates that such a vaccine provides coverage across bacterial strains by inducing broadly protective antibodies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the US, Meningococcal B (MenB) vaccines were first licensed in 2014. In 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that parents of teens talk to their provider about receiving MenB vaccine, rather than issuing a routine recommendation. We assessed parental awareness of MenB vaccines and willingness to vaccinate their teens with MenB vaccines compared to MenACWY vaccines, which have been routinely recommended for many years. METHODS:We surveyed parents of teens attending high school in 2017-18 during the Minnesota State Fair. Parents reported via iPad their knowledge of and concern about meningococcal disease and their awareness of and willingness to vaccinate with MenB and MenACWY vaccines. We assessed the relationship between meningococcal disease knowledge and concern, MenB and MenACWY vaccine awareness, and willingness to vaccinate with MenB and MenACWY using adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS:Among 445 parents, the majority had not heard of the newly introduced MenB vaccines Bexsero® (80.0%; 95% CI: 76.0-83.6) or Trumenba® (82.0%; 95% CI: 78.1-85.5) or the MenACWY vaccines Menactra® or Menveo® (68.8%; 95% CI: 64.2-73.0). The majority were at least somewhat willing to vaccinate their teen with MenB vaccine (89.6%; 95% CI: 86.5, 92.3) and MenACWY vaccine (91.2%; 95% CI: 88.2, 93.7). Awareness of MenB vaccines (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-12.2) and concern about meningococcal disease (OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5-6.3) were significantly associated with willingness to vaccinate with MenB vaccine. CONCLUSIONS:Awareness of MenB vaccine is lacking among parents of teens but is an important predictor of willingness to vaccinate with the newly licensed MenB vaccines.
Project description:Two serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines are currently licensed for use in persons aged 10-25 years in the United States. The two vaccines are MenB-FHbp (Trumenba, Pfizer, Inc.) (1) and MenB-4C (Bexsero, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Inc.) (2). In February 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of MenB vaccines among certain groups of persons aged ≥10 years who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease* (Category A) (3), and in June 2015, ACIP recommended that adolescents and young adults aged 16-23 years may be vaccinated with MenB vaccines to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease (Category B†) (4). Consistent with the original Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensure for the two available MenB vaccines, ACIP recommended either a 3-dose series of MenB-FHbp or a 2-dose series of MenB-4C. Either MenB vaccine can be used when indicated; ACIP does not state a product preference. The two MenB vaccines are not interchangeable; the same vaccine product must be used for all doses in a series. In April 2016, changes to the dosage and administration of MenB-FHbp were approved by FDA to allow for both a 2-dose series (administered at 0 and 6 months) and a 3-dose series (administered at 0, 1-2, and 6 months) (5,6). In addition, the package insert now states that the choice of dosing schedule depends on the patient's risk for exposure and susceptibility to serogroup B meningococcal disease. These recommendations are regarding use of the 2- and 3-dose schedules of MenB-FHbp vaccine (Trumenba) and replace previous ACIP recommendations for use of MenB-FHbp vaccine published in 2015 (3,4). Recommendations regarding use of MenB-4C (Bexsero) are unchanged (3,4).
Project description:The etiology of bacterial meningitis in Turkey changed after the implementation of conjugated vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in the Turkish National Immunization Program (NIP). Administration of Hib vaccine and PCV-7 (7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) was implemented in NIP in 2006 and 2009, respectively. In 2011, PCV-7 was replaced with PCV-13. Meningococcal vaccines have not yet been included in Turkish NIP. This prospective study comprised 27 hospitals located in seven regions of Turkey and represented 45% of the population. Children aged between 1?month and 18?years who were hospitalized with suspected meningitis were included. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected, and bacterial identification was made according to the multiplex PCR assay results. During the study period, 994 children were hospitalized for suspected meningitis, and Hib (n?=?3, 2.4%), S. pneumoniae (n?=?33, 26.4%), and Neisseria meningitidis (n?=?89, 71%) were detected in 125 samples. The most common meningococcal serogroup was MenB. Serogroup W comprised 13.9% (n?=?5) and 7.5% (n?=?4) of the meningococci in 2015 to 2016 and 2017 to 2018, respectively. Serogroup C was not detected. There were four deaths in the study; one was a pneumococcus case, and the others were serogroup B meningococcus cases. The epidemiology of meningococcal diseases has varied over time in Turkey. Differing from the previous surveillance periods, MenB was the most common serogroup in the 2015-to-2018 period. Meningococcal epidemiology is so dynamic that, for vaccination policies, close monitoring is crucial.IMPORTANCE Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is one of the most common life-threatening infections in children. The incidence and prevalence of ABM vary both geographically and temporally; therefore, surveillance systems are necessary to determine the accurate burden of ABM. The Turkish Meningitis Surveillance Group has been performing a hospital-based meningitis surveillance study since 2005 across several regions in Turkey. Meningococcus was the major ABM-causing agent during the 2015-to-2018 period, during which MenB was the dominant serogroup.