Inhibition of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 by sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate rapidly corrects metabolism and restores function in the diabetic heart following hypoxia/reoxygenation.
ABSTRACT: The type 2 diabetic heart oxidizes more fat and less glucose, which can impair metabolic flexibility and function. Increased sarcolemmal fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) imports more fatty acid into the diabetic myocardium, feeding increased fatty acid oxidation and elevated lipid deposition. Unlike other metabolic modulators that target mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we proposed that pharmacologically inhibiting fatty acid uptake, as the primary step in the pathway, would provide an alternative mechanism to rebalance metabolism and prevent lipid accumulation following hypoxic stress.Hearts from type 2 diabetic and control male Wistar rats were perfused in normoxia, hypoxia and reoxygenation, with the FAT/CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO) infused 4?min before hypoxia. SSO infusion into diabetic hearts decreased the fatty acid oxidation rate by 29% and myocardial triglyceride concentration by 48% compared with untreated diabetic hearts, restoring fatty acid metabolism to control levels following hypoxia-reoxygenation. SSO infusion increased the glycolytic rate by 46% in diabetic hearts during hypoxia, increased pyruvate dehydrogenase activity by 53% and decreased lactate efflux rate by 56% compared with untreated diabetic hearts during reoxygenation. In addition, SSO treatment of diabetic hearts increased intermediates within the second span of the Krebs cycle, namely fumarate, oxaloacetate, and the FAD total pool. The cardiac dysfunction in diabetic hearts following decreased oxygen availability was prevented by SSO-infusion prior to the hypoxic stress. Infusing SSO into diabetic hearts increased rate pressure product by 60% during hypoxia and by 32% following reoxygenation, restoring function to control levels.Diabetic hearts have limited metabolic flexibility and cardiac dysfunction when stressed, which can be rapidly rectified by reducing fatty acid uptake with the FAT/CD36 inhibitor, SSO. This novel therapeutic approach not only reduces fat oxidation but also lipotoxicity, by targeting the primary step in the fatty acid metabolism pathway.
Project description:FAT/CD36 is a multifunctional glycoprotein that facilitates long-chain fatty acid (FA) uptake by cardiomyocytes and adipocytes and uptake of oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) by macrophages. CD36 also mediates FA-induced signaling to increase intracellular calcium in various cell types. The membrane-impermeable sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) ester of oleate (SSO) irreversibly binds CD36 and has been widely used to inhibit CD36-dependent FA uptake and signaling to calcium. The inhibition mechanism and whether SSO modification of CD36 involves the FA-binding site remain unexplored. CHO cells expressing human CD36 were SSO-treated, and the protein was pulled down, deglycosylated, and resolved by electrophoresis. The CD36 band was extracted from the gel and digested for analysis by mass spectrometry. NHS derivatives react with primary or secondary amines on proteins to yield stable amide or imide bonds. Two oleoylated peptides, found only in SSO-treated samples, were identified with high contribution and confidence scores as carrying oleate modification of Lys-164. Lysine 164 lies within a predicted CD36 binding domain for FA and oxLDL. CHO cells expressing CD36 with mutated Lys-164 had impaired CD36 function in FA uptake and FA-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, supporting the importance of Lys-164 for both FA effects. Furthermore, consistent with the importance of Lys-164 for oxLDL binding, SSO inhibited oxLDL uptake by macrophages. In conclusion, SSO accesses Lys-164 in the FA-binding site on CD36, and initial modeling of this site is presented. The data suggest competition between FA and oxLDL for access to the CD36 binding pocket.
Project description:The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)-mediated metabolic remodeling in cardiac adaptation to hypoxia has yet to be defined. Here, mice were housed in hypoxia for 3 wk before in vivo contractile function was measured using cine MRI. In isolated, perfused hearts, energetics were measured using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation were measured using [(3)H] labeling. Compared with a normoxic, chow-fed control mouse heart, hypoxia decreased PPAR? expression, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) levels, while increasing glycolysis, all of which served to maintain normal ATP concentrations ([ATP]) and thereby, ejection fractions. A high-fat diet increased cardiac PPAR? expression, fatty acid oxidation, and UCP3 levels with decreased glycolysis. Hypoxia was unable to alter the high PPAR? expression or reverse the metabolic changes caused by the high-fat diet, with the result that [ATP] and contractile function decreased significantly. The adaptive metabolic changes caused by hypoxia in control mouse hearts were found to have occurred already in PPAR?-deficient (PPAR?(-/-)) mouse hearts and sustained function in hypoxia despite an inability for further metabolic remodeling. We conclude that decreased cardiac PPAR? expression is essential for adaptive metabolic remodeling in hypoxia, but is prevented by dietary fat.-Cole, M. A., Abd Jamil, A. H., Heather, L. C., Murray, A. J., Sutton, E. R., Slingo, M., Sebag-Montefiore, L., Tan, S. C., Aksentijevi?, D., Gildea, O. S., Stuckey, D. J., Yeoh, K. K., Carr, C. A., Evans, R. D., Aasum, E., Schofield, C. J., Ratcliffe, P. J., Neubauer, S., Robbins, P. A., Clarke, K. On the pivotal role of PPAR? in adaptation of the heart to hypoxia and why fat in the diet increases hypoxic injury.
Project description:Changes in cardiac substrate utilisation leading to altered energy metabolism may underlie the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We studied cardiomyocyte substrate uptake and utilisation and the role of the fatty acid translocase CD36 in relation to in vivo cardiac function in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD).Rats were exposed to an HFD or a low-fat diet (LFD). In vivo cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography. Substrate uptake and utilisation were determined in isolated cardiomyocytes.Feeding an HFD for 8 weeks induced left ventricular dilation in the systolic phase and decreased fractional shortening and the ejection fraction. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and proline-rich Akt substrate 40 phosphorylation were 41% (p < 0.001) and 45% (p < 0.05) lower, respectively, in cardiomyocytes from rats on the HFD. However, long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake was 1.4-fold increased (p < 0.001) and LCFA esterification into triacylglycerols and phospholipids was increased 1.4- and 1.5-fold, respectively (both p < 0.05), in cardiomyocytes from HFD compared with LFD hearts. In the presence of the CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate, LCFA uptake and esterification were similar in LFD and HFD cardiomyocytes. In HFD hearts CD36 was relocated to the sarcolemma, and basal phosphorylation of a mediator of CD36-trafficking, i.e. protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), was increased.Feeding rats an HFD induced cardiac contractile dysfunction, which was accompanied by the relocation of CD36 to the sarcolemma, and elevated basal levels of phosphorylated PKB/Akt. The permanent presence of CD36 at the sarcolemma resulted in enhanced rates of LCFA uptake and myocardial triacylglycerol accumulation, and may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Long-chain fatty acids are an important source of energy for several cell types, in particular for the heart muscle cell. Three different proteins, fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, fatty acid transport protein and plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, have been identified as possible membrane fatty acid transporters. Much information has been accumulated recently about the fatty acid transporting function of FAT/CD36. Several experimental models to study the influence of altered FAT/CD36 expression on fatty acid homoeostasis have been identified or developed, and underscore the importance of FAT/CD36 for adequate fatty acid transport. These models include the FAT/CD36 null mouse, the spontaneously hypertensive rat and FAT/CD36-deficient humans. The fatty acid transporting role of FAT/CD36 is further demonstrated in mice overexpressing muscle-specific FAT/CD36, and in transgenic mice generated using a genetic-rescue approach. In addition, a wealth of information has been gathered about the mechanisms that regulate FAT/CD36 gene expression and the presence of functional FAT/CD36 on the plasma membrane. Available data also indicate that FAT/CD36 may have an important role in the aetiology of cardiac disease, especially cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. This review discusses our current knowledge of the three candidate fatty acid transporters, the metabolic consequences of alterations in FAT/CD36 levels in different models, and the mechanisms that have been identified for FAT/CD36 regulation.
Project description:Central nervous system (CNS) fatty acid sensing plays an important role in the regulation of food intake, and palmitic acid (PA) is the most important long chain fatty acid (LCFA) in the mammalian diet. To explore the effect of PA on central neuropeptide expression and the role of the cluster of the differentiation of 36 (CD36) in the process, N1E-115 cells were cultured with PA in the presence or absence of sulfosuccinimidyl-oleate (SSO), a CD36 inhibitor. Results showed that 10 ?mol/L PA significantly reduced NPY and AgRP mRNA expression after 20 min of exposure, while the expression of CD36 was upregulated. The presence of SSO significantly attenuated the decrease of NPY and AgRP expression that was induced by PA alone, although no notable effect on PA- induced CD36 gene expression was observed. In conclusion, our study suggests the involvement of CD36 in the PA-induced decrease of NPY and AgRP in N1E-115 cells.
Project description:The cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is implicated in the intake of long-chain fatty acids and fat storage in various cell types including the pancreatic beta cell, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of metabolic stress and diabetes. Recent evidence indicates that CD36 undergoes post-translational modifications such as acetylation-deacetylation. However, putative roles of such modifications in its functional activation and onset of beta cell dysregulation under the duress of glucolipotoxicity (GLT) remain largely unknown. Using pharmacological approaches, we validated, herein, the hypothesis that acetylation-deacetylation signaling steps are involved in CD36-mediated lipid accumulation and downstream apoptotic signaling in pancreatic beta (INS-1832/13) cells under GLT. Exposure of these cells to GLT resulted in significant lipid accumulation without affecting the CD36 expression. Sulfo-n-succinimidyl oleate (SSO), an irreversible inhibitor of CD36, significantly attenuated lipid accumulation under GLT conditions, thus implicating CD36 in this metabolic step. Furthermore, trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA), known inhibitors of lysine deacetylases, markedly suppressed GLT-associated lipid accumulation with no discernible effects on CD36 expression. Lastly, SSO or TSA prevented caspase 3 activation in INS-1832/13?cells exposed to GLT conditions. Based on these findings, we conclude that an acetylation-deacetylation signaling step might regulate CD36 functional activity and subsequent lipid accumulation and caspase 3 activation in pancreatic beta cells exposed to GLT conditions. Identification of specific lysine deacetylases that control CD36 function should provide novel clues for the prevention of beta-cell dysfunction under GLT.
Project description:Metabolic impairments associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are linked to tissue hypoxia, however, the explanatory molecular and endocrine mechanisms remain unknown. Using gas-permeable cultureware, we studied the chronic effects of mild and severe hypoxia on free fatty acid (FFA) uptake, storage, and oxidation in L6 myotubes under 20, 4, or 1% O2. Additionally, the impact of metformin and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?/? agonist, called GW501516, were investigated. Exposure to mild and severe hypoxia reduced FFA uptake by 37 and 32%, respectively, while metformin treatment increased FFA uptake by 39% under mild hypoxia. GW501516 reduced FFA uptake under all conditions. Protein expressions of CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36) and SCL27A4 (solute carrier family 27 fatty acid transporter, member 4) were reduced by 17 and 23% under severe hypoxia. Gene expression of UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) was reduced by severe hypoxia by 81%. Metformin increased CD36 protein levels by 28% under control conditions and SCL27A4 levels by 56% under mild hypoxia. Intracellular lipids were reduced by mild hypoxia by 18%, while in controls only, metformin administration further reduced intracellular lipids (20% O2) by 36%. Finally, palmitate oxidation was reduced by severe hypoxia, while metformin treatment reduced non-mitochondrial O2 consumption, palmitate oxidation, and proton leak at all O2 levels. Hypoxia directly reduced FFA uptake and intracellular lipids uptake in myotubes, at least partially, due to the reduction in CD36 transporters. Metformin, but not GW501516, can increase FFA uptake and SCL27A4 expression under mild hypoxia. Described effects might contribute to elevated plasma FFA levels and metabolic derangements in OSA.
Project description:Obesity is a global epidemic which increases the risk of the metabolic syndrome. Cathelicidin (LL-37 and mCRAMP) is an antimicrobial peptide with an unknown role in obesity. We hypothesize that cathelicidin expression correlates with obesity and modulates fat mass and hepatic steatosis.Male C57BL/6?J mice were fed a high-fat diet. Streptozotocin was injected into mice to induce diabetes. Experimental groups were injected with cathelicidin and CD36 overexpressing lentiviruses. Human mesenteric fat adipocytes, mouse 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes and human HepG2 hepatocytes were used in the in vitro experiments. Cathelicidin levels in non-diabetic, prediabetic and type II diabetic patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Lentiviral cathelicidin overexpression reduced hepatic steatosis and decreased the fat mass of high-fat diet-treated diabetic mice. Cathelicidin overexpression reduced mesenteric fat and hepatic fatty acid translocase (CD36) expression that was reversed by lentiviral CD36 overexpression. Exposure of adipocytes and hepatocytes to cathelicidin significantly inhibited CD36 expression and reduced lipid accumulation. Serum cathelicidin protein levels were significantly increased in non-diabetic and prediabetic patients with obesity, compared with non-diabetic patients with normal body mass index (BMI) values. Prediabetic patients had lower serum cathelicidin protein levels than non-diabetic subjects.Cathelicidin inhibits the CD36 fat receptor and lipid accumulation in adipocytes and hepatocytes, leading to a reduction of fat mass and hepatic steatosis in vivo. Circulating cathelicidin levels are associated with increased BMI. Our results demonstrate that cathelicidin modulates the development of obesity.
Project description:Shift of myocardial substrate preference has been observed in many chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart failure. This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the chronic substrate switch in adult hearts and to determine the functional consequences of the switch.Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of the insulin-independent glucose transporter GLUT1 (TG) were used to increase intracellular glucose in cardiac myocytes. A high-fat diet was used to increase the fatty acid supply to the heart. High-fat diet induced a 40% increase in fatty acid oxidation in wild-type hearts, whereas glucose oxidation was decreased to 30% of the control. In contrast, glucose oxidation was >2-fold higher in TG hearts, and the high-fat diet failed to upregulate fatty acid oxidation in these hearts. Glucose induced changes in the expression of multiple metabolic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (decreased by 51%), 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (decreased by 67%), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (increased by 4-fold), resulting in a remodeling of the metabolic network to favor a shift of substrate preference toward glucose. Although TG mice on a normal diet maintained normal cardiac energetics and function, the inability to upregulate myocardial fatty acid oxidation in TG mice fed a high-fat diet resulted in increased oxidative stress in the heart, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and contractile dysfunction.We have demonstrated that chronic increases in myocardial glucose uptake and oxidation reduce the metabolic flexibility and render the heart susceptible to contractile dysfunction.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Brown adipose tissue dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat and regulates triglyceride and glucose metabolism in the body. Factors that regulate fatty acid uptake and oxidation in brown adipocytes have not yet been fully elucidated. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is a growth factor capable of inducing brown fat mitochondrial biogenesis during differentiation from adipocyte progenitors. Administration of BMP7 to mice also results in increased energy expenditure. To determine if BMP7 is able to affect the mitochondrial activity of mature brown adipocytes, independent of the differentiation process, we delivered BMP7 to mature brown adipocytes and measured mitochondrial activity.<h4>Results</h4>We found that BMP7 increased mitochondrial activity, including fatty acid oxidation and citrate synthase activity, without increasing the mitochondrial number. This was accompanied by an increase in fatty acid uptake and increased protein expression of CPT1 and CD36, which import fatty acids into the mitochondria and the cell, respectively. Importantly, inhibition of either CPT1 or CD36 resulted in a blunting of the mitochondrial activity of BMP7-treated cells.<h4>Innovation</h4>These findings uncover a novel pathway regulating mitochondrial activities in mature brown adipocytes by BMP7-mediated fatty acid uptake and oxidation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In conclusion, BMP7 increases mitochondrial activity in mature brown adipocytes via increased fatty acid uptake and oxidation, a process that requires the fatty acid transporters CPT1 and CD36.