Expect With Me: development and evaluation design for an innovative model of group prenatal care to improve perinatal outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Despite biomedical advances and intervention efforts, rates of preterm birth and other adverse outcomes in the United States have remained relatively intransigent. Evidence suggests that group prenatal care can reduce these risks, with implications for maternal and child health as well as substantial cost savings. However, widespread dissemination presents challenges, in part because training and health systems have not been designed to deliver care in a group setting. This manuscript describes the design and evaluation of Expect With Me, an innovative model of group prenatal care with a strong integrated information technology (IT) platform designed to be scalable nationally.Expect With Me follows clinical guidelines from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Expect With Me incorporates the best evidence-based features of existing models of group care with a novel integrated IT platform designed to improve patient engagement and support, enhance health behaviors and decision making, connect providers and patients, and improve health service delivery. A multisite prospective longitudinal cohort study is being conducted to examine the impact of Expect With Me on perinatal and postpartum outcomes, and to identify and address barriers to national scalability. Process and outcome evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative data collection at patient, provider, and organizational levels. Mixed-method data collection includes patient surveys, medical record reviews, patient focus groups; provider surveys, session evaluations, provider focus groups and in-depth interviews; an online tracking system; and clinical site visits. A two-to-one matched cohort of women receiving individual care from each site will provide a comparison group (n?=?1,000 Expect With Me patients; n?=?2,000 individual care patients) for outcome and cost analyses.By bundling prevention and care services into a high-touch, high-tech group prenatal care model, Expect With Me has the potential to result in fundamental changes to the health care system to meet the "triple aim:" better healthcare quality, improved outcomes, and lower costs. Findings from this study will be used to optimize the dissemination and effectiveness of this model.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02169024 . Retrospectively registered on June 18, 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Risk-appropriate prenatal care has been asserted as a way for the cost-effective delivery of prenatal care. A virtual care model for prenatal care has the potential to provide patient-tailored, risk-appropriate prenatal educational content and may facilitate vital sign and weight monitoring between visits. Previous studies have demonstrated a safe reduction in the frequency of in-person prenatal care visits among low-risk patients but have noted a reduction in patient satisfaction. OBJECTIVE:The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a mobile prenatal care app to facilitate a reduced in-person visit schedule for low-risk pregnancies while maintaining patient and provider satisfaction. METHODS:This controlled trial compared a control group receiving usual care with an experimental group receiving usual prenatal care and using a mobile prenatal care app. The experimental group had a planned reduction in the frequency of in-person office visits, whereas the control group had the usual number of visits. The trial was conducted at 2 diverse outpatient obstetric (OB) practices that are part of a single academic center in Washington, DC, United States. Women were eligible for enrollment if they presented to care in the first trimester, were aged between 18 and 40 years, had a confirmed desired pregnancy, were not considered high-risk, and had an iOS or Android smartphone that they used regularly. We measured the effectiveness of a virtual care platform for prenatal care via the following measured outcomes: the number of in-person OB visits during pregnancy and patient satisfaction with prenatal care. RESULTS:A total of 88 patients were enrolled in the study, 47 in the experimental group and 41 in the control group. For patients in the experimental group, the average number of in-person OB visits during pregnancy was 7.8 and the average number in the control group was 10.2 (P=.01). There was no statistical difference in patient satisfaction (P>.05) or provider satisfaction (P>.05) in either group. CONCLUSIONS:The use of a mobile prenatal care app was associated with reduced in-person visits, and there was no reduction in patient or provider satisfaction. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02914301; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02914301 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/76S55M517).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Randomized controlled trials document the safety and efficacy of reduced frequency prenatal visit schedules and virtual visits, but real-world data are lacking. Our institution created a prenatal care delivery model incorporating these alternative approaches to continue safely providing prenatal care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objective was to evaluate institutional-level adoption and patient and provider experiences with the COVID-19 prenatal care model. STUDY DESIGN:We conducted a single-site evaluation of a COVID-19 prenatal care model incorporating a reduced frequency visit schedule and virtual visits deployed at a suburban academic institution on March 20, 2020. We used Electronic Health Record data to evaluate institution-level model adoption, defined as changes in overall visit frequency and proportion of virtual visits in the three months before and after implementation. To evaluate the patient and provider experience with the COVID-19 model, we conducted an online survey of all pregnant patients (>20 weeks gestation) and providers in May 2020. Three domains of care experience were evaluated: 1) access, 2) quality and safety, and 3) satisfaction. Quantitative data were analyzed with basic descriptive statistics. Free-text responses coded by the three survey domains elucidated drivers of positive and negative care experiences. RESULTS:Following COVID-19 model adoption, average weekly prenatal visit volume fell by 16.1%, from 898 to 761 weekly visits, the average weekly proportion of prenatal visits conducted virtually increased from 10.8% (97/898) to 43.3% (330/761), and the average visit no-show rate remained stable (4.3% pre-implementation; 4.2%, post-implementation). Of those eligible, 74.8% (77/103) of providers and 15.0% (253/1690) of patients participated in the surveys. Patient respondents were largely white (180/253, 71.1%) and privately insured (199/253, 78.7%), reflecting the study site population. Rates of chronic conditions and pregnancy complications also differed from national prevalence. Provider respondents were predominantly white (44/66, 66.7%) and female (50/66, 75.8%). Most patients and almost all providers reported that virtual visits improved access to care (patients: 68.8%, 174/253; providers: 74/77, 96.1%). Over half of respondents (patients: 124/253, 53.3%; providers: 41/77, 62.1%) believed virtual visits were safe. Nearly all believed home blood pressure cuffs were important for virtual visits (patients: 213/231, 92.2%; providers: 63/66, 95.5%). Most reported satisfaction with the COVID-19 model (patients: 196/253, 77.5%; providers: 64/77, 83.1%). In free-text responses, drivers of positive care experiences were similar for patients and providers, and included perceived improved access to care through decreased barriers (e.g. transportation, childcare); perceived high quality of virtual visits for low-risk patients and increased safety during the pandemic; and improved satisfaction through better patient counseling. Perceived drivers of negative care experience were also similar for patients and providers, but less common. These included concerns that unequal access to virtual visits could deepen existing maternity care inequities, concerns that the lack of home devices (e.g. blood pressure cuffs) would impact care quality and safety, and dissatisfaction with poor patient-provider continuity and inadequate expectation-setting for the virtual visit experience. CONCLUSION:Reduced visit schedules and virtual visits were rapidly integrated into real-world care, with positive experiences for many patients and providers. Future research is needed to understand the health outcomes and care experience associated with alternative approaches to prenatal care delivery across more diverse patient populations outside of the COVID-19 pandemic, to inform broader health policy decisions.
Project description:Despite improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of depression, primary care provider (PCP) discussion regarding suicidal thoughts among patients with depressive symptoms remains low.To determine whether a targeted depression public service announcement (PSA) video or an individually tailored interactive multimedia computer program (IMCP) leads to increased primary care provider (PCP) discussion of suicidal thoughts in patients with elevated risk for clinical depression when compared to an attention control.Randomized control trial at five different healthcare systems in Northern California; two academic, two Veterans Affairs (VA), and one group-model health maintenance organization (HMO).Eight-hundred sixty-seven participants, with mean age 51.7; 43.9% women, 43.4% from a racial/ethnic minority group.The PSA was targeted to gender and socio-economic status, and designed to encourage patients to seek depression care or request information regarding depression. The IMCP was an individually tailored interactive health message designed to activate patients to discuss possible depressive symptoms. The attention control was a sleep hygiene video.Clinician reported discussion of suicidal thoughts. Analyses were stratified by depressive symptom level (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] score?<?9 [mild or lower] versus ? 10 [at least moderate]).Among patients with a PHQ-9 score ? 10, PCP discussion of suicidal thoughts was significantly higher in the IMCP group than in the control group (adjusted odds ratio?=?2.33, 95% confidence interval?=?1.5, 5.10, p?=?0.03). There were no significant effects of either intervention on PCP discussion of suicidal thoughts among patients with a PHQ-9 score?<?9.Exposure of patients with at least moderate depressive symptoms to an individually tailored intervention designed to increase patient engagement in depression care led to increased PCP discussion of suicidal thoughts.
Project description:Care coordination is a critical component of managing high-risk patients, who tend to have complex and multiple medical and psychosocial problems and are typically at high risk for increased hospitalization and incur high health care expenditures. Primary care models such as the patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) are designed to improve care coordination and reduce care fragmentation. However, little is known about how the burden of care coordination for high-risk patients influences PCMH team members' stress.To evaluate the relationship between provider stress and care coordination time in high-risk patient care and whether availability of help is associated with reduced stress.Multivariable regression analysis of a cross-sectional survey of PCMH primary care providers (PCPs) and nurses.A total of 164 PCPs and 272 nurses in primary care practices at five geographically diverse Veteran Health Administration (VA) medical center health systems.The main outcome variable was provider stress due to high-risk patient care. Independent variables were the reported proportion of high-risk patients in PCP/nurse patient panels, time spent coordinating care for these patients, and provider satisfaction with help received in caring for them.The response rate was 44%. Spending more than 8 h per week coordinating care was significantly associated with a 0.21-point increase in reported provider stress compared to spending 8 h or less per week (95% CI: 0.04-0.39; p = 0.015). The magnitude of the association between stress and care coordination time was diminished when provider satisfaction with help received was included in the model.Perceived provider stress from care of high-risk patients may arise from challenges related to coordinating their care. Our findings suggest that the perception of receiving help for high-risk patient care may be valuable in reducing provider stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study investigates patient-centered mobile health (mHealth) technology in terms of the secondary user experience (UX). Specifically, it examines how personal mobile technology, under patient control, can be used to improve patient-provider communication about the patient's health care during their first visit to a provider. Common ground, a theory about language use, is used as the theoretical basis to examine interactions. A novel concept of this study is that it is one of the first empirical studies to explore the relative meaningfulness of a secondary UX for specific health care tasks. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to investigate the extent that patient-operated mHealth technology can be designed to improve the communication between the patient and provider during an initial face-to-face encounter. METHODS:The experimental study was conducted in 2 large Midwestern cities from February 2016 to May 2016. A custom-designed smartphone app prototype was used as the study treatment. The experimental design was posttest-only control group and included video-recorded simulated face-to-face clinical encounters in which an actor role-played a patient. Experienced clinicians consisting of doctors (n=4) and nurses (n=8) were the study participants. A thematic analysis of qualitative data was performed. Quantitative data collected from time on task measurements were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS:Three themes that represent how grounding manifested during the encounter, what it meant for communication during the encounter, and how it influenced the provider's perception of the patient emerged from the qualitative analysis. The descriptive statistics were important for inferring evidence of efficiency and effectiveness of communication for providers. Overall, encounter and task times averaged slightly faster in almost every instance for the treatment group than that in the control group. Common ground clearly was better in the treatment group, indicating that the idea of designing for the secondary UX to improve provider outcomes has merit. CONCLUSIONS:Combining the notions of common ground, human-computer interaction design, and smartphone technology resulted in a prototype that improved the efficiency and effectiveness of face-to-face collaboration for secondary users. The experimental study is one of the first studies to demonstrate that an investment in the secondary UX for high payoff tasks has value but that not all secondary UXs are meaningful for design. This observation is useful for prioritizing how resources should be applied when considering the secondary UX.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To describe current clinical quality among the nation's community health centers and to examine health center characteristics associated with performance excellence. DATA SOURCES: National data from the 2009 Uniform Data System. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Health centers reviewed patient records and reported aggregate data to the Uniform Data System. STUDY DESIGN: Six measures were examined: first-trimester prenatal care, childhood immunization completion, Pap tests, low birth weight, controlled hypertension, and controlled diabetes. The top 25 percent performing centers were compared with lower performing (bottom 75 percent) centers on these measures. Logistic regressions were utilized to assess the impact of patient, provider, and institutional characteristics on health center performance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical care and outcomes among health centers were generally comparable to national averages. For instance, 67 percent of pregnant patients received timely prenatal care (national = 68 percent), 69 percent of children achieved immunization completion (national = 67 percent), and 63 percent of hypertensive patients had blood pressure under control (national = 48 percent). Depending on the measure, centers with more uninsured patients were less likely to do well, while centers with more physicians and enabling service providers were more likely to do well. CONCLUSIONS: Health centers provide quality care at rates comparable to national averages. Performance may be improved by increasing insurance coverage among patients and increasing the ratios of physicians and enabling service providers to patients.
Project description:At-risk drinking, defined as alcohol use that is excessive or potentially harmful in combination with select comorbidities or medications, affects about 10% of older adults in the United States and is associated with higher mortality. The Project SHARE intervention, which uses patient and provider educational materials, physician counseling, and health educator support, was designed to reduce at-risk drinking among this vulnerable population. Although an earlier study showed that this intervention was successful in reducing rates of at-risk drinking, it is unknown whether these reductions translate into improved health and health-related quality of life (HRQL).The aim of this study was to examine changes in health and HRQL of older adult at-risk drinkers resulting from a patient-provider educational intervention.A randomized controlled trial to compare the health and HRQL outcomes of patients assigned to the Project SHARE intervention vs. care as usual at baseline, 6- and 12-months post assignment. Control patients received usual care, which may or may not have included alcohol counseling. Intervention group patients received a personalized patient report, educational materials on alcohol and aging, a brief provider intervention, and a telephone health educator intervention.Current drinkers 60years and older accessing primary care clinics around Santa Barbara, California (N=1049).Data were collected from patients using baseline, 6- and 12-month mail surveys. Health and HRQL measures included mental and physical component scores (MCS and PCS) based on the Short Form-12v2 (SF-12v2), the SF-6D, which is also based on the SF-12, and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Adjusted associations of treatment assignment with these outcomes were estimated using generalized least squares regressions with random provider effects. Regressions controlled for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, home ownership and the baseline value of the dependent variable.After regression adjustment, the intervention was associated with a 0.58 point (95% CI: -0.06, 1.21) increase in 6-month MCS and a 0.14 point (95% CI: 0.01, 0.26) improvement in 12-month GDS score, compared to the control group. The intervention also increased adjusted SF-6D scores by 0.01 points at both 6 and 12months (6-month 95% CI: 0.01, 0.02; 12-month 95% CI: 0.01, 0.01).Despite the previously shown effectiveness of the Project SHARE intervention to reduce at-risk drinking among older adults, this effect translated into effects on health and HRQL that were statistically but not necessarily clinically significant. Effects were most prominent for patients who received physician discussions, suggesting that provider counseling may be a critical component of primary care-based interventions targeting at-risk alcohol use.
Project description:To assess how obstetric health care providers counsel patients regarding prenatal genetic screening and how these conversations influence patients' screening decisions.This cohort study analyzed transcripts and audio recordings of 210 first prenatal visits collected as part of a larger study on patient-provider communication. Conversations were coded in an iterative process to determine compliance with American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (College) prenatal genetic screening recommendations and to identify recurrent themes. ?, nonparametric tests, and logistic regression were used to determine the effects of discussion elements on screening decisions. Qualitative analysis was performed for genetic screening content.The study included 210 patients and 45 health care providers. Health care providers offered genetic screening at 90% of visits; 78% of women chose genetic screening. Few conversations (1.5%) included all College-recommended topics. Inclusion of College-recommended topics did not affect women's screening choices. Conversations about screening for fetal aneuploidy lasted 1.5 minutes on average (range 0.12-7.05 minutes). Recurrent themes identified included clarifying that screening results are not diagnostic (51% of conversations), emphasizing that screening is a personal choice (45% of conversations), and discussing how a woman might use genetic screening results to guide decisions about diagnostic testing or termination (37% of conversations). Health care providers described screening results as "high or low risk" in 67% of conversations discussing risk and quantitatively (ie, 1 in 100 [1%]) in 33%.Although the majority of patients were offered and underwent screening, most health care providers' counseling did not adhere to College recommendations.
Project description:Patient-centered care promotes the inclusion of the most prominent and important member of the health care team, the patient, as an active participant in information exchange and decision making. Patient self-management of a chronic disease requires the patient to bridge the gap between multiple care settings and providers. Hospitalizations often disrupt established self-management routines. Access to medical information during hospitalization reflects patients' rights to partner in their own care and has the potential to improve self-management as well as promote informed decision making during and after hospitalization. The objectives of this study were to elicit the perspectives of patients with chronic disease about desired medical information content and access during hospitalization.This exploratory study incorporated a qualitative approach. The online survey included the research team created open and limited response survey, demographic and hospital characteristic questions, and the Patient Activation Measurement instrument (PAM®). Convenience and social media snowball sampling were used to recruit participants through patient support groups, email invitations, listservs, and blogs. The research team employed descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis techniques.The study sample (n = 34) ranged in age from 20 to 76 (μ = 48; SD = 16.87), Caucasian (91%, n = 31), female (88%, n = 30) and very highly educated (64%, n = 22 were college graduates). The PAM® survey revealed a highly activated sample. Qualitative analysis of the open-ended question responses resulted in six themes: Caring for myself; I want to know everything; Include me during handoff and rounds; What I expect; You're not listening; and Tracking my health information.This study revealed that hospitalized patients want to be included in provider discussions, such as nursing bedside handoff and medical rounds. Only a few participants had smooth transitions from hospital to home. Participants expressed frustration with failures in communication among their providers during and after hospitalization and provider behaviors that interfered with patient provider communication processes. Patients also identified interest in maintaining their own health histories and information but most had to "cobble together" a myriad of methods to keep track of their evolving condition during hospitalization.
Project description:Objectives To improve clinical practice and increase postpartum visit Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) screening rates in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods We recruited clinical sites with at least half of pregnant patients enrolled in Medicaid to participate in an 18-month quality improvement (QI) project. To support clinical practice changes, we developed provider and patient toolkits with educational and clinical practice resources. Clinical subject-matter experts facilitated a learning network to train sites and promote discussion and learning among sites. Sites submitted data from patient chart reviews monthly for key measures that we used to provide rapid-cycle feedback. Providers were surveyed at completion regarding toolkit usefulness and satisfaction. Results Of fifteen practices recruited, twelve remained actively engaged. We disseminated more than 70 provider and 2345 patient toolkits. Documented delivery of patient education improved for timely GDM prenatal screening, reduction of future T2DM risk, smoking cessation, and family planning. Sites reported toolkits were useful and easy to use. Of women for whom postpartum data were available, 67?% had a documented postpartum visit and 33?% had a postpartum T2DM screen. Lack of information sharing between prenatal and postpartum care providers was are barriers to provision and documentation of care. Conclusions for Practice QI and toolkit resources may improve the quality of prenatal education. However, postpartum care did not reach optimal levels. Future work should focus on strategies to support coordination of care between obstetrical and primary care providers.