ABSTRACT: In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Consistent with this, pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of canonical ATR signaling suppresses genome replication. RPA and the sliding clamp PCNA interact with the viral polymerase E9 and are required for DNA replication. Moreover, the ATR activator TOPBP1 promotes genome replication and associates with the viral replisome component H5. Our study suggests that, in contrast to long-held beliefs, vaccinia recruits conserved components of the eukaryote DNA replication and repair machinery to amplify its genome in the host cytoplasm.
Project description:Barrier to autointegration factor (BAF) is a DNA-binding protein found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that functions to establish nuclear architecture during mitosis. Herein, we demonstrate a cytoplasmic role for BAF in host defense during poxviral infections. Vaccinia is the prototypic poxvirus, a family of DNA viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Mutations in the vaccinia B1 kinase (B1) compromise viral DNA replication, but the mechanism by which B1 achieves this has remained elusive. We now show that BAF acts as a potent inhibitor of poxvirus replication unless its DNA-binding activity is blocked by B1-mediated phosphorylation. These data position BAF as the effector of an innate immune response that prevents replication of exogenous viral DNA in the cytoplasm. To enable the virus to evade this defense, the poxviral B1 has evolved to usurp a signaling pathway employed by the host cell.
Project description:Genotoxins and other factors cause replication stress that activate the DNA damage response (DDR), comprising checkpoint and repair systems. The DDR suppresses cancer by promoting genome stability, and it regulates tumor resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. Three members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family, ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK, are important DDR proteins. A key PIKK target is replication protein A (RPA), which binds single-stranded DNA and functions in DNA replication, DNA repair, and checkpoint signaling. An early response to replication stress is ATR activation, which occurs when RPA accumulates on ssDNA. Activated ATR phosphorylates many targets, including the RPA32 subunit of RPA, leading to Chk1 activation and replication arrest. DNA-PK also phosphorylates RPA32 in response to replication stress, and we demonstrate that cells with DNA-PK defects, or lacking RPA32 Ser4/Ser8 targeted by DNA-PK, confer similar phenotypes, including defective replication checkpoint arrest, hyper-recombination, premature replication fork restart, failure to block late origin firing, and increased mitotic catastrophe. We present evidence that hyper-recombination in these mutants is ATM-dependent, but the other defects are ATM-independent. These results indicate that DNA-PK and ATR signaling through RPA32 plays a critical role in promoting genome stability and cell survival in response to replication stress.
Project description:DNA replication stress-mediated activation of the ATR kinase pathway is important for maintaining genomic stability. In this study, we identified a zinc finger protein, ZFP161 that functions as a replication stress response factor in ATR activation. Mechanistically, ZFP161 acts as a scaffolding protein to facilitate the interaction between RPA and ATR/ATRIP. ZFP161 binds to RPA and ATR/ATRIP through distinct regions and stabilizes the RPA-ATR-ATRIP complex at stalled replication forks. This function of ZFP161 is important to the ATR signaling cascade and genome stability maintenance. In addition, ZFP161 knockout mice showed a defect in ATR activation and genomic instability. Furthermore, low expression of ZFP161 is associated with higher cancer risk and chromosomal instability. Overall, these findings suggest that ZFP161 coordinates ATR/Chk1 pathway activation and helps maintain genomic stability.
Project description:The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase checkpoint pathway maintains genome integrity; however, the role of the sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) acetylome in regulating this pathway is not clear. We found that deacetylation of ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), a regulatory partner of ATR, by SIRT2 potentiates the ATR checkpoint. SIRT2 interacts with and deacetylates ATRIP at lysine 32 (K32) in response to replication stress. SIRT2 deacetylation of ATRIP at K32 drives ATR autophosphorylation and signaling and facilitates DNA replication fork progression and recovery of stalled replication forks. K32 deacetylation by SIRT2 further promotes ATRIP accumulation to DNA damage sites and binding to replication protein A-coated single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA). Collectively, these results support a model in which ATRIP deacetylation by SIRT2 promotes ATR-ATRIP binding to RPA-ssDNA to drive ATR activation and thus facilitate recovery from replication stress, outlining a mechanism by which the ATR checkpoint is regulated by SIRT2 through deacetylation.
Project description:DNA damage response pathways are essential for genome stability and cell survival. Specifically, the ATR kinase is activated by DNA replication stress. An early event in this activation is the recruitment and phosphorylation of RPA, a single stranded DNA binding complex composed of three subunits, RPA70, RPA32 and RPA14. We have previously shown that the LIM protein Ajuba associates with RPA, and that depletion of Ajuba leads to potent activation of ATR. In this study, we provide evidence that the Ajuba-RPA interaction occurs through direct protein contact with RPA70, and that their association is cell cycle-regulated and is reduced upon DNA replication stress. We propose a model in which Ajuba negatively regulates the ATR pathway by directly interacting with RPA70, thereby preventing inappropriate ATR activation. Our results provide a framework to further our understanding of the mechanism of ATR regulation in human cells in the context of cellular transformation.
Project description:At each round of infection, viruses fall apart to release their genome for replication, and then reassemble into stable particles within the same host cell. For most viruses, the structural details that underlie these disassembly and assembly reactions are poorly understood. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), a unique method to investigate large and asymmetric structures at the near molecular resolution, was previously used to study the complex structure of vaccinia virus (VV). Here we study the disassembly of VV by cryo-ET on intact, rapidly frozen, mammalian cells, infected for up to 60 minutes. Binding to the cell surface induced distinct structural rearrangements of the core, such as a shape change, the rearrangement of its surface spikes and de-condensation of the viral DNA. We propose that the cell surface induced changes, in particular the decondensation of the viral genome, are a prerequisite for the subsequent release of the vaccinia DNA into the cytoplasm, which is followed by its cytoplasmic replication. Generally, this is the first study that employs whole cell cryo-ET to address structural details of pathogen-host cell interaction.
Project description:ETAA1 (Ewing tumor-associated antigen 1), also known as ETAA16, was identified as a tumor-specific antigen in the Ewing family of tumors. However, the biological function of this protein remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of ETAA1 as a DNA replication stress response protein. ETAA1 specifically interacts with RPA (Replication protein A) via two conserved RPA-binding domains and is therefore recruited to stalled replication forks. Interestingly, further analysis of ETAA1 function revealed that ETAA1 participates in the activation of ATR signaling pathway via a conserved ATR-activating domain (AAD) located near its N terminus. Importantly, we demonstrate that both RPA binding and ATR activation are required for ETAA1 function at stalled replication forks to maintain genome stability. Therefore, our data suggest that ETAA1 is a new ATR activator involved in replication checkpoint control.
Project description:The Replication Protein A (RPA) complex is an essential regulator of eukaryotic DNA metabolism. RPA avidly binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) through multiple oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding folds and coordinates the recruitment and exchange of genome maintenance factors to regulate DNA replication, recombination and repair. The RPA-ssDNA platform also constitutes a key physiological signal which activates the master ATR kinase to protect and repair stalled or collapsed replication forks during replication stress. In recent years, the RPA complex has emerged as a key target and an important regulator of post-translational modifications in response to DNA damage, which is critical for its genome guardian functions. Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of the RPA complex, and more recently RPA-regulated ubiquitination, have all been shown to control specific aspects of DNA damage signaling and repair by modulating the interactions between RPA and its partners. Here, we review our current understanding of the critical functions of the RPA-ssDNA platform in the maintenance of genome stability and its regulation through an elaborate network of covalent modifications.
Project description:Proapoptotic BH3-interacting death domain agonist (BID) regulates apoptosis and the DNA damage response. Following replicative stress, BID associates with proteins of the DNA damage sensor complex, including replication protein A (RPA), ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR), and ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), and facilitates an efficient DNA damage response. We have found that BID stimulates the association of RPA with components of the DNA damage sensor complex through interaction with the basic cleft of the N-terminal domain of the RPA70 subunit. Disruption of the BID-RPA interaction impairs the association of ATR-ATRIP with chromatin as well as ATR function, as measured by CHK1 activation and recovery of DNA replication following hydroxyurea (HU). We further demonstrate that the association of BID with RPA stimulates the association of ATR-ATRIP to the DNA damage sensor complex. We propose a model in which BID associates with RPA and stimulates the recruitment and/or stabilization of ATR-ATRIP to the DNA damage sensor complex.
Project description:ATR kinase is a critical upstream regulator of the checkpoint response to various forms of DNA damage. Previous studies have shown that ATR is recruited via its binding partner ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) to replication protein A (RPA)-covered single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA) generated at sites of DNA damage where ATR is then activated by TopBP1 to phosphorylate downstream targets including the Chk1 signal transducing kinase. However, this critical feature of the human ATR-initiated DNA damage checkpoint signaling has not been demonstrated in a defined system. Here we describe an in vitro checkpoint system in which RPA-ssDNA and TopBP1 are essential for phosphorylation of Chk1 by the purified ATR-ATRIP complex. Checkpoint defective RPA mutants fail to activate ATR kinase in this system, supporting the conclusion that this system is a faithful representation of the in vivo reaction. Interestingly, we find that an alternative form of RPA (aRPA), which does not support DNA replication, can substitute for the checkpoint function of RPA in vitro, thus revealing a potential role for aRPA in the activation of ATR kinase. We also find that TopBP1 is recruited to RPA-ssDNA in a manner dependent on ATRIP and that the N terminus of TopBP1 is required for efficient recruitment and activation of ATR kinase.