Mcl-1 regulates reactive oxygen species via NOX4 during chemotherapy-induced senescence.
ABSTRACT: Mcl-1, a Bcl-2 family member, is highly expressed in a variety of human cancers and is believed to enhance tumorigenic potential and chemotherapy resistance through the inhibition of apoptosis and senescence. We previously reported that Mcl-1's regulation of chemotherapy-induced senescence (CIS) is dependent on its ability to prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In this report, we demonstrate that Mcl-1-regulated CIS requires not only ROS, but specifically mitochondrial ROS, and that these events are upstream of activation of the DNA damage response, another necessary step toward senescence. Mcl-1's anti-senescence activity also involves the unique ability to inhibit ROS formation by preventing the upregulation of pro-oxidants. Specifically, we found that NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are regulated by Mcl-1 and that NOX4 expression in particular is a required step for CIS induction that is blocked by Mcl-1. Lastly, we illustrate that by preventing expression of NOX4, Mcl-1 limits its availability in the mitochondria, thereby lowering the production of mitochondrial ROS during CIS. Our studies not only define the essential role of Mcl-1 in chemoresistance, but also for the first time link a key pro-survival Bcl-2 family member with the NOX protein family, both of which have significant ramifications in cancer progression.
Project description:The free radical theory of aging proposes that ROS (reactive oxygen species) are major driving forces of aging, and are also critically involved in cellular senescence. Besides the mitochondrial respiratory chain, alternative sources of ROS have been described that might contribute to cellular senescence. Noxs (NADPH oxidases) are well-known sources of superoxide, which contribute to the antimicrobial capabilities of macrophages, a process involving the prototypical member of the family referred to as Nox2. However, in recent years non-phagocytic homologues of Nox2 have been identified that are involved in processes other than the host defence. Superoxide anions produced by these enzymes are believed to play a major role in signalling by MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and stress-activated kinases, but could also contribute to cellular senescence, which is known to involve oxygen radicals. In HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), Nox4 is predominantly expressed, but its role in replicative senescence of HUVECs remains to be elucidated. Using shRNA (small-hairpin RNA)-mediated knockdown of Nox4, implicating lentiviral vectors, we addressed the question of whether lifelong depletion of Nox4 in HUVECs would influence the senescent phenotype. We found a significant extension of the replicative lifespan of HUVECs upon knockdown of Nox4. Surprisingly, mean telomere length was significantly reduced in Nox4-depleted cells. Nox4 depletion had no discernable influence on the activity of MAPKs and stress-activated kinases, but reduced the degree of oxidative DNA damage. These results suggest that Nox4 activity increases oxidative damage in HUVECs, leading to loss of replicative potential, which is at least partly independent of telomere attrition.
Project description:The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) family is the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular system. In this family, NOX4, a constitutive active form of NOXs, plays an important role in angiogenesis. Thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) is a key mitochondrial redox protein that maintains normal protein function and also provides electrons to peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) to scavenge H?O? in mitochondria. Angiogenesis, a process of new blood vessel formation, is involved in a variety of physiological processes and pathological conditions. It seems to be paradoxical for ROS-producing NOX4 and ROS-scavenging TRX2 to have a similar role in promoting angiogenesis. In this review, we will focus on data supporting the role of NOX4 and TRX2 in angiogenesis and their cross-talks and discuss how ROS can positively or negatively regulate angiogenesis, depending on their species, levels and locations. NOX4 and TRX2-mediated ROS signaling could be promising targets for the treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.
Project description:The function of the NAD(P)H oxidases (NOXs) family member NOX4 is to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, the molecular function of NOX4 has not been fully studied and waiting to be clarified. To elucidate the function of endogenous Nox4 in human thyroid carcinomas, papillomatosis thyroid cancer cells were used to study the cell growth by knocking down the expression of NOX4 and knocking out its functional partner p22phox/CYBA. As a result, the increasement of mitochondrial ROS(mROS) was abolished due to both knockdown of NOX4 and p22phox knockout in hypoxia, which destabilized HIF1? decreasing glycolysis and retarded cell growth. These data suggests that Nox4 is potent oncotarget due to its role in regulating glycolysis through mROS-HIF1? pathway, thereby mediating proliferation in thyroid carcinomas.
Project description:M2-type tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltration contributes to cancer malignant progression. However, the mechanisms for controlling recruitment and M2 polarization of macrophages by cancer cells are largely unclear. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is abundantly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and mediates cancer progression. NOXs are in close relation with cancer-related inflammation, nevertheless, whether tumoral NOXs influence microenvironmental macrophages remains undentified. This study found that there was a close association between NOX4 expression and macrophage chemotaxis in patients with NSCLC analyzed using TCGA RNA-sequencing data. NOX4 in NSCLC cells (A549 and Calu-1 cell lines) efficiently enhanced murine peritoneal macrophage migration and induces M2 polarization. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical specimens confirmed the positive correlation of NOX4 and CD68 or CD206. The mechanical study revealed that tumoral NOX4-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated various cytokine production, including CCL7, IL8, CSF-1 and VEGF-C, via PI3K/Akt signaling-dependent manner. Blockade of the function of these cytokines reversed NOX4 effect on macrophages. Specifically, the results showed that tumoral NOX4-educated M2 macrophages exhibited elevated JNK activity, expressed and released HB-EGF, thus facilitating NSCLC proliferation in vitro. Pretreatment of macrophages with JNK inhibitor blocked tumoral NOX4-induced HB-EGF production in M2 macrophages. Finally, in a xenograft mouse model, overexpression of NOX4 in A549 cells enhanced the tumor growth. Elimination of ROS by NAC or inhibition of NOX4 activity by GKT137831 suppressed tumor growth accompanied by reduction in macrophage infiltration and the percentage of M2 macrophages. In conclusion, our study indicates that tumoral NOX4 recruits M2 TAMs via ROS/PI3K signaling-dependent various cytokine production, thus contributing NSCLC cell growth.
Project description:Human exposure to ionizing radiation from medical procedures has increased sharply in the last three decades. Recent epidemiological studies suggest a direct relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and health problems, including cancer incidence. Therefore, minimizing the impact of radiation exposure in patients has become a priority in the development of future clinical practices. Crucial players in radiation-induced DNA damage include reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the sources of these have remained elusive. To the best of our knowledge, we show here for the first time that two members of the ROS-generating NADPH oxidase family (NOXs), NOX4 and NOX5, are involved in radiation-induced DNA damage. Depleting these two NOXs in human primary fibroblasts resulted in reduced levels of DNA damage as measured by levels of radiation-induced foci, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the comet assay coupled with increased cell survival. NOX involvement was substantiated with fulvene-5, a NOXs-specific inhibitor. Moreover, fulvene-5 mitigated radiation-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ex vivo. Our results provide evidence that the inactivation of NOXs protects cells from radiation-induced DNA damage and cell death. These findings suggest that NOXs inhibition may be considered as a future pharmacological target to help minimize the negative effects of radiation exposure for millions of patients each year.
Project description:Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury following radiographic procedures. Intrarenal oxidative stress plays a critical role in CIAKI. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (Noxs) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the various types of Noxs, Nox4 is expressed predominantly in the kidney in rodents. Here, we evaluated the role of Nox4 and benefit of Nox4 inhibition on CIAKI using in vivo and in vitro models. HK-2 cells were treated with iohexol, with or without Nox4 knockdown, or the most specific Nox1/4 inhibitor (GKT137831). Effects of Nox4 inhibition on CIAKI mice were examined. Expression of Nox4 in HK-2 cells was significantly increased following iohexol exposure. Silencing of Nox4 rescued the production of ROS, downregulated pro-inflammatory markers (particularly phospho-p38) implicated in CIAKI, and reduced Bax and caspase 3/7 activity, which resulted in increased cellular survival in iohexol-treated HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with GKT137831 replicated these effects by decreasing levels of phospho-p38. In a CIAKI mouse model, even though the improvement of plasma blood urea nitrogen was unclear, pretreatment with GKT137831 resulted in preserved structure, reduced expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and reduced number of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive cells. These results suggest Nox4 as a key source of reactive oxygen species responsible for CIAKI and provide a novel potential option for prevention of CIAKI.
Project description:Aging is characterized by increased aortic stiffness, an early, independent predictor and cause of cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress from excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases with age. Mitochondria and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are two major sources of ROS in cardiovascular system. We showed previously that increased mitochondrial ROS levels over a lifetime induce aortic stiffening in a mouse oxidative stress model. Also, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression and ROS levels increase with age in aortas, aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and mitochondria, and are correlated with age-associated aortic stiffness in hypercholesterolemic mice. The present study investigated whether young mice (4 months-old) with increased mitochondrial NOX4 levels recapitulate vascular aging and age-associated aortic stiffness. We generated transgenic mice with low (Nox4TG605; 2.1-fold higher) and high (Nox4TG618; 4.9-fold higher) mitochondrial NOX4 expression. Young Nox4TG618 mice showed significant increase in aortic stiffness and decrease in phenylephrine-induced aortic contraction, but not Nox4TG605 mice. Increased mitochondrial oxidative stress increased intrinsic VSMC stiffness, induced aortic extracellular matrix remodeling and fibrosis, a leftward shift in stress-strain curves, decreased volume compliance and focal adhesion turnover in Nox4TG618 mice. Nox4TG618 VSMCs phenocopied other features of vascular aging such as increased DNA damage, increased premature and replicative senescence and apoptosis, increased proinflammatory protein expression and decreased respiration. Aortic stiffening in young Nox4TG618 mice was significantly blunted with mitochondrial-targeted catalase overexpression. This demonstration of the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in aortic stiffness will galvanize search for new mitochondrial-targeted therapeutics for treatment of age-associated vascular dysfunction.
Project description:Senescence is a crucial driver of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Disc cells are exposed to high oxygen tension due to neovascularization in degenerative discs. However, the effect of oxygen tension on disc cell senescence was unknown. Herein, rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured under 20% O2 or 1% O2. Consequently, ROS induced by 20% O2 caused DNA damage and then activated p53-p21-Rb and p16-Rb pathways via ERK signaling to induce NP cell senescence. It also induced catabolic and proinflammatory phenotype of NP cells via MAPK and NF-?B pathways. Furthermore, 20% O2 was found to upregulate Nox4 in NP cells. Small interfering RNA against Nox4 reduced ROS production induced by 20% O2 and consequently suppressed premature senescence of NP cells. On the contrary, NP cells overexpressing Nox4 produced more ROS and rapidly developed senescent signs. In consistent with the in vitro studies, the expression of Nox4, p21, and Rb was upregulated in rat degenerative discs. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that Nox4 is an oxygen-sensing enzyme and a main ROS source in NP cells. Nox4-dependent ROS are genotoxic and a potent trigger of NP cell senescence. Nox4 is a potential therapeutic target for disc cell senescence and IDD.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in chronic liver injury and fibrosis. Homologs of NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are major sources of ROS, but the exact role of the individual homologs in liver disease is unknown. Our goal was to determine the role of NOX4 in liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) with the aid of the pharmacological inhibitor GKT137831, and genetic deletion of NOX4 in mice. GKT137831 was either applied for the full term of BDL (preventive arm) or started at 10 day postoperatively (therapeutic arm). Primary hepatic stellate cells (HSC) from control mice with and without BDL were analyzed and the effect of NOX4 inhibition on HSC activation was also studied. FasL or TNF?/actinomycin D-induced apoptosis was studied in wild-type and NOX4(-/-) hepatocytes. NOX4 was upregulated by a TGF-?/Smad3-dependent mechanism in HSC. Downregulation of NOX4 decreased ROS production and the activation of NOX4(-/-) HSC was attenuated. NOX4(-/-) hepatocytes were more resistant to FasL or TNF?/actinomycin D-induced apoptosis. Similarly, after pharmacological NOX4 inhibition, ROS production, the expression of fibrogenic markers, and hepatocyte apoptosis were reduced. NOX4 was expressed in human livers with stage 2-3 autoimmune hepatitis. Fibrosis was attenuated by the genetic deletion of NOX4. BDL mice gavaged with GKT137831 in the preventive or the therapeutic arm displayed less ROS production, significantly attenuated fibrosis, and decreased hepatocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, NOX4 plays a key role in liver fibrosis. GKT137831 is a potent inhibitor of fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis; therefore, it is a promising therapeutic agent for future translational studies.
Project description:Senescence is a stress response characterized by an irreversible growth arrest and alterations in certain cell functions. It is believed that both double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) and increased ROS level are the main culprit of senescence. Excessive ROS production is also particularly important in the development of a number of cardiovascular disorders. In this context the involvement of professional ROS-producing enzymes, NADPH oxidases (NOX), was postulated. In contrary to the common knowledge, we have shown that not only increased ROS production but also diminished ROS level could be involved in the induction of senescence.Accordingly, our studies revealed that stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by doxorubicin or H2O2, correlates with increased level of DSB and ROS. On the other hand, both SIPS and replicative senescence were accompanied by diminished expression of NOX4. Moreover, inhibition of NOX activity or decrease of NOX4 expression led to permanent growth arrest of VSMCs and secretion of interleukins and VEGF. Interestingly, cells undergoing senescence due to NOX4 depletion neither acquired DSB nor activated DNA damage response. Instead, transient induction of the p27, upregulation of HIF-1alpha, decreased expression of cyclin D1 and hypophosphorylated Rb was observed. Our results showed that lowering the level of ROS-producing enzyme - NOX4 oxidase below physiological level leads to cellular senescence of VSMCs which is correlated with secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus the use of specific NOX4 inhibitors for pharmacotherapy of vascular diseases should be carefully considered.