Tolerance and Reduction of Chromium(VI) by Bacillus sp. MNU16 Isolated from Contaminated Coal Mining Soil.
ABSTRACT: The bacterium MNU16 was isolated from contaminated soils of coal mine and subsequently screened for different plant growth promoting (PGP) activities. The isolate was further identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Bacillus subtilis MNU16 with IAA concentration (56.95 ± 0.43 6?g/ml), siderophore unit (9.73 ± 2.05%), phosphate solubilization (285.13 ± 1.05 ?g/ml) and ACC deaminase activity (116.79 ± 0.019 ?moles ?-ketobutyrate/mg/24 h). Further, to evaluate the metal resistance profile of bacterium, the isolate was screened for multi-metal resistance (viz. 900 mg/L for Cr, 600 mg/L for As, 700 mg/L for Ni and 300 mg/L for Hg). Additionally, the resistance pattern of B. subtilis MNU16 against Cr(VI) (from 50 to 300 mg/L) treatments were evaluated. An enriched population was observed at 0-200 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration while slight reductions were observed at 250 and 300 mg/L Cr(VI). Further, the chromium reduction ability at 50 mg/L of Cr(VI) highlighted that the bacterium B. subtilis MNU16 reduced 75% of Cr(VI) to 13.23 mg/L within 72 h. The localization of electron dense precipitates was observed in the TEM images of B. subtilis MNU16 which is might be due to the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The data of fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry with respect to Cr(VI) treatments (50-300 mg/L) showed a similar pattern and clearly revealed the less toxic effect of hexavalent chromium upto 200 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration. However, toxicity effects were more pronounced at 300 mg/L Cr(VI). Therefore, the present study suggests that the plant growth promoting potential and resistance efficacy of B. subtilis MNU16 will go a long way in developing an effective bioremediation approach for Cr(VI) contaminated soils.
Project description:We conducted a study for enhanced biological rehabilitation of chromium-contaminated soils using a chromium-reducing and nitrogen-fixing bacterial species (Bacillus megaterium-ASNF3). The bacterial species was isolated from a chromium-rich land area, characterized, and employed under optimum conditions for the treatment of artificially prepared chromium-rich soil. The bacterium reduced Cr(VI) up to 86 % in a 60-day trial of incubation in the soil bioreactor. The nitrogenase activity of the bacterium yielded up to 486 nmol of ethylene/mL/h after an incubation period of 40 days when it was optimally cultured in growth medium at neutral pH and 30 °C. Although the nitrogen-fixing ability of the bacterium reduced significantly in the presence of 1000 ppm of Cr(VI), yet, the bacterium was proved to be a potential bio-fertilizer for enhancing nitrogen contents of the contaminated soil even under the higher chromium stress, together with the metal reduction. In the biologically treated soil, higher values of wheat growth variables were achieved. Application of metal-resistant B. megaterium-ASNF3 in selected situations rendered chromium-laden soils arable with significant increment in crop-yield parameters.
Project description:Detoxification of Cr(VI) under alkaline pH requires attention due to the alkaline nature of many effluents. An alkaliphilic gram-positive Bacillus subtilis isolated from tannery effluent contaminated soil was found to grow and reduce Cr(VI) up to 100% at an alkaline pH 9. Decrease in pH to acidic range with growth of the bacterium signified the role played by metabolites (organic acids) in chromium resistance and reduction mechanism. The XPS and FT-IR spectra confirmed the reduction of Cr(VI) by bacteria into +3 oxidation state. Chromate reductase assay indicated that the reduction was mediated by constitutive membrane bound enzymes. The kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction activity derived using the monod equation proved (K s = 0.00032) high affinity of the organism to the metal. This study thus helped to localize the reduction activity at subcellular level in a chromium resistant alkaliphilic Bacillus sp.
Project description:Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways.
Project description:Heavy metal accumulation in mesquite trees (Prosopis laevigata) growing in aluminum, titanium, chromium and zirconium-polluted soils of a semi-arid region in Mexico was investigated using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results showed that P. laevigata trees can hyper accumulate up to 4100 mg/kg of Al, 14000 mg/kg of Fe, 1600 mg/kg of Ti, 2500 mg/kg of Zn, but not chromium, regarding high chromium concentrations found in soils (435 mg/kg). Since plant-associated microorganism can modulate phytoremediation efficiency, the biodiversity of P. laevigata associated bacteria was studied. Eighty-eight isolates from P. laevigata nodules were obtained; all isolates tolerated high concentrations of Al, Fe, Zn and Cr in vitro. The top-six chromium tolerant strains were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis as belonging to genus Bacillus. Bacillus sp. MH778713, close to Bacillus cereus group, showed to be the most resistant strain, tolerating up to 15000 mg/L Cr (VI) and 10000 mg/L of Al. Regarding the bioaccumulation traits, Bacillus sp. MH778713 accumulated up to 100 mg Cr(VI)/g of cells when it was exposed to 1474 mg/L of Cr VI. To assess Bacillus sp. MH778713 ability to assist Prosopis laevigata phytoremediation; twenty plants were inoculated or non-inoculated with Bacillus sp. MH778713 and grown in nitrogen-free Jensen's medium added with 0, 10 and 25 mg/L of Cr(VI). Only plants inoculated with Bacillus sp. grew in the presence of chromium showing the ability of this strain to assist chromium phytoremediation. P. laevigata and Bacillus spp. may be considered as good candidates for soil restoration of arid and semiarid sites contaminated with heavy metals.
Project description:An Gram negative strain of S. maltophilia, indigenous to environments contaminated by Cr(VI) and identified by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA gene analysis, reduced chromate by 100%, 98-99% and 92% at concentrations in the 10-70, 80-300, and 500 mg/L range, respectively at pH 7 and temperature 37 °C. Increasing concentrations of Cr(VI) in the medium lowered the growth rate but could not be directly correlated with the amount of Cr(VI) reduced. The strain also exhibited multiple resistance to antibiotics and tolerance and resistance to various heavy metals (Ni, Zn and Cu), with the exception of Hg. Hexavalent chromium reduction was mainly associated with the soluble fraction of the cell evaluated with crude cell-free extracts. A protein of molecular weight around 25 kDa was detected on SDS-PAGE gel depending on the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the medium (0, 100 and 500 mg/L). In silico analysis in this contribution, revealed the presence of the chromate reductase gene ChrR in S. maltophilia, evidenced through a fragment of around 468 bp obtained experimentally. High Cr(VI) concentration resistance and high Cr(VI) reducing ability of the strain make it a suitable candidate for bioremediation.
Project description:The current study aimed to isolate and characterize a chromate-resistant bacterium from tannery effluent, able to reduce Cr(VI) aerobically at high pH and salinity. Environmental contamination by hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), presents a serious public health problem. Enrichment led to the isolation of 12 bacteria displaying different degrees of chromate reduction. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence comparison indicated that the most potent strain belonged to the genus Halomonas. The new strain designated as Halomonas sp. M-Cr was able to reduce 82% of 50 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) in 48 h, concomitant with discolouring of yellow colour of the medium and formation of white insoluble precipitate of Cr(III). It exhibited growth up to 3500 mg L(-1) Cr(VI), 20% NaCl and showed strong Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline condition, pH 10. Scanning electron microscopy revealed precipitation of chromium hydroxide on bacterial cell surfaces, which showed characteristic peak of chromium in energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Plackett-Burman design was used to evaluate the influence of related parameters for enhancing Cr(VI) reduction. Glucose, yeast extract and KH2PO 4 were confirmed as significant variables in the medium. Data suggest Halomonas sp. M-Cr as a promising candidate for bioremediation of Cr(VI) contaminated effluents particularly in saline and alkaline environments. Up to our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of haloalkaliphilic Halomonas sp. from tannery effluent.
Project description:A novel composite of montmorillonite-supported carboxymethyl cellulose-stabilized nanoscale iron sulfide (CMC@MMT-FeS), prepared using the co-precipitation method, was applied to remediate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-contaminated soil. Cr(VI)-removal capacity increased with increasing FeS-particle loading. We tested the efficacy of CMC@MMT-FeS at three concentrations of FeS: 0.2, 0.5, and 1 mmol/g, hereafter referred to as 0.2 CMC@MMT-FeS, 0.5 CMC@MMT-FeS, and 1.0 CMC@MMT-FeS, respectively. The soil Cr(VI) concentration decreased by 90.7% (from an initial concentration of 424.6 mg/kg to 39.4 mg/kg) after 30 days, following addition of 5% (composite-soil mass proportion) 1.0 CMC@MMT-FeS. When 2% 0.5 CMC@MMT-FeS was added to Cr(VI)-contaminated soil, the Cr(VI) removal efficiency, as measured in the leaching solution using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, was 90.3%, meeting the environmental protection standard for hazardous waste (5 mg/kg). The European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) test confirmed that the main Cr fractions in the soil samples changed from acid-exchangeable fractions to oxidable fractions and residual fractions after 30 days of soil remediation by the composite. Moreover, the main complex formed during remediation was Fe(III)-Cr(III), based on BCR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. Biotoxicity of the remediated soils, using Vicia faba and Eisenia foetida, was analyzed and evaluated. Our results indicate that CMC@MMT-FeS effectively immobilizes Cr(VI), with widespread potential application in Cr(VI)-contaminated soil remediation.
Project description:We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas alcaliphila 34, a Cr(VI)-hyperresistant and biofilm-producing bacterium that might be used for the bioremediation of chromate-polluted soils. The genome sequence might be helpful in exploring the mechanisms involved in chromium resistance and biofilm formation.
Project description:The Yellow River is the most important water resource in northern China. In the recent past, heavy metal contamination has become severe due to industrial processes and other anthropogenic activities. In this study, riparian soil samples with varying levels of chromium (Cr) pollution severity were collected along the Gansu industrial reach of the Yellow River, including samples from uncontaminated sites (XC, XGU), slightly contaminated sites (LJX, XGD), and heavily contaminated sites (CG, XG). The Cr concentrations of these samples varied from 83.83 mg?kg-1 (XGU) to 506.58 mg?kg-1 (XG). The chromate [Cr (VI)] reducing ability in the soils collected in this study followed the sequence of the heavily contaminated > slightly contaminated > the un-contaminated. Common Cr remediation genes chrA and yieF were detected in the XG and CG samples. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of chrA was up-regulated four and threefold in XG and CG samples, respectively, whereas the expression of yieF was up-regulated 66- and 7-fold in the same samples after 30 min treatment with Cr (VI). The copy numbers of chrA and yieF didn't change after 35 days incubation with Cr (VI). The microbial communities in the Cr contaminated sampling sites were different from those in the uncontaminated samples. Especially, the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were higher while Actinobacteria was lower in the contaminated group than uncontaminated group. Further, potential indicator species, related to Cr such as Cr-remediation genera (Geobacter, PSB-M-3, Flavobacterium, and Methanosarcina); the Cr-sensitive genera (Skermanella, Iamia, Arthrobacter, and Candidatus Nitrososphaera) were also identified. These data revealed that Cr shifted microbial composition and function. Further, Cr (VI) reducing ability could be related with the expression of Cr remediation genes.
Project description:Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], widely generated by tannery activities, is considered among the most toxic substances and causes a serious damage for the environment and for human health. Interestingly, some microorganisms have a potential of bioremediation of chromium-contaminated wastewaters and soils through the reduction of Cr(VI) (soluble and harmful form) into Cr(III) (stable and non-toxic form). Here, we present the full genome sequence of a novel heavy-metal-resistant, plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB), Microbacterium metallidurans TL13, which was isolated from a Tunisian leather industry. The strain TL13 was resistant to many heavy metals, such as chromium, copper, nickel, cobalt, and arsenic. The 50% TL13 growth inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of HgCl2, CoCl2, K2Cr2O7, CuSO4, NiCl2, FeSO4, and Na2HAsO4 are 368, 445, 676, 1,590, 1,680, 4,403, and 7,007 mg/L, respectively, with the following toxicity order: HgCl2 > CoCl2 > K2Cr2O7 > CuSO4 > NiCl2 > FeSO4 > Na2HAsO4. This new strain was also able to promote the growth of the hybrid tomato (Elika F1) under chromium metal stress. Its whole genome sequence length was estimated to be 3,587,460 bp (3,393 coding sequences) with a G + C content of 70.7%. Functional annotation of the genome of TL13 revealed the presence of open reading frames (ORFs) involved in adaptation to metal stress, such as the chromate transport protein, cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance protein, copper resistance protein, copper responsive transcriptional regulator, multidrug resistance transporters, arsenical resistance operon repressor, arsenate reductase, arsenic resistance protein, mercuric resistance operon regulatory protein, mercuric ion reductase, and organomercurial lyase. Moreover, genes for the production of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and thioredoxin reductase, which confer a higher tolerance to oxidative/metal stresses, were identified in TL13 genome. In addition, genes for heat shock tolerance, cold shock tolerance, glycine-betaine production, mineral phosphate solubilization, ammonia assimilation, siderophores, exopolysaccharides, polyketides, and lytic enzymes (cellulase, chitinase, and proteases) production that enable bacteria to survive biotic/abiotic stress and to promote plant growth and health were also revealed. Based on genome analysis and experimental approaches, strain TL13 appears to have evolved from various metabolic strategies and could play a role in ensuring sustainable environmental and agricultural systems.