Genetic polymorphisms of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATE1 and MATE2) in South Indian population.
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Drug transporters are key determinants of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of certain drugs. SLC47A1 (MATE1) and SLC47A2 (MATE2) are major efflux transporters involved in the hepatic and renal excretion of many cationic drugs including metformin. Our study was proposed to determine the normative frequencies of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2289669 and rs12943590 in the SLC47A1 and SLC47A2 genes, respectively, in South Indian population and also to compare those with those of the HapMap populations. Methods: One hundred two unrelated healthy volunteers from South India were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted by 'phenol-chloroform extraction method' from the peripheral blood leucocytes and genotyping was accomplished by real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay method. Results: In contrast to other populations, the minor allele in SLC47A1 gene was found to be "G" with a frequency of 46.6% in South Indian population. The populations of Hans Chinese in Beijing (HCB) [P = 0.017] and Japanese in Tokyo (JPT) [P < 0.001] had significantly different genotype and allele frequencies (SNP rs2289669) compared to those of South Indian population. Similarly, in the SNP rs12943590 of SLC47A2 gene, the genotype and allele frequencies of South Indian population differed significantly from those of Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI) [P < 0.001] and Utah residents with Northern and Western European ancestry (CEU) [P = 0.005] populations. Conclusion: Thus, the allele and genotype distributions of SLC47A1 and SLC47A2 gene polymorphisms were established in South Indian population and were found to be different from the frequencies of other ethnicities.
Project description:Background. We aimed to investigate the distributive characteristics of SLC22A1 rs594709 and SLC47A1 rs2289669 polymorphisms and their influence on metformin efficacy in Chinese T2DM patients. Methods. The distributions of SLC22A1 rs594709 and SLC47A1 rs2289669 polymorphisms were determined in 267 T2DM patients and 182 healthy subjects. Subsequently, 53 newly diagnosed patients who received metformin monotherapy were recruited to evaluate metformin efficacy. Results. No significant difference was found between T2DM patients and healthy subjects in SLC22A1 rs594709 and SLC47A1 rs2289669 allele frequencies and genotype frequencies. After metformin treatment, SLC22A1 rs594709 GG genotype patients showed a higher increase in FINS (p = 0.015) and decrease in HOMA-IS (p = 0.001) and QUICKI (p = 0.002) than A allele carriers. SLC47A1 rs2289669 GG genotype patients had a higher decrease in TChol (p = 0.030) and LDL-C (p = 0.049) than A allele carriers. Among SLC22A1 rs594709 AA genotype, patients with SLC47A1 rs2289669 AA genotype showed a higher decrease in FBG (p = 0.015), PINS (p = 0.041), and HOMA-IR (p = 0.014) than G allele carriers. However, among SLC22A1 rs594709 G allele carriers, SLC47A1 rs2289669 AA genotype patients showed a higher decrease in TChol (p = 0.013) than G allele carriers. Conclusion. Our data suggest that SLC22A1 rs594709 and SLC47A1 rs2289669 polymorphisms may influence metformin efficacy together in Chinese T2DM patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Metformin, an oral glucose-lowering drug, is taken up in hepatocytes by the organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and in renal epithelium by OCT2. In these cells, the multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) 1 protein, encoded by the SLC47A1 gene, is responsible for the excretion of metformin into the bile and urine, respectively. We studied the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC47A1 gene on the A1C-lowering effect of metformin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified all incident metformin users in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study. Associations between 12 tagging SNPs in the SLC47A1 gene and change in A1C level were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen incident metformin users were included in the study sample. The rs2289669 G>A SNP was significantly associated with metformin response. For the other SNPs, no associations were found. For each minor A allele at rs2289669, the A1C reduction was 0.30% (95% CI -0.51 to -0.10; P = 0.005) larger. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the P value was 0.045. CONCLUSIONS: The rs2289669 G>A SNP is associated with a reduction in A1C level, consistent with a reduction in MATE1 transporter activity. These results suggest that the transporter MATE1, encoded by SLC47A1, may have an important role in the pharmacokinetics of metformin, although replication is necessary.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genetic variants of the organic cation transporter (OCT1) gene could influence interindividual variation in clinical response to metformin therapy. The genetic basis for the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of OCT1 gene has been established in other populations, but it remains to be elucidated in the Indian population. This study is focused on OCT1 gene variants rs2282143 (P341L, 1022C>T), rs628031 (M408V, 1222A>G) and rs622342 (1386C>A) frequency distributions in the South Indian Tamilian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 112 unrelated healthy subjects of South Indian Tamilian origin, aged 18-60 years, of either sex were recruited for the study. Genotyping was determined using the quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. RESULTS:Allele frequencies of rs2282143, rs628031and rs622342 polymorphisms were 8.9%, 80.3% and 24.5%, respectively. Interethnic differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of OCT1 gene polymorphism were observed when compared with other major populations. The SNPs rs2282143, T allele and rs628031, G allele were more common in Asians (5.5-16.8% and 76.2-81%) and African Americans (8.2% and 73.5%) than in Caucasians (0-2% and 57.4-60%). CONCLUSION:This is the first time the frequency of OCT1 gene polymorphism was determined in the Indian population, and is similar to the frequencies observed in African-Americans and other Asian populations but different from those in Caucasians. The data observed in this study would justify further pharmacogenetic studies to potentially evaluate the role of OCT1 gene polymorphism in the therapeutic efficacy of metformin.
Project description:This study investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms of metformin transporters on long-term glycemic control and lipid status in type 2 diabetes patients in the everyday clinical setting. In total 135 patients treated with combination of metformin and sulphonylurea for at least 6 months were genotyped for SLC22A1 rs628031 and SLC47A1 rs2289669 polymorphisms. Relatively good blood glucose control with median HbA1c 6.9 (6.4-7.6) % was achieved on prescribed metformin dosage of 2550 (2000-2550)?mg per day. Only 28 (20.7%) patients experienced mild hypoglycemia events, while no severe hypoglycemia events were observed. Most patients had normal or mildly impaired renal function. Parameters indicating renal function were not correlated with fasting glucose, HbA1c, or lipid parameters. Rs628031 and rs2289669 had minor allele frequencies of 0.385 and 0.355, respectively, and were not associated with HbA1c levels. Rs628031 was marginally associated with risk for hypoglycemia events (P = 0.046; OR?=?0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99), while significant correlation was observed between rs2289669 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.018). In conclusion, in patients on long-term metformin and sulphonylurea combination treatment, metformin transporters polymorphisms do not play a major role in glycemic control; however, they may influence lipid status.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genetic variations represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) vary across the world population. This genetic polymorphism (such as SNPs) plays an important role in pharmacogenomics. SNPs that affects cellular metabolism, by altering the enzyme activity, have an important role in therapeutic outcome. Allele frequencies in number of clinically relevant SNPs within south Indian populations are not yet known. Hence, we genotyped randomly selected unrelated south Indian subjects from different locations of south India representing the heterogeneous ethnic background of the population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Common variants of MTHFD1, TYMS, SHMT1, MTR, MTRR, CBS and SULT1A1 gene polymorphisms were screened from healthy unrelated south Indian volunteers. Genotypes were determined using RFLP analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified products and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Chi-square test was performed to test for deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each locus. RESULTS: Gene allele frequency for several polymorphisms in our study differed significantly between the populations of other nations reported for several of the SNPs. These results demonstrate that the populations in different geographic regions may have widely varying genetic allele frequencies for clinically relevant SNPs. CONCLUSION: The present study reports, for the first time, the frequency distribution of MTHFD1, TYMS, SHMT1, MTR, MTRR, CBS and SULTIA1 gene polymorphisms in a south Indian population. Population-specific genetic polymorphism studies will help in practicing pharmacogenomic principles in the clinics.
Project description:Background:Metformin is the drug of first choice in people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Most patients respond to metformin monotherapy, but many others remain uncontrolled even at maximal doses. Although non-adherence is a major contributor to non-response, genetic polymorphisms of organic cation transporters play an important role in clinical response. We hypothesize that genetic variants are partly responsible for non-response. Objective:This study aims to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; ATM rs11212617, SLC22A1 rs594709 and SLC47A1 rs2289669) most commonly associated with failure to respond to metformin. Setting:Ten primary health care facilities in the North Central Regional Health Authority region of Trinidad. Patients:The study population will include 216 patients with diabetes adherent to metformin monotherapy for at least three months. Methods:Following a 12-hour overnight fast, blood samples will be taken to measure fasting insulin and HbA1c. DNA would be isolated and PCR will be used to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of these three SNPs in adherent diabetic patients. DNA samples will be stored for future sequencing of these three genes to determine whether other, possibly novel, mutations are associated with poor metformin response in Trinidad. Clinical Significance:This study will highlight the prevalence of these polymorphisms in our population. Should an association be found between the polymorphisms tested and glycemic control in adherent patients on metformin monotherapy, this will have implications for further research on medication initiation in newly diagnosed patients with diabetes in Trinidad.
Project description:A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2853669 (A>G) in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter has recently been reported in chr5:1,295,349 T>C (T349C), and was shown to be associated with increased cancer risk and poor survival in a specific population. However, at present, the role of this particular SNP with TERT promoter driver mutations and its genetic association with human papilloma virus (HPV) in patients with cervical cancer has not been determined. In the present study, the genetic association of the functional SNP rs2853669 in the presence/absence of TERT promoter hotspot mutations and HPV in patients with cervical cancer of South Indian origin was evaluated. To understand and compare the frequency of the variant allele and its risk association in different cancer types of various populations, the SNP was genotyped in 257 cervical cancer samples and 295 controls, and its associations with TERT promoter hotspot mutations and HPV were analyzed. Furthermore, an extensive search of previously published articles in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science was conducted; a meta-analysis was carried out to elucidate the association of the SNP with different cancer types in global populations. The SNP analysis showed significantly high frequency (41%) of homozygous variant allele rs2853669 (GG) in patients with cervical cancer compared with control samples [Recessive allele model odds ratio (OR)=1.71; 95% CI=1.20-2.43; P=0.003]. No significant interaction was observed between the TERT SNP rs2853669 and HPV status as well as other hotspot TERT promoter (C228T and C250T) mutations determined in our previous study. In addition, the overall meta-analysis revealed a significant association of the SNP rs2853669 with other cancer types in different ethnic populations (OR=1.09; 95% CI=1.03-1.16; P=0.004). The present results suggested that the TERT SNP rs2853669 could play an important role in the risk of cervical cancer in a South Indian population.
Project description:The renal organic cation transport system mediates the tubular secretion of cationic compounds including drugs, toxins and endogenous metabolites into urine. It consists of a membrane potential-dependent organic cation transporter at the basolateral membrane and an H(+) /organic cation antiporter at the brush-border membrane. In 2005, human multidrug and toxin extrusion MATE1/SLC47A1 was identified as a mammalian homologue of bacterial NorM. Thereafter, human MATE2-K/SLC47A2 and rodent MATE were found. Functional characterization revealed that MATE1 and MATE2-K were H(+) /organic cation antiporter, mediating the renal tubular secretion of cationic drugs in cooperation with the basolateral organic cation transporter OCT2. Recently, substrate specificity, transcription mechanisms, structure, polymorphisms, in vivo contributions and clinical outcomes on MATE have been investigated intensively. In this review, we summarize recent findings on MATE1/SLC47A1 and MATE2-K/SLC47A2 and discuss the importance of these transporters to the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics/toxicodynamics and pharmacogenomics of cationic drugs.
Project description:Skin pigmentation is one of the most variable phenotypic traits in humans. A non-synonymous substitution (rs1426654) in the third exon of SLC24A5 accounts for lighter skin in Europeans but not in East Asians. A previous genome-wide association study carried out in a heterogeneous sample of UK immigrants of South Asian descent suggested that this gene also contributes significantly to skin pigmentation variation among South Asians. In the present study, we have quantitatively assessed skin pigmentation for a largely homogeneous cohort of 1228 individuals from the Southern region of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm significant association of rs1426654 SNP with skin pigmentation, explaining about 27% of total phenotypic variation in the cohort studied. Our extensive survey of the polymorphism in 1573 individuals from 54 ethnic populations across the Indian subcontinent reveals wide presence of the derived-A allele, although the frequencies vary substantially among populations. We also show that the geospatial pattern of this allele is complex, but most importantly, reflects strong influence of language, geography and demographic history of the populations. Sequencing 11.74 kb of SLC24A5 in 95 individuals worldwide reveals that the rs1426654-A alleles in South Asian and West Eurasian populations are monophyletic and occur on the background of a common haplotype that is characterized by low genetic diversity. We date the coalescence of the light skin associated allele at 22-28 KYA. Both our sequence and genome-wide genotype data confirm that this gene has been a target for positive selection among Europeans. However, the latter also shows additional evidence of selection in populations of the Middle East, Central Asia, Pakistan and North India but not in South India.
Project description:Genetic studies of populations from the Indian subcontinent are of great interest because of India's large population size, complex demographic history, and unique social structure. Despite recent large-scale efforts in discovering human genetic variation, India's vast reservoir of genetic diversity remains largely unexplored.To analyze an unbiased sample of genetic diversity in India and to investigate human migration history in Eurasia, we resequenced one 100-kb ENCODE region in 92 samples collected from three castes and one tribal group from the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. Analyses of the four Indian populations, along with eight HapMap populations (692 samples), showed that 30% of all SNPs in the south Indian populations are not seen in HapMap populations. Several Indian populations, such as the Yadava, Mala/Madiga, and Irula, have nucleotide diversity levels as high as those of HapMap African populations. Using unbiased allele-frequency spectra, we investigated the expansion of human populations into Eurasia. The divergence time estimates among the major population groups suggest that Eurasian populations in this study diverged from Africans during the same time frame (approximately 90 to 110 thousand years ago). The divergence among different Eurasian populations occurred more than 40,000 years after their divergence with Africans.Our results show that Indian populations harbor large amounts of genetic variation that have not been surveyed adequately by public SNP discovery efforts. Our data also support a delayed expansion hypothesis in which an ancestral Eurasian founding population remained isolated long after the out-of-Africa diaspora, before expanding throughout Eurasia.